FFMPEG-UTILS(1) FFMPEG-UTILS(1)

ffmpeg-utils - FFmpeg utilities

This document describes some generic features and utilities provided by the libavutil library.

This section documents the syntax and formats employed by the FFmpeg libraries and tools.

FFmpeg adopts the following quoting and escaping mechanism, unless explicitly specified. The following rules are applied:

  • ' and \ are special characters (respectively used for quoting and escaping). In addition to them, there might be other special characters depending on the specific syntax where the escaping and quoting are employed.
  • A special character is escaped by prefixing it with a \.
  • All characters enclosed between '' are included literally in the parsed string. The quote character ' itself cannot be quoted, so you may need to close the quote and escape it.
  • Leading and trailing whitespaces, unless escaped or quoted, are removed from the parsed string.

Note that you may need to add a second level of escaping when using the command line or a script, which depends on the syntax of the adopted shell language.

The function "av_get_token" defined in libavutil/avstring.h can be used to parse a token quoted or escaped according to the rules defined above.

The tool tools/ffescape in the FFmpeg source tree can be used to automatically quote or escape a string in a script.

Examples

  • Escape the string "Crime d'Amour" containing the "'" special character:
    Crime d\'Amour
    
  • The string above contains a quote, so the "'" needs to be escaped when quoting it:
    'Crime d'\''Amour'
    
  • Include leading or trailing whitespaces using quoting:
    '  this string starts and ends with whitespaces  '
    
  • Escaping and quoting can be mixed together:
    ' The string '\'string\'' is a string '
    
  • To include a literal \ you can use either escaping or quoting:
    'c:\foo' can be written as c:\\foo
    

The accepted syntax is:

[(YYYY-MM-DD|YYYYMMDD)[T|t| ]]((HH:MM:SS[.m...]]])|(HHMMSS[.m...]]]))[Z]
now

If the value is "now" it takes the current time.

Time is local time unless Z is appended, in which case it is interpreted as UTC. If the year-month-day part is not specified it takes the current year-month-day.

There are two accepted syntaxes for expressing time duration.

[-][<HH>:]<MM>:<SS>[.<m>...]

HH expresses the number of hours, MM the number of minutes for a maximum of 2 digits, and SS the number of seconds for a maximum of 2 digits. The m at the end expresses decimal value for SS.

or

[-]<S>+[.<m>...][s|ms|us]

S expresses the number of seconds, with the optional decimal part m. The optional literal suffixes s, ms or us indicate to interpret the value as seconds, milliseconds or microseconds, respectively.

In both expressions, the optional - indicates negative duration.

Examples

The following examples are all valid time duration:

55
55 seconds
0.2
0.2 seconds
200ms
200 milliseconds, that's 0.2s
200000us
200000 microseconds, that's 0.2s
12:03:45
12 hours, 03 minutes and 45 seconds
23.189
23.189 seconds

Specify the size of the sourced video, it may be a string of the form widthxheight, or the name of a size abbreviation.

The following abbreviations are recognized:

720x480
720x576
352x240
352x288
640x480
768x576
352x240
352x240
128x96
176x144
352x288
4cif
704x576
16cif
1408x1152
160x120
320x240
640x480
800x600
1024x768
1600x1200
2048x1536
1280x1024
2560x2048
5120x4096
852x480
1366x768
1600x1024
1920x1200
2560x1600
3200x2048
3840x2400
6400x4096
7680x4800
320x200
640x350
852x480
1280x720
1920x1080
2k
2048x1080
2kflat
1998x1080
2kscope
2048x858
4k
4096x2160
4kflat
3996x2160
4kscope
4096x1716
640x360
240x160
400x240
432x240
480x320
960x540
2kdci
2048x1080
4kdci
4096x2160
3840x2160
7680x4320

Specify the frame rate of a video, expressed as the number of frames generated per second. It has to be a string in the format frame_rate_num/frame_rate_den, an integer number, a float number or a valid video frame rate abbreviation.

The following abbreviations are recognized:

30000/1001
25/1
30000/1001
25/1
30000/1001
25/1
24/1
24000/1001

A ratio can be expressed as an expression, or in the form numerator:denominator.

Note that a ratio with infinite (1/0) or negative value is considered valid, so you should check on the returned value if you want to exclude those values.

The undefined value can be expressed using the "0:0" string.

It can be the name of a color as defined below (case insensitive match) or a "[0x|#]RRGGBB[AA]" sequence, possibly followed by @ and a string representing the alpha component.

The alpha component may be a string composed by "0x" followed by an hexadecimal number or a decimal number between 0.0 and 1.0, which represents the opacity value (0x00 or 0.0 means completely transparent, 0xff or 1.0 completely opaque). If the alpha component is not specified then 0xff is assumed.

The string random will result in a random color.

The following names of colors are recognized:

0xF0F8FF
0xFAEBD7
0x00FFFF
0x7FFFD4
0xF0FFFF
0xF5F5DC
0xFFE4C4
0x000000
0xFFEBCD
0x0000FF
0x8A2BE2
0xA52A2A
0xDEB887
0x5F9EA0
0x7FFF00
0xD2691E
0xFF7F50
0x6495ED
0xFFF8DC
0xDC143C
0x00FFFF
0x00008B
0x008B8B
0xB8860B
0xA9A9A9
0x006400
0xBDB76B
0x8B008B
0x556B2F
0xFF8C00
0x9932CC
0x8B0000
0xE9967A
0x8FBC8F
0x483D8B
0x2F4F4F
0x00CED1
0x9400D3
0xFF1493
0x00BFFF
0x696969
0x1E90FF
0xB22222
0xFFFAF0
0x228B22
0xFF00FF
0xDCDCDC
0xF8F8FF
0xFFD700
0xDAA520
0x808080
0x008000
0xADFF2F
0xF0FFF0
0xFF69B4
0xCD5C5C
0x4B0082
0xFFFFF0
0xF0E68C
0xE6E6FA
0xFFF0F5
0x7CFC00
0xFFFACD
0xADD8E6
0xF08080
0xE0FFFF
0xFAFAD2
0x90EE90
0xD3D3D3
0xFFB6C1
0xFFA07A
0x20B2AA
0x87CEFA
0x778899
0xB0C4DE
0xFFFFE0
0x00FF00
0x32CD32
0xFAF0E6
0xFF00FF
0x800000
0x66CDAA
0x0000CD
0xBA55D3
0x9370D8
0x3CB371
0x7B68EE
0x00FA9A
0x48D1CC
0xC71585
0x191970
0xF5FFFA
0xFFE4E1
0xFFE4B5
0xFFDEAD
0x000080
0xFDF5E6
0x808000
0x6B8E23
0xFFA500
0xFF4500
0xDA70D6
0xEEE8AA
0x98FB98
0xAFEEEE
0xD87093
0xFFEFD5
0xFFDAB9
0xCD853F
0xFFC0CB
0xDDA0DD
0xB0E0E6
0x800080
0xFF0000
0xBC8F8F
0x4169E1
0x8B4513
0xFA8072
0xF4A460
0x2E8B57
0xFFF5EE
0xA0522D
0xC0C0C0
0x87CEEB
0x6A5ACD
0x708090
0xFFFAFA
0x00FF7F
0x4682B4
0xD2B48C
0x008080
0xD8BFD8
0xFF6347
0x40E0D0
0xEE82EE
0xF5DEB3
0xFFFFFF
0xF5F5F5
0xFFFF00
0x9ACD32

A channel layout specifies the spatial disposition of the channels in a multi-channel audio stream. To specify a channel layout, FFmpeg makes use of a special syntax.

Individual channels are identified by an id, as given by the table below:

front left
front right
front center
low frequency
back left
back right
front left-of-center
front right-of-center
back center
side left
side right
top center
top front left
top front center
top front right
top back left
top back center
top back right
downmix left
downmix right
wide left
wide right
surround direct left
surround direct right
low frequency 2

Standard channel layout compositions can be specified by using the following identifiers:

FC
FL+FR
2.1
FL+FR+LFE
3.0
FL+FR+FC
3.0(back)
FL+FR+BC
4.0
FL+FR+FC+BC
FL+FR+BL+BR
FL+FR+SL+SR
3.1
FL+FR+FC+LFE
5.0
FL+FR+FC+BL+BR
5.0(side)
FL+FR+FC+SL+SR
4.1
FL+FR+FC+LFE+BC
5.1
FL+FR+FC+LFE+BL+BR
5.1(side)
FL+FR+FC+LFE+SL+SR
6.0
FL+FR+FC+BC+SL+SR
6.0(front)
FL+FR+FLC+FRC+SL+SR
FL+FR+FC+BL+BR+BC
6.1
FL+FR+FC+LFE+BC+SL+SR
6.1
FL+FR+FC+LFE+BL+BR+BC
6.1(front)
FL+FR+LFE+FLC+FRC+SL+SR
7.0
FL+FR+FC+BL+BR+SL+SR
7.0(front)
FL+FR+FC+FLC+FRC+SL+SR
7.1
FL+FR+FC+LFE+BL+BR+SL+SR
7.1(wide)
FL+FR+FC+LFE+BL+BR+FLC+FRC
7.1(wide-side)
FL+FR+FC+LFE+FLC+FRC+SL+SR
FL+FR+FC+BL+BR+BC+SL+SR
FL+FR+FC+BL+BR+BC+SL+SR+WL+WR+TBL+TBR+TBC+TFC+TFL+TFR
DL+DR

A custom channel layout can be specified as a sequence of terms, separated by '+' or '|'. Each term can be:

  • the name of a standard channel layout (e.g. mono, stereo, 4.0, quad, 5.0, etc.)
  • the name of a single channel (e.g. FL, FR, FC, LFE, etc.)
  • a number of channels, in decimal, followed by 'c', yielding the default channel layout for that number of channels (see the function "av_get_default_channel_layout"). Note that not all channel counts have a default layout.
  • a number of channels, in decimal, followed by 'C', yielding an unknown channel layout with the specified number of channels. Note that not all channel layout specification strings support unknown channel layouts.
  • a channel layout mask, in hexadecimal starting with "0x" (see the "AV_CH_*" macros in libavutil/channel_layout.h.

Before libavutil version 53 the trailing character "c" to specify a number of channels was optional, but now it is required, while a channel layout mask can also be specified as a decimal number (if and only if not followed by "c" or "C").

See also the function "av_get_channel_layout" defined in libavutil/channel_layout.h.

When evaluating an arithmetic expression, FFmpeg uses an internal formula evaluator, implemented through the libavutil/eval.h interface.

An expression may contain unary, binary operators, constants, and functions.

Two expressions expr1 and expr2 can be combined to form another expression "expr1;expr2". expr1 and expr2 are evaluated in turn, and the new expression evaluates to the value of expr2.

The following binary operators are available: "+", "-", "*", "/", "^".

The following unary operators are available: "+", "-".

The following functions are available:

Compute absolute value of x.
Compute arccosine of x.
Compute arcsine of x.
Compute arctangent of x.
Compute principal value of the arc tangent of y/x.
Return 1 if x is greater than or equal to min and lesser than or equal to max, 0 otherwise.
Compute bitwise and/or operation on x and y.

The results of the evaluation of x and y are converted to integers before executing the bitwise operation.

Note that both the conversion to integer and the conversion back to floating point can lose precision. Beware of unexpected results for large numbers (usually 2^53 and larger).

Round the value of expression expr upwards to the nearest integer. For example, "ceil(1.5)" is "2.0".
Return the value of x clipped between min and max.
Compute cosine of x.
Compute hyperbolic cosine of x.
Return 1 if x and y are equivalent, 0 otherwise.
Compute exponential of x (with base "e", the Euler's number).
Round the value of expression expr downwards to the nearest integer. For example, "floor(-1.5)" is "-2.0".
Compute Gauss function of x, corresponding to "exp(-x*x/2) / sqrt(2*PI)".
Return the greatest common divisor of x and y. If both x and y are 0 or either or both are less than zero then behavior is undefined.
Return 1 if x is greater than y, 0 otherwise.
Return 1 if x is greater than or equal to y, 0 otherwise.
This function is similar to the C function with the same name; it returns "sqrt(x*x + y*y)", the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with sides of length x and y, or the distance of the point (x, y) from the origin.
Evaluate x, and if the result is non-zero return the result of the evaluation of y, return 0 otherwise.
Evaluate x, and if the result is non-zero return the evaluation result of y, otherwise the evaluation result of z.
Evaluate x, and if the result is zero return the result of the evaluation of y, return 0 otherwise.
Evaluate x, and if the result is zero return the evaluation result of y, otherwise the evaluation result of z.
Return 1.0 if x is +/-INFINITY, 0.0 otherwise.
Return 1.0 if x is NAN, 0.0 otherwise.
Load the value of the internal variable with number var, which was previously stored with st(var, expr). The function returns the loaded value.
Return linear interpolation between x and y by amount of z.
Compute natural logarithm of x.
Return 1 if x is lesser than y, 0 otherwise.
Return 1 if x is lesser than or equal to y, 0 otherwise.
Return the maximum between x and y.
Return the minimum between x and y.
Compute the remainder of division of x by y.
Return 1.0 if expr is zero, 0.0 otherwise.
Compute the power of x elevated y, it is equivalent to "(x)^(y)".
Print the value of expression t with loglevel l. If l is not specified then a default log level is used. Returns the value of the expression printed.

Prints t with loglevel l

Return a pseudo random value between 0.0 and 1.0. x is the index of the internal variable which will be used to save the seed/state.
Find an input value for which the function represented by expr with argument ld(0) is 0 in the interval 0..max.

The expression in expr must denote a continuous function or the result is undefined.

ld(0) is used to represent the function input value, which means that the given expression will be evaluated multiple times with various input values that the expression can access through ld(0). When the expression evaluates to 0 then the corresponding input value will be returned.

Round the value of expression expr to the nearest integer. For example, "round(1.5)" is "2.0".
Compute sign of x.
Compute sine of x.
Compute hyperbolic sine of x.
Compute the square root of expr. This is equivalent to "(expr)^.5".
Compute expression "1/(1 + exp(4*x))".
Store the value of the expression expr in an internal variable. var specifies the number of the variable where to store the value, and it is a value ranging from 0 to 9. The function returns the value stored in the internal variable. Note, Variables are currently not shared between expressions.
Compute tangent of x.
Compute hyperbolic tangent of x.
Evaluate a Taylor series at x, given an expression representing the "ld(id)"-th derivative of a function at 0.

When the series does not converge the result is undefined.

ld(id) is used to represent the derivative order in expr, which means that the given expression will be evaluated multiple times with various input values that the expression can access through "ld(id)". If id is not specified then 0 is assumed.

Note, when you have the derivatives at y instead of 0, "taylor(expr, x-y)" can be used.

Return the current (wallclock) time in seconds.
Round the value of expression expr towards zero to the nearest integer. For example, "trunc(-1.5)" is "-1.0".
Evaluate expression expr while the expression cond is non-zero, and returns the value of the last expr evaluation, or NAN if cond was always false.

The following constants are available:

area of the unit disc, approximately 3.14
exp(1) (Euler's number), approximately 2.718
golden ratio (1+sqrt(5))/2, approximately 1.618

Assuming that an expression is considered "true" if it has a non-zero value, note that:

"*" works like AND

"+" works like OR

For example the construct:

if (A AND B) then C

is equivalent to:

if(A*B, C)

In your C code, you can extend the list of unary and binary functions, and define recognized constants, so that they are available for your expressions.

The evaluator also recognizes the International System unit prefixes. If 'i' is appended after the prefix, binary prefixes are used, which are based on powers of 1024 instead of powers of 1000. The 'B' postfix multiplies the value by 8, and can be appended after a unit prefix or used alone. This allows using for example 'KB', 'MiB', 'G' and 'B' as number postfix.

The list of available International System prefixes follows, with indication of the corresponding powers of 10 and of 2.

10^-24 / 2^-80
10^-21 / 2^-70
10^-18 / 2^-60
10^-15 / 2^-50
10^-12 / 2^-40
10^-9 / 2^-30
10^-6 / 2^-20
10^-3 / 2^-10
10^-2
10^-1
10^2
10^3 / 2^10
10^3 / 2^10
10^6 / 2^20
10^9 / 2^30
10^12 / 2^40
10^15 / 2^40
10^18 / 2^50
10^21 / 2^60
10^24 / 2^70

ffmpeg(1), ffplay(1), ffprobe(1), libavutil(3)

The FFmpeg developers.

For details about the authorship, see the Git history of the project (git://source.ffmpeg.org/ffmpeg), e.g. by typing the command git log in the FFmpeg source directory, or browsing the online repository at http://source.ffmpeg.org.

Maintainers for the specific components are listed in the file MAINTAINERS in the source code tree.