Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
been modified and deleted, but new files you have not told Git about are not
Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
which changes to commit. See git-add(1)
-C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
and the authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating the
-c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked,
so that the user can further edit the commit message.
Construct a commit message for use with rebase
. The commit message will be the subject line from the
specified commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See
Construct a commit message for use with rebase
. The commit message subject line is taken from the specified
commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional
commit message options (-m
When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing
after a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the resulting
commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews the author
When doing a dry-run, give the output in the
short-format. See git-status(1)
for details. Implies
Show the branch and tracking info even in
When doing a dry-run, give the output in a
porcelain-ready format. See git-status(1)
for details. Implies
When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format.
When showing short
output, print the filename verbatim and terminate the entries with NUL,
instead of LF. If no format is given, implies the --porcelain
format. Without the -z
option, filenames with "unusual"
characters are quoted as explained for the configuration variable
-F <file>, --file=<file>
Take the commit message from the given file. Use -
to read the message from the standard input.
Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author
using the standard A U Thor <firstname.lastname@example.org> format.
Otherwise <author> is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for
an existing commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i
--author=<author>); the commit author is then copied from the first such
Override the author date used in the commit.
-m <msg>, --message=<msg>
Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If
options are given, their values are concatenated as
The -m option is mutually exclusive with -c,
-C, and -F.
-t <file>, --template=<file>
When editing the commit message, start the editor with
the contents in the given file. The commit.template configuration
variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the command. This
mechanism can be used by projects that want to guide participants with some
hints on what to write in the message in what order. If the user exits the
editor without editing the message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect
when a message is given by other means, e.g. with the -m or -F
-s, --signoff, --no-signoff
Add a Signed-off-by
trailer by the committer at
the end of the commit log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the
project to which you’re committing. For example, it may certify that
the committer has the rights to submit the work under the project’s
license or agrees to some contributor representation, such as a Developer
Certificate of Origin. (See http://developercertificate.org
for the one
used by the Linux kernel and Git projects.) Consult the documentation or
leadership of the project to which you’re contributing to understand
how the signoffs are used in that project.
The --no-signoff option can be used to countermand an earlier
--signoff option on the command line.
This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
See also githooks(5)
Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree
as its sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you from
making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is primarily for
use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by
foreign SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an empty
commit message without using plumbing commands like
This option determines how the supplied commit message
should be cleaned up before committing. The <mode>
Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing
whitespace, commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.
Same as strip except #commentary is not
Do not change the message at all.
Same as whitespace
except that everything from
(and including) the line found below is truncated, if the message is to be
" can be customized with core.commentChar.
# ------------------------ >8 ------------------------
Same as strip if the message is to be edited.
The default can be changed by the commit.cleanup
configuration variable (see git-config(1)).
The message taken from file with -F, command line
with -m, and from commit object with -C are usually used as the
commit log message unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message
taken from these sources.
Use the selected commit message without launching an
editor. For example, git commit --amend --no-edit amends a commit
without changing its commit message.
Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new
commit. The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including the effect of the
options and explicit pathspec), and the message from
the original commit is used as the starting point, instead of an empty
message, when no other message is specified from the command line via options
such as -m
, etc. The new commit has the same
parents and author as the current one (the --reset-author
It is a rough equivalent for:
$ git reset --soft HEAD^
$ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
$ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
but can be used to amend a merge commit.
You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)
Bypass the post-rewrite hook.
Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
stage the contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is usually
not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted merge.
Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents
of the paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents that
have been staged for other paths. This is the default mode of operation of
git commit if any paths are given on the command line, in which case
this option can be omitted. If this option is specified together with
--amend, then no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
the last commit without committing changes that have already been staged. If
used together with --allow-empty paths are also not required, and an
empty commit will be created.
Pathspec is passed in <file>
commandline args. If <file>
is exactly -
input is used. Pathspec elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec
elements can be quoted as explained for the configuration variable
). See also
and global --literal-pathspecs
Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file.
Pathspec elements are separated with NUL character and all other characters
are taken literally (including newlines and quotes).
Show untracked files.
The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is
used to specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
default is normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.
The possible options are:
•no - Show no untracked files
•normal - Shows untracked files and
•all - Also shows individual files in
The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
configuration variable documented in git-config(1).
Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would
be committed at the bottom of the commit message template to help the user
describe the commit by reminding what changes the commit has. Note that this
diff output doesn’t have its lines prefixed with #
. This diff
will not be a part of the commit message. See the commit.verbose
configuration variable in git-config(1)
If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between what
would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged changes to
Suppress commit summary message.
Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left uncommitted and
paths that are untracked.
Include the output of git-status(1)
in the commit
message template when using an editor to prepare the commit message. Defaults
to on, but can be used to override configuration variable commit.status.
Do not include the output of git-status(1)
commit message template when using an editor to prepare the default commit
-S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional
and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
option without a space. --no-gpg-sign is useful to countermand both
commit.gpgSign configuration variable, and earlier
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in your working
tree are temporarily stored to a staging area called the "index"
with git add. A file can be reverted back, only in the index but not in
the working tree, to that of the last commit with git restore --staged
<file>, which effectively reverts git add and prevents the
changes to this file from participating in the next commit. After building the
state to be committed incrementally with these commands, git commit
(without any pathname parameter) is used to record what has been staged so
far. This is the most basic form of the command. An example:
When pathspec is given on the command line, commit the
contents of the files that match the pathspec without recording the changes
already added to the index. The contents of these files are also staged for
the next commit on top of what have been staged before.
For more details, see the pathspec entry in
$ edit hello.c
$ git rm goodbye.c
$ git add hello.c
$ git commit
Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
tell git commit to notice the changes to the files whose contents are
tracked in your working tree and do corresponding git add and git
rm for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier example
if there is no other change in your working tree:
$ edit hello.c
$ rm goodbye.c
$ git commit -a
The command git commit -a first looks at your working tree,
notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c, and performs
necessary git add and git rm for you.
After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to git commit. When
pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that only records the
changes made to the named paths:
$ edit hello.c hello.h
$ git add hello.c hello.h
$ edit Makefile
$ git commit Makefile
This makes a commit that records the modification to
Makefile. The changes staged for hello.c and hello.h
are not included in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not
lost — they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
sequence, if you do:
this second commit would record the changes to hello.c and
hello.h as expected.
After a merge (initiated by git merge or git pull)
stops because of conflicts, cleanly merged paths are already staged to be
committed for you, and paths that conflicted are left in unmerged state. You
would have to first check which paths are conflicting with git status
and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would stage the
result as usual with git add:
$ git status | grep unmerged
$ edit hello.c
$ git add hello.c
After resolving conflicts and staging the result, git ls-files
-u would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done, run
git commit to finally record the merge:
As with the case to record your own changes, you can use -a
option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge resolution, you
cannot use git commit with pathnames to alter the order the changes
are committed, because the merge should be recorded as a single commit. In
fact, the command refuses to run when given pathnames (but see -i
Though not required, it’s a good idea to begin the commit message with a
single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the change, followed by
a blank line and then a more thorough description. The text up to the first
blank line in a commit message is treated as the commit title, and that title
is used throughout Git. For example, git-format-patch(1) turns a commit
into email, and it uses the title on the Subject line and the rest of the
commit in the body.
Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.
•The contents of the blob objects are
uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core
•Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization
form C. This applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as
path names in command line arguments, environment variables and config files
Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding conversions
(except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII path names will
mostly work even on platforms and file systems that use legacy extended
ASCII encodings. However, repositories created on such systems will not work
properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa.
Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and
will fail to display other encodings correctly.
•Commit log messages are typically encoded in
UTF-8, but other extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and CJK
multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).
Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on
projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However, there
are a few things to keep in mind.
and git commit-tree
warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8
string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way
to say this is to have i18n.commitEncoding
commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1
Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help
other people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
, git show
, git blame
friends look at the encoding
header of a commit object, and try to
re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify
the desired output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding
file, like this:
logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1
If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.
Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log
message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.