log(3) | Library Functions Manual | log(3) |

# NAME

log, logf, logl - natural logarithmic function

# LIBRARY

Math library (*libm*, *-lm*)

# SYNOPSIS

#include <math.h>

double log(doublex);float logf(floatx);long double logl(long doublex);

**logf**(), **logl**():

_ISOC99_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L

|| /* Since glibc 2.19: */ _DEFAULT_SOURCE

|| /* glibc <= 2.19: */ _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE

# DESCRIPTION

These functions return the natural logarithm of *x*.

# RETURN VALUE

On success, these functions return the natural logarithm of
*x*.

If *x* is a NaN, a NaN is returned.

If *x* is 1, the result is +0.

If *x* is positive infinity, positive infinity is
returned.

If *x* is zero, then a pole error occurs, and the functions
return -**HUGE_VAL**, -**HUGE_VALF**, or -**HUGE_VALL**,
respectively.

If *x* is negative (including negative infinity), then a
domain error occurs, and a NaN (not a number) is returned.

# ERRORS

See math_error(7) for information on how to determine whether an error has occurred when calling these functions.

The following errors can occur:

- Domain error:
*x*is negative *errno*is set to**EDOM**. An invalid floating-point exception (**FE_INVALID**) is raised.- Pole error:
*x*is zero *errno*is set to**ERANGE**. A divide-by-zero floating-point exception (**FE_DIVBYZERO**) is raised.

# ATTRIBUTES

For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).

Interface |
Attribute |
Value |

log (), logf (), logl () | Thread safety | MT-Safe |

# STANDARDS

C99, POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.

The variant returning *double* also conforms to SVr4,
4.3BSD.

# BUGS

In glibc 2.5 and earlier, taking the **log**() of a NaN
produces a bogus invalid floating-point (**FE_INVALID**) exception.

# SEE ALSO

2023-02-05 | Linux man-pages 6.03 |