rclone(1) rclone(1)

About rclone
What can rclone do for you?
What features does rclone have?
What providers does rclone support?
Download (https://rclone.org/downloads/)
Install (https://rclone.org/install/)
Donate. (https://rclone.org/donate/)

Rclone is a command line program to manage files on cloud storage. It is a feature rich alternative to cloud vendors' web storage interfaces. Over 40 cloud storage products support rclone including S3 object stores, business & consumer file storage services, as well as standard transfer protocols.

Rclone has powerful cloud equivalents to the unix commands rsync, cp, mv, mount, ls, ncdu, tree, rm, and cat. Rclone's familiar syntax includes shell pipeline support, and --dry-run protection. It is used at the command line, in scripts or via its API (/rc).

Users call rclone "The Swiss army knife of cloud storage", and "Technology indistinguishable from magic".

Rclone really looks after your data. It preserves timestamps and verifies checksums at all times. Transfers over limited bandwidth; intermittent connections, or subject to quota can be restarted, from the last good file transferred. You can check (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_check/) the integrity of your files. Where possible, rclone employs server-side transfers to minimise local bandwidth use and transfers from one provider to another without using local disk.

Virtual backends wrap local and cloud file systems to apply encryption (https://rclone.org/crypt/), compression (https://rclone.org/compress/) chunking (https://rclone.org/chunker/) and joining (https://rclone.org/union/).

Rclone mounts (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/) any local, cloud or virtual filesystem as a disk on Windows, macOS, linux and FreeBSD, and also serves these over SFTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_sftp/), HTTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_http/), WebDAV (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_webdav/), FTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_ftp/) and DLNA (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_dlna/).

Rclone is mature, open source software originally inspired by rsync and written in Go (https://golang.org). The friendly support community are familiar with varied use cases. Official Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, Brew and Chocolatey repos. include rclone. For the latest version downloading from rclone.org (https://rclone.org/downloads/) is recommended.

Rclone is widely used on Linux, Windows and Mac. Third party developers create innovative backup, restore, GUI and business process solutions using the rclone command line or API.

Rclone does the heavy lifting of communicating with cloud storage.

Rclone helps you:
Backup (and encrypt) files to cloud storage
Restore (and decrypt) files from cloud storage
Mirror cloud data to other cloud services or locally
Migrate data to cloud, or between cloud storage vendors
Mount multiple, encrypted, cached or diverse cloud storage as a disk
Analyse and account for data held on cloud storage using lsf (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsf/), ljson (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsjson/), size (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_size/), ncdu (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_ncdu/)
Union (https://rclone.org/union/) file systems together to present multiple local and/or cloud file systems as one

Transfers
MD5, SHA1 hashes are checked at all times for file integrity
Timestamps are preserved on files
Operations can be restarted at any time
Can be to and from network, e.g. two different cloud providers
Can use multi-threaded downloads to local disk
Copy (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) new or changed files to cloud storage
Sync (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_sync/) (one way) to make a directory identical
Move (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_move/) files to cloud storage deleting the local after verification
Check (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_check/) hashes and for missing/extra files
Mount (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/) your cloud storage as a network disk
Serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) local or remote files over HTTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_http/)/WebDav (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_webdav/)/FTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_ftp/)/SFTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_sftp/)/dlna (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_dlna/)
Experimental Web based GUI (https://rclone.org/gui/)

(There are many others, built on standard protocols such as WebDAV or S3, that work out of the box.)
1Fichier
Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) Object Storage System (OSS)
Amazon Drive
Amazon S3
Backblaze B2
Box
Ceph
Citrix ShareFile
C14
DigitalOcean Spaces
Dreamhost
Dropbox
Enterprise File Fabric
FTP
Google Cloud Storage
Google Drive
Google Photos
HDFS
HTTP
Hubic
Jottacloud
IBM COS S3
Koofr
Mail.ru Cloud
Memset Memstore
Mega
Memory
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage
Microsoft OneDrive
Minio
Nextcloud
OVH
OpenDrive
OpenStack Swift
Oracle Cloud Storage
ownCloud
pCloud
premiumize.me
put.io
QingStor
Rackspace Cloud Files
rsync.net
Scaleway
Seafile
SeaweedFS
SFTP
StackPath
SugarSync
Tardigrade
Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS)
Uptobox
Wasabi
WebDAV
Yandex Disk
Zoho WorkDrive
The local filesystem

Links

Home page (https://rclone.org/)
GitHub project page for source and bug tracker (https://github.com/rclone/rclone)
Rclone Forum (https://forum.rclone.org)
Downloads (https://rclone.org/downloads/)

Rclone is a Go program and comes as a single binary file.

Download (https://rclone.org/downloads/) the relevant binary.
Extract the rclone or rclone.exe binary from the archive
Run rclone config to setup. See rclone config docs (https://rclone.org/docs/) for more details.
Optionally configure automatic execution.

See below for some expanded Linux / macOS instructions.

See the Usage section (https://rclone.org/docs/#usage) of the docs for how to use rclone, or run rclone -h.

Already installed rclone can be easily updated to the latest version using the rclone selfupdate (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_selfupdate/) command.

To install rclone on Linux/macOS/BSD systems, run:
curl https://rclone.org/install.sh | sudo bash

For beta installation, run:

curl https://rclone.org/install.sh | sudo bash -s beta

Note that this script checks the version of rclone installed first and won't re-download if not needed.

Fetch and unpack
curl -O https://downloads.rclone.org/rclone-current-linux-amd64.zip
unzip rclone-current-linux-amd64.zip
cd rclone-*-linux-amd64

Copy binary file

sudo cp rclone /usr/bin/
sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/rclone
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/rclone

Install manpage

sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/share/man/man1
sudo cp rclone.1 /usr/local/share/man/man1/
sudo mandb 

Run rclone config to setup. See rclone config docs (https://rclone.org/docs/) for more details.

rclone config

brew install rclone

To avoid problems with macOS gatekeeper enforcing the binary to be signed and notarized it is enough to download with curl.

Download the latest version of rclone.

cd && curl -O https://downloads.rclone.org/rclone-current-osx-amd64.zip

Unzip the download and cd to the extracted folder.

unzip -a rclone-current-osx-amd64.zip && cd rclone-*-osx-amd64

Move rclone to your $PATH. You will be prompted for your password.

sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/bin
sudo mv rclone /usr/local/bin/

(the mkdir command is safe to run, even if the directory already exists).

Remove the leftover files.

cd .. && rm -rf rclone-*-osx-amd64 rclone-current-osx-amd64.zip

Run rclone config to setup. See rclone config docs (https://rclone.org/docs/) for more details.

rclone config

When downloading a binary with a web browser, the browser will set the macOS gatekeeper quarantine attribute. Starting from Catalina, when attempting to run rclone, a pop-up will appear saying:
“rclone” cannot be opened because the developer cannot be verified.
macOS cannot verify that this app is free from malware.

The simplest fix is to run

xattr -d com.apple.quarantine rclone

The rclone maintains a docker image for rclone (https://hub.docker.com/r/rclone/rclone). These images are autobuilt by docker hub from the rclone source based on a minimal Alpine linux image.

The :latest tag will always point to the latest stable release. You can use the :beta tag to get the latest build from master. You can also use version tags, e.g. :1.49.1, :1.49 or :1.

$ docker pull rclone/rclone:latest
latest: Pulling from rclone/rclone
Digest: sha256:0e0ced72671989bb837fea8e88578b3fc48371aa45d209663683e24cfdaa0e11
...
$ docker run --rm rclone/rclone:latest version
rclone v1.49.1
- os/arch: linux/amd64
- go version: go1.12.9

There are a few command line options to consider when starting an rclone Docker container from the rclone image.

You need to mount the host rclone config dir at /config/rclone into the Docker container. Due to the fact that rclone updates tokens inside its config file, and that the update process involves a file rename, you need to mount the whole host rclone config dir, not just the single host rclone config file.
You need to mount a host data dir at /data into the Docker container.
By default, the rclone binary inside a Docker container runs with UID=0 (root). As a result, all files created in a run will have UID=0. If your config and data files reside on the host with a non-root UID:GID, you need to pass these on the container start command line.
If you want to access the RC interface (either via the API or the Web UI), it is required to set the --rc-addr to :5572 in order to connect to it from outside the container. An explanation about why this is necessary is present here (https://web.archive.org/web/20200808071950/https://pythonspeed.com/articles/docker-connection-refused/).
NOTE: Users running this container with the docker network set to host should probably set it to listen to localhost only, with 127.0.0.1:5572 as the value for --rc-addr
It is possible to use rclone mount inside a userspace Docker container, and expose the resulting fuse mount to the host. The exact docker run options to do that might vary slightly between hosts. See, e.g. the discussion in this thread (https://github.com/moby/moby/issues/9448).

You also need to mount the host /etc/passwd and /etc/group for fuse to work inside the container.

Here are some commands tested on an Ubuntu 18.04.3 host:

# config on host at ~/.config/rclone/rclone.conf
# data on host at ~/data
# make sure the config is ok by listing the remotes
docker run --rm \
    --volume ~/.config/rclone:/config/rclone \
    --volume ~/data:/data:shared \
    --user $(id -u):$(id -g) \
    rclone/rclone \
    listremotes
# perform mount inside Docker container, expose result to host
mkdir -p ~/data/mount
docker run --rm \
    --volume ~/.config/rclone:/config/rclone \
    --volume ~/data:/data:shared \
    --user $(id -u):$(id -g) \
    --volume /etc/passwd:/etc/passwd:ro --volume /etc/group:/etc/group:ro \
    --device /dev/fuse --cap-add SYS_ADMIN --security-opt apparmor:unconfined \
    rclone/rclone \
    mount dropbox:Photos /data/mount &
ls ~/data/mount
kill %1

Make sure you have at least Go (https://golang.org/) go1.13 installed. Download go (https://golang.org/dl/) if necessary. The latest release is recommended. Then
git clone https://github.com/rclone/rclone.git
cd rclone
go build
./rclone version

This will leave you a checked out version of rclone you can modify and send pull requests with. If you use make instead of go build then the rclone build will have the correct version information in it.

You can also build the latest stable rclone with:

go get github.com/rclone/rclone

or the latest version (equivalent to the beta) with

go get github.com/rclone/rclone@master

These will build the binary in $(go env GOPATH)/bin (~/go/bin/rclone by default) after downloading the source to the go module cache. Note - do not use the -u flag here. This causes go to try to update the dependencies that rclone uses and sometimes these don't work with the current version of rclone.

This can be done with Stefan Weichinger's ansible role (https://github.com/stefangweichinger/ansible-rclone).

Instructions

1.
git clone https://github.com/stefangweichinger/ansible-rclone.git into your local roles-directory
2.
add the role to the hosts you want rclone installed to:
- hosts: rclone-hosts
  roles:
      - rclone

After installing and configuring rclone, as described above, you are ready to use rclone as an interactive command line utility. If your goal is to perform periodic operations, such as a regular sync (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_sync/), you will probably want to configure your rclone command in your operating system's scheduler. If you need to expose service-like features, such as remote control (https://rclone.org/rc/), GUI (https://rclone.org/gui/), serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) or mount (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_move/), you will often want an rclone command always running in the background, and configuring it to run in a service infrastructure may be a better option. Below are some alternatives on how to achieve this on different operating systems.

NOTE: Before setting up autorun it is highly recommended that you have tested your command manually from a Command Prompt first.

The most relevant alternatives for autostart on Windows are: - Run at user log on using the Startup folder - Run at user log on, at system startup or at schedule using Task Scheduler - Run at system startup using Windows service

Rclone is a console application, so if not starting from an existing Command Prompt, e.g. when starting rclone.exe from a shortcut, it will open a Command Prompt window. When configuring rclone to run from task scheduler and windows service you are able to set it to run hidden in background. From rclone version 1.54 you can also make it run hidden from anywhere by adding option --no-console (it may still flash briefly when the program starts). Since rclone normally writes information and any error messages to the console, you must redirect this to a file to be able to see it. Rclone has a built-in option --log-file for that.

Example command to run a sync in background:

c:\rclone\rclone.exe sync c:\files remote:/files --no-console --log-file c:\rclone\logs\sync_files.txt

As mentioned in the mount (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_move/) documentation, mounted drives created as Administrator are not visible to other accounts, not even the account that was elevated as Administrator. By running the mount command as the built-in SYSTEM user account, it will create drives accessible for everyone on the system. Both scheduled task and Windows service can be used to achieve this.

NOTE: Remember that when rclone runs as the SYSTEM user, the user profile that it sees will not be yours. This means that if you normally run rclone with configuration file in the default location, to be able to use the same configuration when running as the system user you must explicitely tell rclone where to find it with the --config (https://rclone.org/docs/#config-config-file) option, or else it will look in the system users profile path (C:\Windows\System32\config\systemprofile). To test your command manually from a Command Prompt, you can run it with the PsExec (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/downloads/psexec) utility from Microsoft's Sysinternals suite, which takes option -s to execute commands as the SYSTEM user.

To quickly execute an rclone command you can simply create a standard Windows Explorer shortcut for the complete rclone command you want to run. If you store this shortcut in the special "Startup" start-menu folder, Windows will automatically run it at login. To open this folder in Windows Explorer, enter path %APPDATA%\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup, or C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\StartUp if you want the command to start for every user that logs in.

This is the easiest approach to autostarting of rclone, but it offers no functionality to set it to run as different user, or to set conditions or actions on certain events. Setting up a scheduled task as described below will often give you better results.

Task Scheduler is an administrative tool built into Windows, and it can be used to configure rclone to be started automatically in a highly configurable way, e.g. periodically on a schedule, on user log on, or at system startup. It can run be configured to run as the current user, or for a mount command that needs to be available to all users it can run as the SYSTEM user. For technical information, see https://docs.microsoft.com/windows/win32/taskschd/task-scheduler-start-page.

For running rclone at system startup, you can create a Windows service that executes your rclone command, as an alternative to scheduled task configured to run at startup.

For mount commands, Rclone has a built-in Windows service integration via the third party WinFsp library it uses. Registering as a regular Windows service easy, as you just have to execute the built-in PowerShell command New-Service (requires administrative privileges).

Example of a PowerShell command that creates a Windows service for mounting some remote:/files as drive letter X:, for all users (service will be running as the local system account):

New-Service -Name Rclone -BinaryPathName 'c:\rclone\rclone.exe mount remote:/files X: --config c:\rclone\config\rclone.conf --log-file c:\rclone\logs\mount.txt'

The WinFsp service infrastructure (https://github.com/billziss-gh/winfsp/wiki/WinFsp-Service-Architecture) supports incorporating services for file system implementations, such as rclone, into its own launcher service, as kind of "child services". This has the additional advantage that it also implements a network provider that integrates into Windows standard methods for managing network drives. This is currently not officially supported by Rclone, but with WinFsp version 2019.3 B2 / v1.5B2 or later it should be possible through path rewriting as described here (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/3340).

To Windows service running any rclone command, the excellent third party utility NSSM (http://nssm.cc), the "Non-Sucking Service Manager", can be used. It includes some advanced features such as adjusting process periority, defining process environment variables, redirect to file anything written to stdout, and customized response to different exit codes, with a GUI to configure everything from (although it can also be used from command line ).

There are also several other alternatives. To mention one more, WinSW (https://github.com/winsw/winsw), "Windows Service Wrapper", is worth checking out. It requires .NET Framework, but it is preinstalled on newer versions of Windows, and it also provides alternative standalone distributions which includes necessary runtime (.NET 5). WinSW is a command-line only utility, where you have to manually create an XML file with service configuration. This may be a drawback for some, but it can also be an advantage as it is easy to back up and re-use the configuration settings, without having go through manual steps in a GUI. One thing to note is that by default it does not restart the service on error, one have to explicit enable this in the configuration file (via the "onfailure" parameter).

To always run rclone in background, relevant for mount commands etc, you can use systemd to set up rclone as a system or user service. Running as a system service ensures that it is run at startup even if the user it is running as has no active session. Running rclone as a user service ensures that it only starts after the configured user has logged into the system.

To run a periodic command, such as a copy/sync, you can set up a cron job.

First, you'll need to configure rclone. As the object storage systems have quite complicated authentication these are kept in a config file. (See the --config entry for how to find the config file and choose its location.)

The easiest way to make the config is to run rclone with the config option:

rclone config

See the following for detailed instructions for

1Fichier (https://rclone.org/fichier/)
Alias (https://rclone.org/alias/)
Amazon Drive (https://rclone.org/amazonclouddrive/)
Amazon S3 (https://rclone.org/s3/)
Backblaze B2 (https://rclone.org/b2/)
Box (https://rclone.org/box/)
Chunker (https://rclone.org/chunker/) - transparently splits large files for other remotes
Citrix ShareFile (https://rclone.org/sharefile/)
Compress (https://rclone.org/compress/)
Crypt (https://rclone.org/crypt/) - to encrypt other remotes
DigitalOcean Spaces (https://rclone.org/s3/#digitalocean-spaces)
Dropbox (https://rclone.org/dropbox/)
Enterprise File Fabric (https://rclone.org/filefabric/)
FTP (https://rclone.org/ftp/)
Google Cloud Storage (https://rclone.org/googlecloudstorage/)
Google Drive (https://rclone.org/drive/)
Google Photos (https://rclone.org/googlephotos/)
HDFS (https://rclone.org/hdfs/)
HTTP (https://rclone.org/http/)
Hubic (https://rclone.org/hubic/)
Jottacloud / GetSky.no (https://rclone.org/jottacloud/)
Koofr (https://rclone.org/koofr/)
Mail.ru Cloud (https://rclone.org/mailru/)
Mega (https://rclone.org/mega/)
Memory (https://rclone.org/memory/)
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage (https://rclone.org/azureblob/)
Microsoft OneDrive (https://rclone.org/onedrive/)
OpenStack Swift / Rackspace Cloudfiles / Memset Memstore (https://rclone.org/swift/)
OpenDrive (https://rclone.org/opendrive/)
Pcloud (https://rclone.org/pcloud/)
premiumize.me (https://rclone.org/premiumizeme/)
put.io (https://rclone.org/putio/)
QingStor (https://rclone.org/qingstor/)
Seafile (https://rclone.org/seafile/)
SFTP (https://rclone.org/sftp/)
SugarSync (https://rclone.org/sugarsync/)
Tardigrade (https://rclone.org/tardigrade/)
Union (https://rclone.org/union/)
Uptobox (https://rclone.org/uptobox/)
WebDAV (https://rclone.org/webdav/)
Yandex Disk (https://rclone.org/yandex/)
Zoho WorkDrive (https://rclone.org/zoho/)
The local filesystem (https://rclone.org/local/)

Rclone syncs a directory tree from one storage system to another.

Its syntax is like this

Syntax: [options] subcommand <parameters> <parameters...>

Source and destination paths are specified by the name you gave the storage system in the config file then the sub path, e.g. "drive:myfolder" to look at "myfolder" in Google drive.

You can define as many storage paths as you like in the config file.

Please use the -i / --interactive flag while learning rclone to avoid accidental data loss.

rclone uses a system of subcommands. For example
rclone ls remote:path # lists a remote
rclone copy /local/path remote:path # copies /local/path to the remote
rclone sync -i /local/path remote:path # syncs /local/path to the remote

Enter an interactive configuration session.

Enter an interactive configuration session where you can setup new remotes and manage existing ones. You may also set or remove a password to protect your configuration.
rclone config [flags]

-h, --help   help for config

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone config create (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_create/) - Create a new remote with name, type and options.
rclone config delete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_delete/) - Delete an existing remote name.
rclone config disconnect (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_disconnect/) - Disconnects user from remote
rclone config dump (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) - Dump the config file as JSON.
rclone config file (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_file/) - Show path of configuration file in use.
rclone config password (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_password/) - Update password in an existing remote.
rclone config providers (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_providers/) - List in JSON format all the providers and options.
rclone config reconnect (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_reconnect/) - Re-authenticates user with remote.
rclone config show (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_show/) - Print (decrypted) config file, or the config for a single remote.
rclone config touch (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_touch/) - Ensure configuration file exists.
rclone config update (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_update/) - Update options in an existing remote.
rclone config userinfo (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_userinfo/) - Prints info about logged in user of remote.

Copy files from source to dest, skipping already copied.

Copy the source to the destination. Doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. Doesn't delete files from the destination.

Note that it is always the contents of the directory that is synced, not the directory so when source:path is a directory, it's the contents of source:path that are copied, not the directory name and contents.

If dest:path doesn't exist, it is created and the source:path contents go there.

For example

rclone copy source:sourcepath dest:destpath

Let's say there are two files in sourcepath

sourcepath/one.txt
sourcepath/two.txt

This copies them to

destpath/one.txt
destpath/two.txt

Not to

destpath/sourcepath/one.txt
destpath/sourcepath/two.txt

If you are familiar with rsync, rclone always works as if you had written a trailing / - meaning "copy the contents of this directory". This applies to all commands and whether you are talking about the source or destination.

See the --no-traverse (https://rclone.org/docs/#no-traverse) option for controlling whether rclone lists the destination directory or not. Supplying this option when copying a small number of files into a large destination can speed transfers up greatly.

For example, if you have many files in /path/to/src but only a few of them change every day, you can copy all the files which have changed recently very efficiently like this:

rclone copy --max-age 24h --no-traverse /path/to/src remote:

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics.

Note: Use the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag to test without copying anything.

rclone copy source:path dest:path [flags]

    --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after copy
-h, --help                    help for copy

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Make source and dest identical, modifying destination only.

Sync the source to the destination, changing the destination only. Doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. Destination is updated to match source, including deleting files if necessary (except duplicate objects, see below).

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

rclone sync -i SOURCE remote:DESTINATION

Note that files in the destination won't be deleted if there were any errors at any point. Duplicate objects (files with the same name, on those providers that support it) are also not yet handled.

It is always the contents of the directory that is synced, not the directory so when source:path is a directory, it's the contents of source:path that are copied, not the directory name and contents. See extended explanation in the copy command above if unsure.

If dest:path doesn't exist, it is created and the source:path contents go there.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics

Note: Use the rclone dedupe command to deal with "Duplicate object/directory found in source/destination - ignoring" errors. See this forum post (https://forum.rclone.org/t/sync-not-clearing-duplicates/14372) for more info.

rclone sync source:path dest:path [flags]

    --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after sync
-h, --help                    help for sync

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Move files from source to dest.

Moves the contents of the source directory to the destination directory. Rclone will error if the source and destination overlap and the remote does not support a server-side directory move operation.

If no filters are in use and if possible this will server-side move source:path into dest:path. After this source:path will no longer exist.

Otherwise for each file in source:path selected by the filters (if any) this will move it into dest:path. If possible a server-side move will be used, otherwise it will copy it (server-side if possible) into dest:path then delete the original (if no errors on copy) in source:path.

If you want to delete empty source directories after move, use the --delete-empty-src-dirs flag.

See the --no-traverse (https://rclone.org/docs/#no-traverse) option for controlling whether rclone lists the destination directory or not. Supplying this option when moving a small number of files into a large destination can speed transfers up greatly.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics.

rclone move source:path dest:path [flags]

    --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after move
    --delete-empty-src-dirs   Delete empty source dirs after move
-h, --help                    help for move

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Remove the files in path.

Remove the files in path. Unlike purge it obeys include/exclude filters so can be used to selectively delete files.

rclone delete only deletes files but leaves the directory structure alone. If you want to delete a directory and all of its contents use the purge command.

If you supply the --rmdirs flag, it will remove all empty directories along with it. You can also use the separate command rmdir or rmdirs to delete empty directories only.

For example, to delete all files bigger than 100 MiB, you may first want to check what would be deleted (use either):

rclone --min-size 100M lsl remote:path
rclone --dry-run --min-size 100M delete remote:path

Then proceed with the actual delete:

rclone --min-size 100M delete remote:path

That reads "delete everything with a minimum size of 100 MiB", hence delete all files bigger than 100 MiB.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

rclone delete remote:path [flags]

-h, --help     help for delete
    --rmdirs   rmdirs removes empty directories but leaves root intact

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Remove the path and all of its contents.

Remove the path and all of its contents. Note that this does not obey include/exclude filters - everything will be removed. Use the delete command if you want to selectively delete files. To delete empty directories only, use command rmdir or rmdirs.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

rclone purge remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for purge

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Make the path if it doesn't already exist.
rclone mkdir remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for mkdir

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Remove the empty directory at path.

This removes empty directory given by path. Will not remove the path if it has any objects in it, not even empty subdirectories. Use command rmdirs (or delete with option --rmdirs) to do that.

To delete a path and any objects in it, use purge command.

rclone rmdir remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for rmdir

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Checks the files in the source and destination match.

Checks the files in the source and destination match. It compares sizes and hashes (MD5 or SHA1) and logs a report of files which don't match. It doesn't alter the source or destination.

If you supply the --size-only flag, it will only compare the sizes not the hashes as well. Use this for a quick check.

If you supply the --download flag, it will download the data from both remotes and check them against each other on the fly. This can be useful for remotes that don't support hashes or if you really want to check all the data.

If you supply the --checkfile HASH flag with a valid hash name, the source:path must point to a text file in the SUM format.

If you supply the --one-way flag, it will only check that files in the source match the files in the destination, not the other way around. This means that extra files in the destination that are not in the source will not be detected.

The --differ, --missing-on-dst, --missing-on-src, --match and --error flags write paths, one per line, to the file name (or stdout if it is -) supplied. What they write is described in the help below. For example --differ will write all paths which are present on both the source and destination but different.

The --combined flag will write a file (or stdout) which contains all file paths with a symbol and then a space and then the path to tell you what happened to it. These are reminiscent of diff files.

= path means path was found in source and destination and was identical
- path means path was missing on the source, so only in the destination
+ path means path was missing on the destination, so only in the source
* path means path was present in source and destination but different.
! path means there was an error reading or hashing the source or dest.
rclone check source:path dest:path [flags]

-C, --checkfile string        Treat source:path as a SUM file with hashes of given type
    --combined string         Make a combined report of changes to this file
    --differ string           Report all non-matching files to this file
    --download                Check by downloading rather than with hash.
    --error string            Report all files with errors (hashing or reading) to this file
-h, --help                    help for check
    --match string            Report all matching files to this file
    --missing-on-dst string   Report all files missing from the destination to this file
    --missing-on-src string   Report all files missing from the source to this file
    --one-way                 Check one way only, source files must exist on remote

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

List the objects in the path with size and path.

Lists the objects in the source path to standard output in a human readable format with size and path. Recurses by default.

Eg

$ rclone ls swift:bucket
    60295 bevajer5jef
    90613 canole
    94467 diwogej7
    37600 fubuwic

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes).

rclone ls remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for ls

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

List all directories/containers/buckets in the path.

Lists the directories in the source path to standard output. Does not recurse by default. Use the -R flag to recurse.

This command lists the total size of the directory (if known, -1 if not), the modification time (if known, the current time if not), the number of objects in the directory (if known, -1 if not) and the name of the directory, Eg

$ rclone lsd swift:
      494000 2018-04-26 08:43:20     10000 10000files
          65 2018-04-26 08:43:20         1 1File

Or

$ rclone lsd drive:test
          -1 2016-10-17 17:41:53        -1 1000files
          -1 2017-01-03 14:40:54        -1 2500files
          -1 2017-07-08 14:39:28        -1 4000files

If you just want the directory names use "rclone lsf --dirs-only".

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsd remote:path [flags]

-h, --help        help for lsd
-R, --recursive   Recurse into the listing.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

List the objects in path with modification time, size and path.

Lists the objects in the source path to standard output in a human readable format with modification time, size and path. Recurses by default.

Eg

$ rclone lsl swift:bucket
    60295 2016-06-25 18:55:41.062626927 bevajer5jef
    90613 2016-06-25 18:55:43.302607074 canole
    94467 2016-06-25 18:55:43.046609333 diwogej7
    37600 2016-06-25 18:55:40.814629136 fubuwic

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsl remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for lsl

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Produces an md5sum file for all the objects in the path.

Produces an md5sum file for all the objects in the path. This is in the same format as the standard md5sum tool produces.

By default, the hash is requested from the remote. If MD5 is not supported by the remote, no hash will be returned. With the download flag, the file will be downloaded from the remote and hashed locally enabling MD5 for any remote.

rclone md5sum remote:path [flags]

    --base64               Output base64 encoded hashsum
-C, --checkfile string     Validate hashes against a given SUM file instead of printing them
    --download             Download the file and hash it locally; if this flag is not specified, the hash is requested from the remote
-h, --help                 help for md5sum
    --output-file string   Output hashsums to a file rather than the terminal

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Produces an sha1sum file for all the objects in the path.

Produces an sha1sum file for all the objects in the path. This is in the same format as the standard sha1sum tool produces.

By default, the hash is requested from the remote. If SHA-1 is not supported by the remote, no hash will be returned. With the download flag, the file will be downloaded from the remote and hashed locally enabling SHA-1 for any remote.

rclone sha1sum remote:path [flags]

    --base64               Output base64 encoded hashsum
-C, --checkfile string     Validate hashes against a given SUM file instead of printing them
    --download             Download the file and hash it locally; if this flag is not specified, the hash is requested from the remote
-h, --help                 help for sha1sum
    --output-file string   Output hashsums to a file rather than the terminal

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Prints the total size and number of objects in remote:path.
rclone size remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for size
    --json   format output as JSON

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Show the version number.

Show the rclone version number, the go version, the build target OS and architecture, the runtime OS and kernel version and bitness, build tags and the type of executable (static or dynamic).

For example:

$ rclone version
rclone v1.55.0
- os/version: ubuntu 18.04 (64 bit)
- os/kernel: 4.15.0-136-generic (x86_64)
- os/type: linux
- os/arch: amd64
- go/version: go1.16
- go/linking: static
- go/tags: none

Note: before rclone version 1.55 the os/type and os/arch lines were merged, and the "go/version" line was tagged as "go version".

If you supply the --check flag, then it will do an online check to compare your version with the latest release and the latest beta.

$ rclone version --check
yours:  1.42.0.6
latest: 1.42          (released 2018-06-16)
beta:   1.42.0.5      (released 2018-06-17)

Or

$ rclone version --check
yours:  1.41
latest: 1.42          (released 2018-06-16)
  upgrade: https://downloads.rclone.org/v1.42
beta:   1.42.0.5      (released 2018-06-17)
  upgrade: https://beta.rclone.org/v1.42-005-g56e1e820

rclone version [flags]

    --check   Check for new version.
-h, --help    help for version

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Clean up the remote if possible.

Clean up the remote if possible. Empty the trash or delete old file versions. Not supported by all remotes.
rclone cleanup remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for cleanup

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Interactively find duplicate filenames and delete/rename them.

By default dedupe interactively finds files with duplicate names and offers to delete all but one or rename them to be different. This is known as deduping by name.

Deduping by name is only useful with a small group of backends (e.g. Google Drive, Opendrive) that can have duplicate file names. It can be run on wrapping backends (e.g. crypt) if they wrap a backend which supports duplicate file names.

However if --by-hash is passed in then dedupe will find files with duplicate hashes instead which will work on any backend which supports at least one hash. This can be used to find files with duplicate content. This is known as deduping by hash.

If deduping by name, first rclone will merge directories with the same name. It will do this iteratively until all the identically named directories have been merged.

Next, if deduping by name, for every group of duplicate file names / hashes, it will delete all but one identical files it finds without confirmation. This means that for most duplicated files the dedupe command will not be interactive.

dedupe considers files to be identical if they have the same file path and the same hash. If the backend does not support hashes (e.g. crypt wrapping Google Drive) then they will never be found to be identical. If you use the --size-only flag then files will be considered identical if they have the same size (any hash will be ignored). This can be useful on crypt backends which do not support hashes.

Next rclone will resolve the remaining duplicates. Exactly which action is taken depends on the dedupe mode. By default rclone will interactively query the user for each one.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

Here is an example run.

Before - with duplicates

$ rclone lsl drive:dupes
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:11.775000000 one.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:23:06.731000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:18:26.092000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000 two.txt
  1744073 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000 two.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000 two.txt

Now the dedupe session

$ rclone dedupe drive:dupes
2016/03/05 16:24:37 Google drive root 'dupes': Looking for duplicates using interactive mode.
one.txt: Found 4 files with duplicate names
one.txt: Deleting 2/3 identical duplicates (MD5 "1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36")
one.txt: 2 duplicates remain
  1:      6048320 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000, MD5 1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36
  2:       564374 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:23:06.731000000, MD5 7594e7dc9fc28f727c42ee3e0749de81
s) Skip and do nothing
k) Keep just one (choose which in next step)
r) Rename all to be different (by changing file.jpg to file-1.jpg)
s/k/r> k
Enter the number of the file to keep> 1
one.txt: Deleted 1 extra copies
two.txt: Found 3 files with duplicate names
two.txt: 3 duplicates remain
  1:       564374 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000, MD5 7594e7dc9fc28f727c42ee3e0749de81
  2:      6048320 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000, MD5 1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36
  3:      1744073 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000, MD5 851957f7fb6f0bc4ce76be966d336802
s) Skip and do nothing
k) Keep just one (choose which in next step)
r) Rename all to be different (by changing file.jpg to file-1.jpg)
s/k/r> r
two-1.txt: renamed from: two.txt
two-2.txt: renamed from: two.txt
two-3.txt: renamed from: two.txt

The result being

$ rclone lsl drive:dupes
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000 one.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000 two-1.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000 two-2.txt
  1744073 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000 two-3.txt

Dedupe can be run non interactively using the --dedupe-mode flag or by using an extra parameter with the same value

--dedupe-mode interactive - interactive as above.
--dedupe-mode skip - removes identical files then skips anything left.
--dedupe-mode first - removes identical files then keeps the first one.
--dedupe-mode newest - removes identical files then keeps the newest one.
--dedupe-mode oldest - removes identical files then keeps the oldest one.
--dedupe-mode largest - removes identical files then keeps the largest one.
--dedupe-mode smallest - removes identical files then keeps the smallest one.
--dedupe-mode rename - removes identical files then renames the rest to be different.
--dedupe-mode list - lists duplicate dirs and files only and changes nothing.

For example to rename all the identically named photos in your Google Photos directory, do

rclone dedupe --dedupe-mode rename "drive:Google Photos"

Or

rclone dedupe rename "drive:Google Photos"

rclone dedupe [mode] remote:path [flags]

    --by-hash              Find indentical hashes rather than names
    --dedupe-mode string   Dedupe mode interactive|skip|first|newest|oldest|largest|smallest|rename. (default "interactive")
-h, --help                 help for dedupe

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Get quota information from the remote.

rclone about prints quota information about a remote to standard output. The output is typically used, free, quota and trash contents.

E.g. Typical output from rclone about remote: is:

Total:   17G
Used:    7.444G
Free:    1.315G
Trashed: 100.000M
Other:   8.241G

Where the fields are:

Total: total size available.
Used: total size used
Free: total space available to this user.
Trashed: total space used by trash
Other: total amount in other storage (e.g. Gmail, Google Photos)
Objects: total number of objects in the storage

Not all backends print all fields. Information is not included if it is not provided by a backend. Where the value is unlimited it is omitted.

Applying a --full flag to the command prints the bytes in full, e.g.

Total:   18253611008
Used:    7993453766
Free:    1411001220
Trashed: 104857602
Other:   8849156022

A --json flag generates conveniently computer readable output, e.g.

{
    "total": 18253611008,
    "used": 7993453766,
    "trashed": 104857602,
    "other": 8849156022,
    "free": 1411001220
}

Not all backends support the rclone about command.

See List of backends that do not support about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features)

rclone about remote: [flags]

    --full   Full numbers instead of SI units
-h, --help   help for about
    --json   Format output as JSON

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Remote authorization.

Remote authorization. Used to authorize a remote or headless rclone from a machine with a browser - use as instructed by rclone config.

Use the --auth-no-open-browser to prevent rclone to open auth link in default browser automatically.

rclone authorize [flags]

    --auth-no-open-browser   Do not automatically open auth link in default browser
-h, --help                   help for authorize

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Run a backend specific command.

This runs a backend specific command. The commands themselves (except for "help" and "features") are defined by the backends and you should see the backend docs for definitions.

You can discover what commands a backend implements by using

rclone backend help remote:
rclone backend help <backendname>

You can also discover information about the backend using (see operations/fsinfo (https://rclone.org/rc/#operations/fsinfo) in the remote control docs for more info).

rclone backend features remote:

Pass options to the backend command with -o. This should be key=value or key, e.g.:

rclone backend stats remote:path stats -o format=json -o long

Pass arguments to the backend by placing them on the end of the line

rclone backend cleanup remote:path file1 file2 file3

Note to run these commands on a running backend then see backend/command (https://rclone.org/rc/#backend/command) in the rc docs.

rclone backend <command> remote:path [opts] <args> [flags]

-h, --help                 help for backend
    --json                 Always output in JSON format.
-o, --option stringArray   Option in the form name=value or name.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Concatenates any files and sends them to stdout.

rclone cat sends any files to standard output.

You can use it like this to output a single file

rclone cat remote:path/to/file

Or like this to output any file in dir or its subdirectories.

rclone cat remote:path/to/dir

Or like this to output any .txt files in dir or its subdirectories.

rclone --include "*.txt" cat remote:path/to/dir

Use the --head flag to print characters only at the start, --tail for the end and --offset and --count to print a section in the middle. Note that if offset is negative it will count from the end, so --offset -1 --count 1 is equivalent to --tail 1.

rclone cat remote:path [flags]

    --count int    Only print N characters. (default -1)
    --discard      Discard the output instead of printing.
    --head int     Only print the first N characters.
-h, --help         help for cat
    --offset int   Start printing at offset N (or from end if -ve).
    --tail int     Only print the last N characters.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Checks the files in the source against a SUM file.

Checks that hashsums of source files match the SUM file. It compares hashes (MD5, SHA1, etc) and logs a report of files which don't match. It doesn't alter the file system.

If you supply the --download flag, it will download the data from remote and calculate the contents hash on the fly. This can be useful for remotes that don't support hashes or if you really want to check all the data.

If you supply the --one-way flag, it will only check that files in the source match the files in the destination, not the other way around. This means that extra files in the destination that are not in the source will not be detected.

The --differ, --missing-on-dst, --missing-on-src, --match and --error flags write paths, one per line, to the file name (or stdout if it is -) supplied. What they write is described in the help below. For example --differ will write all paths which are present on both the source and destination but different.

The --combined flag will write a file (or stdout) which contains all file paths with a symbol and then a space and then the path to tell you what happened to it. These are reminiscent of diff files.

= path means path was found in source and destination and was identical
- path means path was missing on the source, so only in the destination
+ path means path was missing on the destination, so only in the source
* path means path was present in source and destination but different.
! path means there was an error reading or hashing the source or dest.
rclone checksum <hash> sumfile src:path [flags]

    --combined string         Make a combined report of changes to this file
    --differ string           Report all non-matching files to this file
    --download                Check by hashing the contents.
    --error string            Report all files with errors (hashing or reading) to this file
-h, --help                    help for checksum
    --match string            Report all matching files to this file
    --missing-on-dst string   Report all files missing from the destination to this file
    --missing-on-src string   Report all files missing from the source to this file
    --one-way                 Check one way only, source files must exist on remote

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Create a new remote with name, type and options.

Create a new remote of name with type and options. The options should be passed in pairs of key value or as key=value.

For example to make a swift remote of name myremote using auto config you would do:

rclone config create myremote swift env_auth true
rclone config create myremote swift env_auth=true

So for example if you wanted to configure a Google Drive remote but using remote authorization you would do this:

rclone config create mydrive drive config_is_local=false

Note that if the config process would normally ask a question the default is taken (unless --non-interactive is used). Each time that happens rclone will print or DEBUG a message saying how to affect the value taken.

If any of the parameters passed is a password field, then rclone will automatically obscure them if they aren't already obscured before putting them in the config file.

NB If the password parameter is 22 characters or longer and consists only of base64 characters then rclone can get confused about whether the password is already obscured or not and put unobscured passwords into the config file. If you want to be 100% certain that the passwords get obscured then use the --obscure flag, or if you are 100% certain you are already passing obscured passwords then use --no-obscure. You can also set obscured passwords using the rclone config password command.

The flag --non-interactive is for use by applications that wish to configure rclone themeselves, rather than using rclone's text based configuration questions. If this flag is set, and rclone needs to ask the user a question, a JSON blob will be returned with the question in it.

This will look something like (some irrelevant detail removed):

{
    "State": "*oauth-islocal,teamdrive,,",
    "Option": {
        "Name": "config_is_local",
        "Help": "Use auto config?\n * Say Y if not sure\n * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine\n",
        "Default": true,
        "Examples": [
            {
                "Value": "true",
                "Help": "Yes"
            },
            {
                "Value": "false",
                "Help": "No"
            }
        ],
        "Required": false,
        "IsPassword": false,
        "Type": "bool",
        "Exclusive": true,
    },
    "Error": "",
}

The format of Option is the same as returned by rclone config providers. The question should be asked to the user and returned to rclone as the --result option along with the --state parameter.

The keys of Option are used as follows:

Name - name of variable - show to user
Help - help text. Hard wrapped at 80 chars. Any URLs should be clicky.
Default - default value - return this if the user just wants the default.
Examples - the user should be able to choose one of these
Required - the value should be non-empty
IsPassword - the value is a password and should be edited as such
Type - type of value, eg bool, string, int and others
Exclusive - if set no free-form entry allowed only the Examples
Irrelevant keys Provider, ShortOpt, Hide, NoPrefix, Advanced

If Error is set then it should be shown to the user at the same time as the question.

rclone config update name --continue --state "*oauth-islocal,teamdrive,," --result "true"

Note that when using --continue all passwords should be passed in the clear (not obscured). Any default config values should be passed in with each invocation of --continue.

At the end of the non interactive process, rclone will return a result with State as empty string.

If --all is passed then rclone will ask all the config questions, not just the post config questions. Any parameters are used as defaults for questions as usual.

Note that bin/config.py in the rclone source implements this protocol as a readable demonstration.

rclone config create `name` `type` [`key` `value`]* [flags]

    --all               Ask the full set of config questions.
    --continue          Continue the configuration process with an answer.
-h, --help              help for create
    --no-obscure        Force any passwords not to be obscured.
    --non-interactive   Don't interact with user and return questions.
    --obscure           Force any passwords to be obscured.
    --result string     Result - use with --continue.
    --state string      State - use with --continue.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Delete an existing remote name.
rclone config delete `name` [flags]

-h, --help   help for delete

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Disconnects user from remote

This disconnects the remote: passed in to the cloud storage system.

This normally means revoking the oauth token.

To reconnect use "rclone config reconnect".

rclone config disconnect remote: [flags]

-h, --help   help for disconnect

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Dump the config file as JSON.
rclone config dump [flags]

-h, --help   help for dump

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Enter an interactive configuration session.

Enter an interactive configuration session where you can setup new remotes and manage existing ones. You may also set or remove a password to protect your configuration.
rclone config edit [flags]

-h, --help   help for edit

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Show path of configuration file in use.
rclone config file [flags]

-h, --help   help for file

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Update password in an existing remote.

Update an existing remote's password. The password should be passed in pairs of key password or as key=password. The password should be passed in in clear (unobscured).

For example to set password of a remote of name myremote you would do:

rclone config password myremote fieldname mypassword
rclone config password myremote fieldname=mypassword

This command is obsolete now that "config update" and "config create" both support obscuring passwords directly.

rclone config password `name` [`key` `value`]+ [flags]

-h, --help   help for password

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

List in JSON format all the providers and options.
rclone config providers [flags]

-h, --help   help for providers

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Re-authenticates user with remote.

This reconnects remote: passed in to the cloud storage system.

To disconnect the remote use "rclone config disconnect".

This normally means going through the interactive oauth flow again.

rclone config reconnect remote: [flags]

-h, --help   help for reconnect

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Print (decrypted) config file, or the config for a single remote.
rclone config show [<remote>] [flags]

-h, --help   help for show

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Ensure configuration file exists.
rclone config touch [flags]

-h, --help   help for touch

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Update options in an existing remote.

Update an existing remote's options. The options should be passed in pairs of key value or as key=value.

For example to update the env_auth field of a remote of name myremote you would do:

rclone config update myremote env_auth true
rclone config update myremote env_auth=true

If the remote uses OAuth the token will be updated, if you don't require this add an extra parameter thus:

rclone config update myremote env_auth=true config_refresh_token=false

Note that if the config process would normally ask a question the default is taken (unless --non-interactive is used). Each time that happens rclone will print or DEBUG a message saying how to affect the value taken.

If any of the parameters passed is a password field, then rclone will automatically obscure them if they aren't already obscured before putting them in the config file.

NB If the password parameter is 22 characters or longer and consists only of base64 characters then rclone can get confused about whether the password is already obscured or not and put unobscured passwords into the config file. If you want to be 100% certain that the passwords get obscured then use the --obscure flag, or if you are 100% certain you are already passing obscured passwords then use --no-obscure. You can also set obscured passwords using the rclone config password command.

The flag --non-interactive is for use by applications that wish to configure rclone themeselves, rather than using rclone's text based configuration questions. If this flag is set, and rclone needs to ask the user a question, a JSON blob will be returned with the question in it.

This will look something like (some irrelevant detail removed):

{
    "State": "*oauth-islocal,teamdrive,,",
    "Option": {
        "Name": "config_is_local",
        "Help": "Use auto config?\n * Say Y if not sure\n * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine\n",
        "Default": true,
        "Examples": [
            {
                "Value": "true",
                "Help": "Yes"
            },
            {
                "Value": "false",
                "Help": "No"
            }
        ],
        "Required": false,
        "IsPassword": false,
        "Type": "bool",
        "Exclusive": true,
    },
    "Error": "",
}

The format of Option is the same as returned by rclone config providers. The question should be asked to the user and returned to rclone as the --result option along with the --state parameter.

The keys of Option are used as follows:

Name - name of variable - show to user
Help - help text. Hard wrapped at 80 chars. Any URLs should be clicky.
Default - default value - return this if the user just wants the default.
Examples - the user should be able to choose one of these
Required - the value should be non-empty
IsPassword - the value is a password and should be edited as such
Type - type of value, eg bool, string, int and others
Exclusive - if set no free-form entry allowed only the Examples
Irrelevant keys Provider, ShortOpt, Hide, NoPrefix, Advanced

If Error is set then it should be shown to the user at the same time as the question.

rclone config update name --continue --state "*oauth-islocal,teamdrive,," --result "true"

Note that when using --continue all passwords should be passed in the clear (not obscured). Any default config values should be passed in with each invocation of --continue.

At the end of the non interactive process, rclone will return a result with State as empty string.

If --all is passed then rclone will ask all the config questions, not just the post config questions. Any parameters are used as defaults for questions as usual.

Note that bin/config.py in the rclone source implements this protocol as a readable demonstration.

rclone config update `name` [`key` `value`]+ [flags]

    --all               Ask the full set of config questions.
    --continue          Continue the configuration process with an answer.
-h, --help              help for update
    --no-obscure        Force any passwords not to be obscured.
    --non-interactive   Don't interact with user and return questions.
    --obscure           Force any passwords to be obscured.
    --result string     Result - use with --continue.
    --state string      State - use with --continue.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Prints info about logged in user of remote.

This prints the details of the person logged in to the cloud storage system.
rclone config userinfo remote: [flags]

-h, --help   help for userinfo
    --json   Format output as JSON

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Copy files from source to dest, skipping already copied.

If source:path is a file or directory then it copies it to a file or directory named dest:path.

This can be used to upload single files to other than their current name. If the source is a directory then it acts exactly like the copy command.

So

rclone copyto src dst

where src and dst are rclone paths, either remote:path or /path/to/local or C:.

This will:

if src is file
    copy it to dst, overwriting an existing file if it exists
if src is directory
    copy it to dst, overwriting existing files if they exist
    see copy command for full details

This doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. It doesn't delete files from the destination.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics

rclone copyto source:path dest:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for copyto

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Copy url content to dest.

Download a URL's content and copy it to the destination without saving it in temporary storage.

Setting --auto-filename will cause the file name to be retrieved from the URL (after any redirections) and used in the destination path. With --print-filename in addition, the resulting file name will be printed.

Setting --no-clobber will prevent overwriting file on the destination if there is one with the same name.

Setting --stdout or making the output file name - will cause the output to be written to standard output.

rclone copyurl https://example.com dest:path [flags]

-a, --auto-filename    Get the file name from the URL and use it for destination file path
-h, --help             help for copyurl
    --no-clobber       Prevent overwriting file with same name
-p, --print-filename   Print the resulting name from --auto-filename
    --stdout           Write the output to stdout rather than a file

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Cryptcheck checks the integrity of a crypted remote.

rclone cryptcheck checks a remote against a crypted remote. This is the equivalent of running rclone check, but able to check the checksums of the crypted remote.

For it to work the underlying remote of the cryptedremote must support some kind of checksum.

It works by reading the nonce from each file on the cryptedremote: and using that to encrypt each file on the remote:. It then checks the checksum of the underlying file on the cryptedremote: against the checksum of the file it has just encrypted.

Use it like this

rclone cryptcheck /path/to/files encryptedremote:path

You can use it like this also, but that will involve downloading all the files in remote:path.

rclone cryptcheck remote:path encryptedremote:path

After it has run it will log the status of the encryptedremote:.

If you supply the --one-way flag, it will only check that files in the source match the files in the destination, not the other way around. This means that extra files in the destination that are not in the source will not be detected.

The --differ, --missing-on-dst, --missing-on-src, --match and --error flags write paths, one per line, to the file name (or stdout if it is -) supplied. What they write is described in the help below. For example --differ will write all paths which are present on both the source and destination but different.

The --combined flag will write a file (or stdout) which contains all file paths with a symbol and then a space and then the path to tell you what happened to it. These are reminiscent of diff files.

= path means path was found in source and destination and was identical
- path means path was missing on the source, so only in the destination
+ path means path was missing on the destination, so only in the source
* path means path was present in source and destination but different.
! path means there was an error reading or hashing the source or dest.
rclone cryptcheck remote:path cryptedremote:path [flags]

    --combined string         Make a combined report of changes to this file
    --differ string           Report all non-matching files to this file
    --error string            Report all files with errors (hashing or reading) to this file
-h, --help                    help for cryptcheck
    --match string            Report all matching files to this file
    --missing-on-dst string   Report all files missing from the destination to this file
    --missing-on-src string   Report all files missing from the source to this file
    --one-way                 Check one way only, source files must exist on remote

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Cryptdecode returns unencrypted file names.

rclone cryptdecode returns unencrypted file names when provided with a list of encrypted file names. List limit is 10 items.

If you supply the --reverse flag, it will return encrypted file names.

use it like this

rclone cryptdecode encryptedremote: encryptedfilename1 encryptedfilename2
rclone cryptdecode --reverse encryptedremote: filename1 filename2

Another way to accomplish this is by using the rclone backend encode (or decode)command. See the documentation on the crypt overlay for more info.

rclone cryptdecode encryptedremote: encryptedfilename [flags]

-h, --help      help for cryptdecode
    --reverse   Reverse cryptdecode, encrypts filenames

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Remove a single file from remote.

Remove a single file from remote. Unlike delete it cannot be used to remove a directory and it doesn't obey include/exclude filters - if the specified file exists, it will always be removed.
rclone deletefile remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for deletefile

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Output completion script for a given shell.

Generates a shell completion script for rclone. Run with --help to list the supported shells.

-h, --help   help for genautocomplete

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone genautocomplete bash (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete_bash/) - Output bash completion script for rclone.
rclone genautocomplete fish (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete_fish/) - Output fish completion script for rclone.
rclone genautocomplete zsh (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete_zsh/) - Output zsh completion script for rclone.

Output bash completion script for rclone.

Generates a bash shell autocompletion script for rclone.

This writes to /etc/bash_completion.d/rclone by default so will probably need to be run with sudo or as root, e.g.

sudo rclone genautocomplete bash

Logout and login again to use the autocompletion scripts, or source them directly

. /etc/bash_completion

If you supply a command line argument the script will be written there.

If output_file is "-", then the output will be written to stdout.

rclone genautocomplete bash [output_file] [flags]

-h, --help   help for bash

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone genautocomplete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete/) - Output completion script for a given shell.

Output fish completion script for rclone.

Generates a fish autocompletion script for rclone.

This writes to /etc/fish/completions/rclone.fish by default so will probably need to be run with sudo or as root, e.g.

sudo rclone genautocomplete fish

Logout and login again to use the autocompletion scripts, or source them directly

. /etc/fish/completions/rclone.fish

If you supply a command line argument the script will be written there.

If output_file is "-", then the output will be written to stdout.

rclone genautocomplete fish [output_file] [flags]

-h, --help   help for fish

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone genautocomplete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete/) - Output completion script for a given shell.

Output zsh completion script for rclone.

Generates a zsh autocompletion script for rclone.

This writes to /usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_rclone by default so will probably need to be run with sudo or as root, e.g.

sudo rclone genautocomplete zsh

Logout and login again to use the autocompletion scripts, or source them directly

autoload -U compinit && compinit

If you supply a command line argument the script will be written there.

If output_file is "-", then the output will be written to stdout.

rclone genautocomplete zsh [output_file] [flags]

-h, --help   help for zsh

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone genautocomplete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete/) - Output completion script for a given shell.

Output markdown docs for rclone to the directory supplied.

This produces markdown docs for the rclone commands to the directory supplied. These are in a format suitable for hugo to render into the rclone.org website.
rclone gendocs output_directory [flags]

-h, --help   help for gendocs

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Produces a hashsum file for all the objects in the path.

Produces a hash file for all the objects in the path using the hash named. The output is in the same format as the standard md5sum/sha1sum tool.

By default, the hash is requested from the remote. If the hash is not supported by the remote, no hash will be returned. With the download flag, the file will be downloaded from the remote and hashed locally enabling any hash for any remote.

Run without a hash to see the list of all supported hashes, e.g.

$ rclone hashsum
Supported hashes are:
  * md5
  * sha1
  * whirlpool
  * crc32
  * dropbox
  * mailru
  * quickxor

Then

$ rclone hashsum MD5 remote:path

Note that hash names are case insensitive.

rclone hashsum <hash> remote:path [flags]

    --base64               Output base64 encoded hashsum
-C, --checkfile string     Validate hashes against a given SUM file instead of printing them
    --download             Download the file and hash it locally; if this flag is not specified, the hash is requested from the remote
-h, --help                 help for hashsum
    --output-file string   Output hashsums to a file rather than the terminal

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Generate public link to file/folder.

rclone link will create, retrieve or remove a public link to the given file or folder.
rclone link remote:path/to/file
rclone link remote:path/to/folder/
rclone link --unlink remote:path/to/folder/
rclone link --expire 1d remote:path/to/file

If you supply the --expire flag, it will set the expiration time otherwise it will use the default (100 years). Note not all backends support the --expire flag - if the backend doesn't support it then the link returned won't expire.

Use the --unlink flag to remove existing public links to the file or folder. Note not all backends support "--unlink" flag - those that don't will just ignore it.

If successful, the last line of the output will contain the link. Exact capabilities depend on the remote, but the link will always by default be created with the least constraints – e.g. no expiry, no password protection, accessible without account.

rclone link remote:path [flags]

    --expire Duration   The amount of time that the link will be valid (default off)
-h, --help              help for link
    --unlink            Remove existing public link to file/folder

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

List all the remotes in the config file.

rclone listremotes lists all the available remotes from the config file.

When uses with the -l flag it lists the types too.

rclone listremotes [flags]

-h, --help   help for listremotes
    --long   Show the type as well as names.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

List directories and objects in remote:path formatted for parsing.

List the contents of the source path (directories and objects) to standard output in a form which is easy to parse by scripts. By default this will just be the names of the objects and directories, one per line. The directories will have a / suffix.

Eg

$ rclone lsf swift:bucket
bevajer5jef
canole
diwogej7
ferejej3gux/
fubuwic

Use the --format option to control what gets listed. By default this is just the path, but you can use these parameters to control the output:

p - path
s - size
t - modification time
h - hash
i - ID of object
o - Original ID of underlying object
m - MimeType of object if known
e - encrypted name
T - tier of storage if known, e.g. "Hot" or "Cool"

So if you wanted the path, size and modification time, you would use --format "pst", or maybe --format "tsp" to put the path last.

Eg

$ rclone lsf  --format "tsp" swift:bucket
2016-06-25 18:55:41;60295;bevajer5jef
2016-06-25 18:55:43;90613;canole
2016-06-25 18:55:43;94467;diwogej7
2018-04-26 08:50:45;0;ferejej3gux/
2016-06-25 18:55:40;37600;fubuwic

If you specify "h" in the format you will get the MD5 hash by default, use the "--hash" flag to change which hash you want. Note that this can be returned as an empty string if it isn't available on the object (and for directories), "ERROR" if there was an error reading it from the object and "UNSUPPORTED" if that object does not support that hash type.

For example to emulate the md5sum command you can use

rclone lsf -R --hash MD5 --format hp --separator "  " --files-only .

Eg

$ rclone lsf -R --hash MD5 --format hp --separator "  " --files-only swift:bucket 
7908e352297f0f530b84a756f188baa3  bevajer5jef
cd65ac234e6fea5925974a51cdd865cc  canole
03b5341b4f234b9d984d03ad076bae91  diwogej7
8fd37c3810dd660778137ac3a66cc06d  fubuwic
99713e14a4c4ff553acaf1930fad985b  gixacuh7ku

(Though "rclone md5sum ." is an easier way of typing this.)

By default the separator is ";" this can be changed with the --separator flag. Note that separators aren't escaped in the path so putting it last is a good strategy.

Eg

$ rclone lsf  --separator "," --format "tshp" swift:bucket
2016-06-25 18:55:41,60295,7908e352297f0f530b84a756f188baa3,bevajer5jef
2016-06-25 18:55:43,90613,cd65ac234e6fea5925974a51cdd865cc,canole
2016-06-25 18:55:43,94467,03b5341b4f234b9d984d03ad076bae91,diwogej7
2018-04-26 08:52:53,0,,ferejej3gux/
2016-06-25 18:55:40,37600,8fd37c3810dd660778137ac3a66cc06d,fubuwic

You can output in CSV standard format. This will escape things in " if they contain ,

Eg

$ rclone lsf --csv --files-only --format ps remote:path
test.log,22355
test.sh,449
"this file contains a comma, in the file name.txt",6

Note that the --absolute parameter is useful for making lists of files to pass to an rclone copy with the --files-from-raw flag.

For example to find all the files modified within one day and copy those only (without traversing the whole directory structure):

rclone lsf --absolute --files-only --max-age 1d /path/to/local > new_files
rclone copy --files-from-raw new_files /path/to/local remote:path

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsf remote:path [flags]

    --absolute           Put a leading / in front of path names.
    --csv                Output in CSV format.
-d, --dir-slash          Append a slash to directory names. (default true)
    --dirs-only          Only list directories.
    --files-only         Only list files.
-F, --format string      Output format - see  help for details (default "p")
    --hash h             Use this hash when h is used in the format MD5|SHA-1|DropboxHash (default "md5")
-h, --help               help for lsf
-R, --recursive          Recurse into the listing.
-s, --separator string   Separator for the items in the format. (default ";")

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

List directories and objects in the path in JSON format.

List directories and objects in the path in JSON format.

The output is an array of Items, where each Item looks like this

{ "Hashes" : { "SHA-1" : "f572d396fae9206628714fb2ce00f72e94f2258f", "MD5" : "b1946ac92492d2347c6235b4d2611184", "DropboxHash" : "ecb65bb98f9d905b70458986c39fcbad7715e5f2fcc3b1f07767d7c83e2438cc" }, "ID": "y2djkhiujf83u33", "OrigID": "UYOJVTUW00Q1RzTDA", "IsBucket" : false, "IsDir" : false, "MimeType" : "application/octet-stream", "ModTime" : "2017-05-31T16:15:57.034468261+01:00", "Name" : "file.txt", "Encrypted" : "v0qpsdq8anpci8n929v3uu9338", "EncryptedPath" : "kja9098349023498/v0qpsdq8anpci8n929v3uu9338", "Path" : "full/path/goes/here/file.txt", "Size" : 6, "Tier" : "hot", }

If --hash is not specified the Hashes property won't be emitted. The types of hash can be specified with the --hash-type parameter (which may be repeated). If --hash-type is set then it implies --hash.

If --no-modtime is specified then ModTime will be blank. This can speed things up on remotes where reading the ModTime takes an extra request (e.g. s3, swift).

If --no-mimetype is specified then MimeType will be blank. This can speed things up on remotes where reading the MimeType takes an extra request (e.g. s3, swift).

If --encrypted is not specified the Encrypted won't be emitted.

If --dirs-only is not specified files in addition to directories are returned

If --files-only is not specified directories in addition to the files will be returned.

The Path field will only show folders below the remote path being listed. If "remote:path" contains the file "subfolder/file.txt", the Path for "file.txt" will be "subfolder/file.txt", not "remote:path/subfolder/file.txt". When used without --recursive the Path will always be the same as Name.

If the directory is a bucket in a bucket based backend, then "IsBucket" will be set to true. This key won't be present unless it is "true".

The time is in RFC3339 format with up to nanosecond precision. The number of decimal digits in the seconds will depend on the precision that the remote can hold the times, so if times are accurate to the nearest millisecond (e.g. Google Drive) then 3 digits will always be shown ("2017-05-31T16:15:57.034+01:00") whereas if the times are accurate to the nearest second (Dropbox, Box, WebDav, etc.) no digits will be shown ("2017-05-31T16:15:57+01:00").

The whole output can be processed as a JSON blob, or alternatively it can be processed line by line as each item is written one to a line.

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsjson remote:path [flags]

    --dirs-only               Show only directories in the listing.
-M, --encrypted               Show the encrypted names.
    --files-only              Show only files in the listing.
    --hash                    Include hashes in the output (may take longer).
    --hash-type stringArray   Show only this hash type (may be repeated).
-h, --help                    help for lsjson
    --no-mimetype             Don't read the mime type (can speed things up).
    --no-modtime              Don't read the modification time (can speed things up).
    --original                Show the ID of the underlying Object.
-R, --recursive               Recurse into the listing.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Mount the remote as file system on a mountpoint.

rclone mount allows Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows to mount any of Rclone's cloud storage systems as a file system with FUSE.

First set up your remote using rclone config. Check it works with rclone ls etc.

On Linux and OSX, you can either run mount in foreground mode or background (daemon) mode. Mount runs in foreground mode by default, use the --daemon flag to specify background mode. You can only run mount in foreground mode on Windows.

On Linux/macOS/FreeBSD start the mount like this, where /path/to/local/mount is an empty existing directory:

rclone mount remote:path/to/files /path/to/local/mount

On Windows you can start a mount in different ways. See below for details. The following examples will mount to an automatically assigned drive, to specific drive letter X:, to path C:\path\parent\mount (where parent directory or drive must exist, and mount must not exist, and is not supported when mounting as a network drive), and the last example will mount as network share \\cloud\remote and map it to an automatically assigned drive:

rclone mount remote:path/to/files *
rclone mount remote:path/to/files X:
rclone mount remote:path/to/files C:\path\parent\mount
rclone mount remote:path/to/files \\cloud\remote

When the program ends while in foreground mode, either via Ctrl+C or receiving a SIGINT or SIGTERM signal, the mount should be automatically stopped.

When running in background mode the user will have to stop the mount manually:

# Linux
fusermount -u /path/to/local/mount
# OS X
umount /path/to/local/mount

The umount operation can fail, for example when the mountpoint is busy. When that happens, it is the user's responsibility to stop the mount manually.

The size of the mounted file system will be set according to information retrieved from the remote, the same as returned by the rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/) command. Remotes with unlimited storage may report the used size only, then an additional 1 PiB of free space is assumed. If the remote does not support (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) the about feature at all, then 1 PiB is set as both the total and the free size.

Note: As of rclone 1.52.2, rclone mount now requires Go version 1.13 or newer on some platforms depending on the underlying FUSE library in use.

To run rclone mount on Windows, you will need to download and install WinFsp (http://www.secfs.net/winfsp/).

WinFsp (https://github.com/billziss-gh/winfsp) is an open source Windows File System Proxy which makes it easy to write user space file systems for Windows. It provides a FUSE emulation layer which rclone uses combination with cgofuse (https://github.com/billziss-gh/cgofuse). Both of these packages are by Bill Zissimopoulos who was very helpful during the implementation of rclone mount for Windows.

Unlike other operating systems, Microsoft Windows provides a different filesystem type for network and fixed drives. It optimises access on the assumption fixed disk drives are fast and reliable, while network drives have relatively high latency and less reliability. Some settings can also be differentiated between the two types, for example that Windows Explorer should just display icons and not create preview thumbnails for image and video files on network drives.

In most cases, rclone will mount the remote as a normal, fixed disk drive by default. However, you can also choose to mount it as a remote network drive, often described as a network share. If you mount an rclone remote using the default, fixed drive mode and experience unexpected program errors, freezes or other issues, consider mounting as a network drive instead.

When mounting as a fixed disk drive you can either mount to an unused drive letter, or to a path representing a non-existent subdirectory of an existing parent directory or drive. Using the special value * will tell rclone to automatically assign the next available drive letter, starting with Z: and moving backward. Examples:

rclone mount remote:path/to/files *
rclone mount remote:path/to/files X:
rclone mount remote:path/to/files C:\path\parent\mount
rclone mount remote:path/to/files X:

Option --volname can be used to set a custom volume name for the mounted file system. The default is to use the remote name and path.

To mount as network drive, you can add option --network-mode to your mount command. Mounting to a directory path is not supported in this mode, it is a limitation Windows imposes on junctions, so the remote must always be mounted to a drive letter.

rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --network-mode

A volume name specified with --volname will be used to create the network share path. A complete UNC path, such as \\cloud\remote, optionally with path \\cloud\remote\madeup\path, will be used as is. Any other string will be used as the share part, after a default prefix \\server\. If no volume name is specified then \\server\share will be used. You must make sure the volume name is unique when you are mounting more than one drive, or else the mount command will fail. The share name will treated as the volume label for the mapped drive, shown in Windows Explorer etc, while the complete \\server\share will be reported as the remote UNC path by net use etc, just like a normal network drive mapping.

If you specify a full network share UNC path with --volname, this will implicitely set the --network-mode option, so the following two examples have same result:

rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --network-mode
rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --volname \\server\share

You may also specify the network share UNC path as the mountpoint itself. Then rclone will automatically assign a drive letter, same as with * and use that as mountpoint, and instead use the UNC path specified as the volume name, as if it were specified with the --volname option. This will also implicitely set the --network-mode option. This means the following two examples have same result:

rclone mount remote:path/to/files \\cloud\remote
rclone mount remote:path/to/files * --volname \\cloud\remote

There is yet another way to enable network mode, and to set the share path, and that is to pass the "native" libfuse/WinFsp option directly: --fuse-flag --VolumePrefix=\server\share. Note that the path must be with just a single backslash prefix in this case.

Note: In previous versions of rclone this was the only supported method.

Read more about drive mapping (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drive_mapping)

See also Limitations section below.

The FUSE emulation layer on Windows must convert between the POSIX-based permission model used in FUSE, and the permission model used in Windows, based on access-control lists (ACL).

The mounted filesystem will normally get three entries in its access-control list (ACL), representing permissions for the POSIX permission scopes: Owner, group and others. By default, the owner and group will be taken from the current user, and the built-in group "Everyone" will be used to represent others. The user/group can be customized with FUSE options "UserName" and "GroupName", e.g. -o UserName=user123 -o GroupName="Authenticated Users".

The permissions on each entry will be set according to options --dir-perms and --file-perms, which takes a value in traditional numeric notation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File-system_permissions#Numeric_notation), where the default corresponds to --file-perms 0666 --dir-perms 0777.

Note that the mapping of permissions is not always trivial, and the result you see in Windows Explorer may not be exactly like you expected. For example, when setting a value that includes write access, this will be mapped to individual permissions "write attributes", "write data" and "append data", but not "write extended attributes". Windows will then show this as basic permission "Special" instead of "Write", because "Write" includes the "write extended attributes" permission.

If you set POSIX permissions for only allowing access to the owner, using --file-perms 0600 --dir-perms 0700, the user group and the built-in "Everyone" group will still be given some special permissions, such as "read attributes" and "read permissions", in Windows. This is done for compatibility reasons, e.g. to allow users without additional permissions to be able to read basic metadata about files like in UNIX. One case that may arise is that other programs (incorrectly) interprets this as the file being accessible by everyone. For example an SSH client may warn about "unprotected private key file".

WinFsp 2021 (version 1.9) introduces a new FUSE option "FileSecurity", that allows the complete specification of file security descriptors using SDDL (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/secauthz/security-descriptor-string-format). With this you can work around issues such as the mentioned "unprotected private key file" by specifying -o FileSecurity="D:P(A;;FA;;;OW)", for file all access (FA) to the owner (OW).

Drives created as Administrator are not visible to other accounts, not even an account that was elevated to Administrator with the User Account Control (UAC) feature. A result of this is that if you mount to a drive letter from a Command Prompt run as Administrator, and then try to access the same drive from Windows Explorer (which does not run as Administrator), you will not be able to see the mounted drive.

If you don't need to access the drive from applications running with administrative privileges, the easiest way around this is to always create the mount from a non-elevated command prompt.

To make mapped drives available to the user account that created them regardless if elevated or not, there is a special Windows setting called linked connections (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/troubleshoot/windows-client/networking/mapped-drives-not-available-from-elevated-command#detail-to-configure-the-enablelinkedconnections-registry-entry) that can be enabled.

It is also possible to make a drive mount available to everyone on the system, by running the process creating it as the built-in SYSTEM account. There are several ways to do this: One is to use the command-line utility PsExec (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/downloads/psexec), from Microsoft's Sysinternals suite, which has option -s to start processes as the SYSTEM account. Another alternative is to run the mount command from a Windows Scheduled Task, or a Windows Service, configured to run as the SYSTEM account. A third alternative is to use the WinFsp.Launcher infrastructure (https://github.com/billziss-gh/winfsp/wiki/WinFsp-Service-Architecture)). Note that when running rclone as another user, it will not use the configuration file from your profile unless you tell it to with the --config (https://rclone.org/docs/#config-config-file) option. Read more in the install documentation (https://rclone.org/install/).

Note that mapping to a directory path, instead of a drive letter, does not suffer from the same limitations.

Without the use of --vfs-cache-mode this can only write files sequentially, it can only seek when reading. This means that many applications won't work with their files on an rclone mount without --vfs-cache-mode writes or --vfs-cache-mode full. See the VFS File Caching section for more info.

The bucket based remotes (e.g. Swift, S3, Google Compute Storage, B2, Hubic) do not support the concept of empty directories, so empty directories will have a tendency to disappear once they fall out of the directory cache.

Only supported on Linux, FreeBSD, OS X and Windows at the moment.

File systems expect things to be 100% reliable, whereas cloud storage systems are a long way from 100% reliable. The rclone sync/copy commands cope with this with lots of retries. However rclone mount can't use retries in the same way without making local copies of the uploads. Look at the VFS File Caching for solutions to make mount more reliable.

You can use the flag --attr-timeout to set the time the kernel caches the attributes (size, modification time, etc.) for directory entries.

The default is 1s which caches files just long enough to avoid too many callbacks to rclone from the kernel.

In theory 0s should be the correct value for filesystems which can change outside the control of the kernel. However this causes quite a few problems such as rclone using too much memory (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2157), rclone not serving files to samba (https://forum.rclone.org/t/rclone-1-39-vs-1-40-mount-issue/5112) and excessive time listing directories (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2095#issuecomment-371141147).

The kernel can cache the info about a file for the time given by --attr-timeout. You may see corruption if the remote file changes length during this window. It will show up as either a truncated file or a file with garbage on the end. With --attr-timeout 1s this is very unlikely but not impossible. The higher you set --attr-timeout the more likely it is. The default setting of "1s" is the lowest setting which mitigates the problems above.

If you set it higher (10s or 1m say) then the kernel will call back to rclone less often making it more efficient, however there is more chance of the corruption issue above.

If files don't change on the remote outside of the control of rclone then there is no chance of corruption.

This is the same as setting the attr_timeout option in mount.fuse.

Note that all the rclone filters can be used to select a subset of the files to be visible in the mount.

When running rclone mount as a systemd service, it is possible to use Type=notify. In this case the service will enter the started state after the mountpoint has been successfully set up. Units having the rclone mount service specified as a requirement will see all files and folders immediately in this mode.

--vfs-read-chunk-size will enable reading the source objects in parts. This can reduce the used download quota for some remotes by requesting only chunks from the remote that are actually read at the cost of an increased number of requests.

When --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit is also specified and greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, the chunk size for each open file will get doubled for each chunk read, until the specified value is reached. A value of -1 will disable the limit and the chunk size will grow indefinitely.

With --vfs-read-chunk-size 100M and --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit 0 the following parts will be downloaded: 0-100M, 100M-200M, 200M-300M, 300M-400M and so on. When --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit 500M is specified, the result would be 0-100M, 100M-300M, 300M-700M, 700M-1200M, 1200M-1700M and so on.

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)

However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.
--read-only       Mount read-only.

When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")

Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used. If you need this information to be available when running df on the filesystem, then pass the flag --vfs-used-is-size to rclone. With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to rclone size and compute the total used space itself.

WARNING. Contrary to rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.

rclone mount remote:path /path/to/mountpoint [flags]

    --allow-non-empty                        Allow mounting over a non-empty directory. Not supported on Windows.
    --allow-other                            Allow access to other users. Not supported on Windows.
    --allow-root                             Allow access to root user. Not supported on Windows.
    --async-read                             Use asynchronous reads. Not supported on Windows. (default true)
    --attr-timeout duration                  Time for which file/directory attributes are cached. (default 1s)
    --daemon                                 Run mount as a daemon (background mode). Not supported on Windows.
    --daemon-timeout duration                Time limit for rclone to respond to kernel. Not supported on Windows.
    --debug-fuse                             Debug the FUSE internals - needs -v.
    --default-permissions                    Makes kernel enforce access control based on the file mode. Not supported on Windows.
    --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
    --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
    --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
    --fuse-flag stringArray                  Flags or arguments to be passed direct to libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required.
    --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
-h, --help                                   help for mount
    --max-read-ahead SizeSuffix              The number of bytes that can be prefetched for sequential reads. Not supported on Windows. (default 128Ki)
    --network-mode                           Mount as remote network drive, instead of fixed disk drive. Supported on Windows only
    --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
    --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
    --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
    --noappledouble                          Ignore Apple Double (._) and .DS_Store files. Supported on OSX only. (default true)
    --noapplexattr                           Ignore all "com.apple.*" extended attributes. Supported on OSX only.
-o, --option stringArray                     Option for libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required.
    --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
    --read-only                              Mount read-only.
    --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
    --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 2)
    --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
    --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
    --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
    --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
    --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
    --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix              Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full.
    --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128Mi)
    --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
    --vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
    --vfs-used-is-size rclone size           Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size.
    --vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
    --vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)
    --volname string                         Set the volume name. Supported on Windows and OSX only.
    --write-back-cache                       Makes kernel buffer writes before sending them to rclone. Without this, writethrough caching is used. Not supported on Windows.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Move file or directory from source to dest.

If source:path is a file or directory then it moves it to a file or directory named dest:path.

This can be used to rename files or upload single files to other than their existing name. If the source is a directory then it acts exactly like the move command.

So

rclone moveto src dst

where src and dst are rclone paths, either remote:path or /path/to/local or C:.

This will:

if src is file
    move it to dst, overwriting an existing file if it exists
if src is directory
    move it to dst, overwriting existing files if they exist
    see move command for full details

This doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. src will be deleted on successful transfer.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics.

rclone moveto source:path dest:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for moveto

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Explore a remote with a text based user interface.

This displays a text based user interface allowing the navigation of a remote. It is most useful for answering the question - "What is using all my disk space?".

To make the user interface it first scans the entire remote given and builds an in memory representation. rclone ncdu can be used during this scanning phase and you will see it building up the directory structure as it goes along.

Here are the keys - press '?' to toggle the help on and off

↑,↓ or k,j to Move
→,l to enter
←,h to return
c toggle counts
g toggle graph
a toggle average size in directory
n,s,C,A sort by name,size,count,average size
d delete file/directory
y copy current path to clipboard
Y display current path
^L refresh screen
? to toggle help on and off
q/ESC/c-C to quit

This an homage to the ncdu tool (https://dev.yorhel.nl/ncdu) but for rclone remotes. It is missing lots of features at the moment but is useful as it stands.

Note that it might take some time to delete big files/folders. The UI won't respond in the meantime since the deletion is done synchronously.

rclone ncdu remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for ncdu

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Obscure password for use in the rclone config file.

In the rclone config file, human readable passwords are obscured. Obscuring them is done by encrypting them and writing them out in base64. This is not a secure way of encrypting these passwords as rclone can decrypt them - it is to prevent "eyedropping" - namely someone seeing a password in the rclone config file by accident.

Many equally important things (like access tokens) are not obscured in the config file. However it is very hard to shoulder surf a 64 character hex token.

This command can also accept a password through STDIN instead of an argument by passing a hyphen as an argument. This will use the first line of STDIN as the password not including the trailing newline.

echo "secretpassword" | rclone obscure -

If there is no data on STDIN to read, rclone obscure will default to obfuscating the hyphen itself.

If you want to encrypt the config file then please use config file encryption - see rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) for more info.

rclone obscure password [flags]

-h, --help   help for obscure

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Run a command against a running rclone.

This runs a command against a running rclone. Use the --url flag to specify an non default URL to connect on. This can be either a ":port" which is taken to mean "http://localhost:port" or a "host:port" which is taken to mean "http://host:port"

A username and password can be passed in with --user and --pass.

Note that --rc-addr, --rc-user, --rc-pass will be read also for --url, --user, --pass.

Arguments should be passed in as parameter=value.

The result will be returned as a JSON object by default.

The --json parameter can be used to pass in a JSON blob as an input instead of key=value arguments. This is the only way of passing in more complicated values.

The -o/--opt option can be used to set a key "opt" with key, value options in the form "-o key=value" or "-o key". It can be repeated as many times as required. This is useful for rc commands which take the "opt" parameter which by convention is a dictionary of strings.

-o key=value -o key2

Will place this in the "opt" value

{"key":"value", "key2","")

The -a/--arg option can be used to set strings in the "arg" value. It can be repeated as many times as required. This is useful for rc commands which take the "arg" parameter which by convention is a list of strings.

-a value -a value2

Will place this in the "arg" value

["value", "value2"]

Use --loopback to connect to the rclone instance running "rclone rc". This is very useful for testing commands without having to run an rclone rc server, e.g.:

rclone rc --loopback operations/about fs=/

Use "rclone rc" to see a list of all possible commands.

rclone rc commands parameter [flags]

-a, --arg stringArray   Argument placed in the "arg" array.
-h, --help              help for rc
    --json string       Input JSON - use instead of key=value args.
    --loopback          If set connect to this rclone instance not via HTTP.
    --no-output         If set, don't output the JSON result.
-o, --opt stringArray   Option in the form name=value or name placed in the "opt" array.
    --pass string       Password to use to connect to rclone remote control.
    --url string        URL to connect to rclone remote control. (default "http://localhost:5572/")
    --user string       Username to use to rclone remote control.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Copies standard input to file on remote.

rclone rcat reads from standard input (stdin) and copies it to a single remote file.
echo "hello world" | rclone rcat remote:path/to/file
ffmpeg - | rclone rcat remote:path/to/file

If the remote file already exists, it will be overwritten.

rcat will try to upload small files in a single request, which is usually more efficient than the streaming/chunked upload endpoints, which use multiple requests. Exact behaviour depends on the remote. What is considered a small file may be set through --streaming-upload-cutoff. Uploading only starts after the cutoff is reached or if the file ends before that. The data must fit into RAM. The cutoff needs to be small enough to adhere the limits of your remote, please see there. Generally speaking, setting this cutoff too high will decrease your performance.

Use the |--size| flag to preallocate the file in advance at the remote end and actually stream it, even if remote backend doesn't support streaming.

|--size| should be the exact size of the input stream in bytes. If the size of the stream is different in length to the |--size| passed in then the transfer will likely fail.

Note that the upload can also not be retried because the data is not kept around until the upload succeeds. If you need to transfer a lot of data, you're better off caching locally and then rclone move it to the destination.

rclone rcat remote:path [flags]

-h, --help       help for rcat
    --size int   File size hint to preallocate (default -1)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Run rclone listening to remote control commands only.

This runs rclone so that it only listens to remote control commands.

This is useful if you are controlling rclone via the rc API.

If you pass in a path to a directory, rclone will serve that directory for GET requests on the URL passed in. It will also open the URL in the browser when rclone is run.

See the rc documentation (https://rclone.org/rc/) for more info on the rc flags.

rclone rcd <path to files to serve>* [flags]

-h, --help   help for rcd

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Remove empty directories under the path.

This recursively removes any empty directories (including directories that only contain empty directories), that it finds under the path. The root path itself will also be removed if it is empty, unless you supply the --leave-root flag.

Use command rmdir to delete just the empty directory given by path, not recurse.

This is useful for tidying up remotes that rclone has left a lot of empty directories in. For example the delete command will delete files but leave the directory structure (unless used with option --rmdirs).

To delete a path and any objects in it, use purge command.

rclone rmdirs remote:path [flags]

-h, --help         help for rmdirs
    --leave-root   Do not remove root directory if empty

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Update the rclone binary.

This command downloads the latest release of rclone and replaces the currently running binary. The download is verified with a hashsum and cryptographically signed signature.

If used without flags (or with implied --stable flag), this command will install the latest stable release. However, some issues may be fixed (or features added) only in the latest beta release. In such cases you should run the command with the --beta flag, i.e. rclone selfupdate --beta. You can check in advance what version would be installed by adding the --check flag, then repeat the command without it when you are satisfied.

Sometimes the rclone team may recommend you a concrete beta or stable rclone release to troubleshoot your issue or add a bleeding edge feature. The --version VER flag, if given, will update to the concrete version instead of the latest one. If you omit micro version from VER (for example 1.53), the latest matching micro version will be used.

Upon successful update rclone will print a message that contains a previous version number. You will need it if you later decide to revert your update for some reason. Then you'll have to note the previous version and run the following command: rclone selfupdate [--beta] OLDVER. If the old version contains only dots and digits (for example v1.54.0) then it's a stable release so you won't need the --beta flag. Beta releases have an additional information similar to v1.54.0-beta.5111.06f1c0c61. (if you are a developer and use a locally built rclone, the version number will end with -DEV, you will have to rebuild it as it obviously can't be distributed).

If you previously installed rclone via a package manager, the package may include local documentation or configure services. You may wish to update with the flag --package deb or --package rpm (whichever is correct for your OS) to update these too. This command with the default --package zip will update only the rclone executable so the local manual may become inaccurate after it.

The rclone mount command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/) may or may not support extended FUSE options depending on the build and OS. selfupdate will refuse to update if the capability would be discarded.

Note: Windows forbids deletion of a currently running executable so this command will rename the old executable to 'rclone.old.exe' upon success.

Please note that this command was not available before rclone version 1.55. If it fails for you with the message unknown command "selfupdate" then you will need to update manually following the install instructions located at https://rclone.org/install/

rclone selfupdate [flags]

    --beta             Install beta release.
    --check            Check for latest release, do not download.
-h, --help             help for selfupdate
    --output string    Save the downloaded binary at a given path (default: replace running binary)
    --package string   Package format: zip|deb|rpm (default: zip)
    --stable           Install stable release (this is the default)
    --version string   Install the given rclone version (default: latest)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Serve a remote over a protocol.

rclone serve is used to serve a remote over a given protocol. This command requires the use of a subcommand to specify the protocol, e.g.
rclone serve http remote:

Each subcommand has its own options which you can see in their help.

rclone serve <protocol> [opts] <remote> [flags]

-h, --help   help for serve

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone serve dlna (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_dlna/) - Serve remote:path over DLNA
rclone serve docker (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_docker/) - Serve any remote on docker's volume plugin API.
rclone serve ftp (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_ftp/) - Serve remote:path over FTP.
rclone serve http (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_http/) - Serve the remote over HTTP.
rclone serve restic (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_restic/) - Serve the remote for restic's REST API.
rclone serve sftp (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_sftp/) - Serve the remote over SFTP.
rclone serve webdav (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_webdav/) - Serve remote:path over webdav.

Serve remote:path over DLNA

rclone serve dlna is a DLNA media server for media stored in an rclone remote. Many devices, such as the Xbox and PlayStation, can automatically discover this server in the LAN and play audio/video from it. VLC is also supported. Service discovery uses UDP multicast packets (SSDP) and will thus only work on LANs.

Rclone will list all files present in the remote, without filtering based on media formats or file extensions. Additionally, there is no media transcoding support. This means that some players might show files that they are not able to play back correctly.

Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs.

Use --name to choose the friendly server name, which is by default "rclone (hostname)".

Use --log-trace in conjunction with -vv to enable additional debug logging of all UPNP traffic.

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)

However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.
--read-only       Mount read-only.

When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")

Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used. If you need this information to be available when running df on the filesystem, then pass the flag --vfs-used-is-size to rclone. With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to rclone size and compute the total used space itself.

WARNING. Contrary to rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.

rclone serve dlna remote:path [flags]

    --addr string                            ip:port or :port to bind the DLNA http server to. (default ":7879")
    --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
    --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
    --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
    --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
-h, --help                                   help for dlna
    --log-trace                              enable trace logging of SOAP traffic
    --name string                            name of DLNA server
    --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
    --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
    --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
    --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
    --read-only                              Mount read-only.
    --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
    --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 2)
    --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
    --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
    --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
    --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
    --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
    --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix              Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full.
    --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128Mi)
    --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
    --vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
    --vfs-used-is-size rclone size           Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size.
    --vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
    --vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

Serve any remote on docker's volume plugin API.

This command implements the Docker volume plugin API allowing docker to use rclone as a data storage mechanism for various cloud providers. rclone provides docker volume plugin (/docker) based on it.

To create a docker plugin, one must create a Unix or TCP socket that Docker will look for when you use the plugin and then it listens for commands from docker daemon and runs the corresponding code when necessary. Docker plugins can run as a managed plugin under control of the docker daemon or as an independent native service. For testing, you can just run it directly from the command line, for example:

sudo rclone serve docker --base-dir /tmp/rclone-volumes --socket-addr localhost:8787 -vv

Running rclone serve docker will create the said socket, listening for commands from Docker to create the necessary Volumes. Normally you need not give the --socket-addr flag. The API will listen on the unix domain socket at /run/docker/plugins/rclone.sock. In the example above rclone will create a TCP socket and a small file /etc/docker/plugins/rclone.spec containing the socket address. We use sudo because both paths are writeable only by the root user.

If you later decide to change listening socket, the docker daemon must be restarted to reconnect to /run/docker/plugins/rclone.sock or parse new /etc/docker/plugins/rclone.spec. Until you restart, any volume related docker commands will timeout trying to access the old socket. Running directly is supported on Linux only, not on Windows or MacOS. This is not a problem with managed plugin mode described in details in the full documentation (https://rclone.org/docker).

The command will create volume mounts under the path given by --base-dir (by default /var/lib/docker-volumes/rclone available only to root) and maintain the JSON formatted file docker-plugin.state in the rclone cache directory with book-keeping records of created and mounted volumes.

All mount and VFS options are submitted by the docker daemon via API, but you can also provide defaults on the command line as well as set path to the config file and cache directory or adjust logging verbosity.

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)

However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.
--read-only       Mount read-only.

When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")

Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used. If you need this information to be available when running df on the filesystem, then pass the flag --vfs-used-is-size to rclone. With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to rclone size and compute the total used space itself.

WARNING. Contrary to rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.

rclone serve docker [flags]

    --allow-non-empty                        Allow mounting over a non-empty directory. Not supported on Windows.
    --allow-other                            Allow access to other users. Not supported on Windows.
    --allow-root                             Allow access to root user. Not supported on Windows.
    --async-read                             Use asynchronous reads. Not supported on Windows. (default true)
    --attr-timeout duration                  Time for which file/directory attributes are cached. (default 1s)
    --base-dir string                        base directory for volumes (default "/var/lib/docker-volumes/rclone")
    --daemon                                 Run mount as a daemon (background mode). Not supported on Windows.
    --daemon-timeout duration                Time limit for rclone to respond to kernel. Not supported on Windows.
    --debug-fuse                             Debug the FUSE internals - needs -v.
    --default-permissions                    Makes kernel enforce access control based on the file mode. Not supported on Windows.
    --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
    --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
    --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
    --forget-state                           skip restoring previous state
    --fuse-flag stringArray                  Flags or arguments to be passed direct to libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required.
    --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
-h, --help                                   help for docker
    --max-read-ahead SizeSuffix              The number of bytes that can be prefetched for sequential reads. Not supported on Windows. (default 128Ki)
    --network-mode                           Mount as remote network drive, instead of fixed disk drive. Supported on Windows only
    --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
    --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
    --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
    --no-spec                                do not write spec file
    --noappledouble                          Ignore Apple Double (._) and .DS_Store files. Supported on OSX only. (default true)
    --noapplexattr                           Ignore all "com.apple.*" extended attributes. Supported on OSX only.
-o, --option stringArray                     Option for libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required.
    --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
    --read-only                              Mount read-only.
    --socket-addr string                     <host:port> or absolute path (default: /run/docker/plugins/rclone.sock)
    --socket-gid int                         GID for unix socket (default: current process GID) (default 1000)
    --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
    --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 2)
    --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
    --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
    --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
    --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
    --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
    --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix              Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full.
    --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128Mi)
    --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
    --vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
    --vfs-used-is-size rclone size           Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size.
    --vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
    --vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)
    --volname string                         Set the volume name. Supported on Windows and OSX only.
    --write-back-cache                       Makes kernel buffer writes before sending them to rclone. Without this, writethrough caching is used. Not supported on Windows.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

Serve remote:path over FTP.

rclone serve ftp implements a basic ftp server to serve the remote over FTP protocol. This can be viewed with a ftp client or you can make a remote of type ftp to read and write it.

Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set --addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can set a single username and password with the --user and --pass flags.

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)

However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.
--read-only       Mount read-only.

When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")

Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used. If you need this information to be available when running df on the filesystem, then pass the flag --vfs-used-is-size to rclone. With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to rclone size and compute the total used space itself.

WARNING. Contrary to rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.

If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocol with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT.

PLEASE NOTE: --auth-proxy and --authorized-keys cannot be used together, if --auth-proxy is set the authorized keys option will be ignored.

There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code.

The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config.

This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend

And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure

If password authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword"
}

If public-key authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
    "user": "me",
    "public_key": "AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDuwESFdAe14hVS6omeyX7edc...JQdf"
}

And as an example return this on STDOUT

{
    "type": "sftp",
    "_root": "",
    "_obscure": "pass",
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword",
    "host": "sftp.example.com"
}

This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass/public_key returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends).

The program can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user@example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list.

Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass or public_key. This also means that if a user's password or public-key is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect.

This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports.

rclone serve ftp remote:path [flags]

    --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:2121")
    --auth-proxy string                      A program to use to create the backend from the auth.
    --cert string                            TLS PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
    --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
    --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
    --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
    --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
-h, --help                                   help for ftp
    --key string                             TLS PEM Private key
    --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
    --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
    --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
    --pass string                            Password for authentication. (empty value allow every password)
    --passive-port string                    Passive port range to use. (default "30000-32000")
    --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
    --public-ip string                       Public IP address to advertise for passive connections.
    --read-only                              Mount read-only.
    --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
    --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 2)
    --user string                            User name for authentication. (default "anonymous")
    --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
    --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
    --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
    --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
    --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
    --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix              Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full.
    --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128Mi)
    --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
    --vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
    --vfs-used-is-size rclone size           Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size.
    --vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
    --vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

Serve the remote over HTTP.

rclone serve http implements a basic web server to serve the remote over HTTP. This can be viewed in a web browser or you can make a remote of type http read from it.

You can use the filter flags (e.g. --include, --exclude) to control what is served.

The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs.

--bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use --stats to control the stats printing.

Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, eg --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set --addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

--server-read-timeout and --server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer.

--max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header.

--baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used --baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on --baseurl, so --baseurl "rclone", --baseurl "/rclone" and --baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically.

By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the --cert and --key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply --client-ca also.

--cert should be a either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. --key should be the PEM encoded private key and --client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate. --template allows a user to specify a custom markup template for http and webdav serve functions. The server exports the following markup to be used within the template to server pages:

Parameter Description
.Name The full path of a file/directory.
.Title Directory listing of .Name
.Sort The current sort used. This is changeable via ?sort= parameter
Sort Options: namedirfirst,name,size,time (default namedirfirst)
.Order The current ordering used. This is changeable via ?order= parameter
Order Options: asc,desc (default asc)
.Query Currently unused.
.Breadcrumb Allows for creating a relative navigation
-- .Link The relative to the root link of the Text.
-- .Text The Name of the directory.
.Entries Information about a specific file/directory.
-- .URL The 'url' of an entry.
-- .Leaf Currently same as 'URL' but intended to be 'just' the name.
-- .IsDir Boolean for if an entry is a directory or not.
-- .Size Size in Bytes of the entry.
-- .ModTime The UTC timestamp of an entry.

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the --user and --pass flags.

Use --htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended.

To create an htpasswd file:

touch htpasswd
htpasswd -B htpasswd user
htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser

The password file can be updated while rclone is running.

Use --realm to set the authentication realm.

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)

However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.
--read-only       Mount read-only.

When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")

Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used. If you need this information to be available when running df on the filesystem, then pass the flag --vfs-used-is-size to rclone. With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to rclone size and compute the total used space itself.

WARNING. Contrary to rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.

rclone serve http remote:path [flags]

    --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "127.0.0.1:8080")
    --baseurl string                         Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
    --cert string                            SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
    --client-ca string                       Client certificate authority to verify clients with
    --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
    --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
    --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
    --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
-h, --help                                   help for http
    --htpasswd string                        htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
    --key string                             SSL PEM Private key
    --max-header-bytes int                   Maximum size of request header (default 4096)
    --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
    --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
    --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
    --pass string                            Password for authentication.
    --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
    --read-only                              Mount read-only.
    --realm string                           realm for authentication
    --server-read-timeout duration           Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)
    --server-write-timeout duration          Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
    --template string                        User Specified Template.
    --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
    --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 2)
    --user string                            User name for authentication.
    --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
    --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
    --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
    --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
    --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
    --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix              Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full.
    --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128Mi)
    --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
    --vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
    --vfs-used-is-size rclone size           Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size.
    --vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
    --vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

Serve the remote for restic's REST API.

rclone serve restic implements restic's REST backend API over HTTP. This allows restic to use rclone as a data storage mechanism for cloud providers that restic does not support directly.

Restic (https://restic.net/) is a command line program for doing backups.

The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs.

--bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use --stats to control the stats printing.

First set up a remote for your chosen cloud provider (https://rclone.org/docs/#configure).

Once you have set up the remote, check it is working with, for example "rclone lsd remote:". You may have called the remote something other than "remote:" - just substitute whatever you called it in the following instructions.

Now start the rclone restic server

rclone serve restic -v remote:backup

Where you can replace "backup" in the above by whatever path in the remote you wish to use.

By default this will serve on "localhost:8080" you can change this with use of the "--addr" flag.

You might wish to start this server on boot.

Adding --cache-objects=false will cause rclone to stop caching objects returned from the List call. Caching is normally desirable as it speeds up downloading objects, saves transactions and uses very little memory.

Now you can follow the restic instructions (http://restic.readthedocs.io/en/latest/030_preparing_a_new_repo.html#rest-server) on setting up restic.

Note that you will need restic 0.8.2 or later to interoperate with rclone.

For the example above you will want to use "http://localhost:8080/" as the URL for the REST server.

For example:

$ export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/
$ export RESTIC_PASSWORD=yourpassword
$ restic init
created restic backend 8b1a4b56ae at rest:http://localhost:8080/
Please note that knowledge of your password is required to access
the repository. Losing your password means that your data is
irrecoverably lost.
$ restic backup /path/to/files/to/backup
scan [/path/to/files/to/backup]
scanned 189 directories, 312 files in 0:00
[0:00] 100.00%  38.128 MiB / 38.128 MiB  501 / 501 items  0 errors  ETA 0:00
duration: 0:00
snapshot 45c8fdd8 saved

Note that you can use the endpoint to host multiple repositories. Do this by adding a directory name or path after the URL. Note that these must end with /. Eg
$ export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/user1repo/
# backup user1 stuff
$ export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/user2repo/
# backup user2 stuff

The "--private-repos" flag can be used to limit users to repositories starting with a path of /<username>/.

Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set --addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

--server-read-timeout and --server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer.

--max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header.

--baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used --baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on --baseurl, so --baseurl "rclone", --baseurl "/rclone" and --baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically.

--template allows a user to specify a custom markup template for http and webdav serve functions. The server exports the following markup to be used within the template to server pages:

Parameter Description
.Name The full path of a file/directory.
.Title Directory listing of .Name
.Sort The current sort used. This is changeable via ?sort= parameter
Sort Options: namedirfirst,name,size,time (default namedirfirst)
.Order The current ordering used. This is changeable via ?order= parameter
Order Options: asc,desc (default asc)
.Query Currently unused.
.Breadcrumb Allows for creating a relative navigation
-- .Link The relative to the root link of the Text.
-- .Text The Name of the directory.
.Entries Information about a specific file/directory.
-- .URL The 'url' of an entry.
-- .Leaf Currently same as 'URL' but intended to be 'just' the name.
-- .IsDir Boolean for if an entry is a directory or not.
-- .Size Size in Bytes of the entry.
-- .ModTime The UTC timestamp of an entry.

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the --user and --pass flags.

Use --htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended.

To create an htpasswd file:

touch htpasswd
htpasswd -B htpasswd user
htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser

The password file can be updated while rclone is running.

Use --realm to set the authentication realm.

By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the --cert and --key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply --client-ca also.

--cert should be either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. --key should be the PEM encoded private key and --client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate.

rclone serve restic remote:path [flags]

    --addr string                     IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:8080")
    --append-only                     disallow deletion of repository data
    --baseurl string                  Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
    --cache-objects                   cache listed objects (default true)
    --cert string                     SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
    --client-ca string                Client certificate authority to verify clients with
-h, --help                            help for restic
    --htpasswd string                 htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
    --key string                      SSL PEM Private key
    --max-header-bytes int            Maximum size of request header (default 4096)
    --pass string                     Password for authentication.
    --private-repos                   users can only access their private repo
    --realm string                    realm for authentication (default "rclone")
    --server-read-timeout duration    Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)
    --server-write-timeout duration   Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
    --stdio                           run an HTTP2 server on stdin/stdout
    --template string                 User Specified Template.
    --user string                     User name for authentication.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

Serve the remote over SFTP.

rclone serve sftp implements an SFTP server to serve the remote over SFTP. This can be used with an SFTP client or you can make a remote of type sftp to use with it.

You can use the filter flags (e.g. --include, --exclude) to control what is served.

The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs.

--bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use --stats to control the stats printing.

You must provide some means of authentication, either with --user/--pass, an authorized keys file (specify location with --authorized-keys - the default is the same as ssh), an --auth-proxy, or set the --no-auth flag for no authentication when logging in.

Note that this also implements a small number of shell commands so that it can provide md5sum/sha1sum/df information for the rclone sftp backend. This means that is can support SHA1SUMs, MD5SUMs and the about command when paired with the rclone sftp backend.

If you don't supply a --key then rclone will generate one and cache it for later use.

By default the server binds to localhost:2022 - if you want it to be reachable externally then supply "--addr :2022" for example.

Note that the default of "--vfs-cache-mode off" is fine for the rclone sftp backend, but it may not be with other SFTP clients.

If --stdio is specified, rclone will serve SFTP over stdio, which can be used with sshd via ~/.ssh/authorized_keys, for example:

restrict,command="rclone serve sftp --stdio ./photos" ssh-rsa ...

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)

However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.
--read-only       Mount read-only.

When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")

Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used. If you need this information to be available when running df on the filesystem, then pass the flag --vfs-used-is-size to rclone. With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to rclone size and compute the total used space itself.

WARNING. Contrary to rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.

If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocol with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT.

PLEASE NOTE: --auth-proxy and --authorized-keys cannot be used together, if --auth-proxy is set the authorized keys option will be ignored.

There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code.

The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config.

This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend

And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure

If password authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword"
}

If public-key authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
    "user": "me",
    "public_key": "AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDuwESFdAe14hVS6omeyX7edc...JQdf"
}

And as an example return this on STDOUT

{
    "type": "sftp",
    "_root": "",
    "_obscure": "pass",
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword",
    "host": "sftp.example.com"
}

This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass/public_key returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends).

The program can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user@example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list.

Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass or public_key. This also means that if a user's password or public-key is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect.

This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports.

rclone serve sftp remote:path [flags]

    --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:2022")
    --auth-proxy string                      A program to use to create the backend from the auth.
    --authorized-keys string                 Authorized keys file (default "~/.ssh/authorized_keys")
    --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
    --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
    --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
    --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
-h, --help                                   help for sftp
    --key stringArray                        SSH private host key file (Can be multi-valued, leave blank to auto generate)
    --no-auth                                Allow connections with no authentication if set.
    --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
    --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
    --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
    --pass string                            Password for authentication.
    --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
    --read-only                              Mount read-only.
    --stdio                                  Run an sftp server on run stdin/stdout
    --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
    --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 2)
    --user string                            User name for authentication.
    --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
    --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
    --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
    --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
    --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
    --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix              Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full.
    --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128Mi)
    --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
    --vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
    --vfs-used-is-size rclone size           Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size.
    --vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
    --vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

Serve remote:path over webdav.

rclone serve webdav implements a basic webdav server to serve the remote over HTTP via the webdav protocol. This can be viewed with a webdav client, through a web browser, or you can make a remote of type webdav to read and write it.

This controls the ETag header. Without this flag the ETag will be based on the ModTime and Size of the object.

If this flag is set to "auto" then rclone will choose the first supported hash on the backend or you can use a named hash such as "MD5" or "SHA-1".

Use "rclone hashsum" to see the full list.

Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set --addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

--server-read-timeout and --server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer.

--max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header.

--baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used --baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on --baseurl, so --baseurl "rclone", --baseurl "/rclone" and --baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically.

--template allows a user to specify a custom markup template for http and webdav serve functions. The server exports the following markup to be used within the template to server pages:

Parameter Description
.Name The full path of a file/directory.
.Title Directory listing of .Name
.Sort The current sort used. This is changeable via ?sort= parameter
Sort Options: namedirfirst,name,size,time (default namedirfirst)
.Order The current ordering used. This is changeable via ?order= parameter
Order Options: asc,desc (default asc)
.Query Currently unused.
.Breadcrumb Allows for creating a relative navigation
-- .Link The relative to the root link of the Text.
-- .Text The Name of the directory.
.Entries Information about a specific file/directory.
-- .URL The 'url' of an entry.
-- .Leaf Currently same as 'URL' but intended to be 'just' the name.
-- .IsDir Boolean for if an entry is a directory or not.
-- .Size Size in Bytes of the entry.
-- .ModTime The UTC timestamp of an entry.

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the --user and --pass flags.

Use --htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended.

To create an htpasswd file:

touch htpasswd
htpasswd -B htpasswd user
htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser

The password file can be updated while rclone is running.

Use --realm to set the authentication realm.

By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the --cert and --key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply --client-ca also.

--cert should be either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. --key should be the PEM encoded private key and --client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate.

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)

However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.
--read-only       Mount read-only.

When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")

Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used. If you need this information to be available when running df on the filesystem, then pass the flag --vfs-used-is-size to rclone. With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to rclone size and compute the total used space itself.

WARNING. Contrary to rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.

If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocol with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT.

PLEASE NOTE: --auth-proxy and --authorized-keys cannot be used together, if --auth-proxy is set the authorized keys option will be ignored.

There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code.

The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config.

This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend

And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure

If password authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword"
}

If public-key authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
    "user": "me",
    "public_key": "AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDuwESFdAe14hVS6omeyX7edc...JQdf"
}

And as an example return this on STDOUT

{
    "type": "sftp",
    "_root": "",
    "_obscure": "pass",
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword",
    "host": "sftp.example.com"
}

This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass/public_key returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends).

The program can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user@example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list.

Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass or public_key. This also means that if a user's password or public-key is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect.

This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports.

rclone serve webdav remote:path [flags]

    --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:8080")
    --auth-proxy string                      A program to use to create the backend from the auth.
    --baseurl string                         Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
    --cert string                            SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
    --client-ca string                       Client certificate authority to verify clients with
    --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
    --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
    --disable-dir-list                       Disable HTML directory list on GET request for a directory
    --etag-hash string                       Which hash to use for the ETag, or auto or blank for off
    --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
    --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
-h, --help                                   help for webdav
    --htpasswd string                        htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
    --key string                             SSL PEM Private key
    --max-header-bytes int                   Maximum size of request header (default 4096)
    --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
    --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
    --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
    --pass string                            Password for authentication.
    --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
    --read-only                              Mount read-only.
    --realm string                           realm for authentication (default "rclone")
    --server-read-timeout duration           Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)
    --server-write-timeout duration          Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
    --template string                        User Specified Template.
    --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000)
    --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 2)
    --user string                            User name for authentication.
    --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
    --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
    --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
    --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
    --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
    --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix              Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full.
    --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128Mi)
    --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
    --vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
    --vfs-used-is-size rclone size           Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size.
    --vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
    --vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

Changes storage class/tier of objects in remote.

rclone settier changes storage tier or class at remote if supported. Few cloud storage services provides different storage classes on objects, for example AWS S3 and Glacier, Azure Blob storage - Hot, Cool and Archive, Google Cloud Storage, Regional Storage, Nearline, Coldline etc.

Note that, certain tier changes make objects not available to access immediately. For example tiering to archive in azure blob storage makes objects in frozen state, user can restore by setting tier to Hot/Cool, similarly S3 to Glacier makes object inaccessible.true

You can use it to tier single object

rclone settier Cool remote:path/file

Or use rclone filters to set tier on only specific files

rclone --include "*.txt" settier Hot remote:path/dir

Or just provide remote directory and all files in directory will be tiered

rclone settier tier remote:path/dir

rclone settier tier remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for settier

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Run a test command

Rclone test is used to run test commands.

Select which test comand you want with the subcommand, eg

rclone test memory remote:

Each subcommand has its own options which you can see in their help.

NB Be careful running these commands, they may do strange things so reading their documentation first is recommended.

-h, --help   help for test

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone test changenotify (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test_changenotify/) - Log any change notify requests for the remote passed in.
rclone test histogram (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test_histogram/) - Makes a histogram of file name characters.
rclone test info (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test_info/) - Discovers file name or other limitations for paths.
rclone test makefiles (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test_makefiles/) - Make a random file hierarchy in a directory
rclone test memory (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test_memory/) - Load all the objects at remote:path into memory and report memory stats.

Log any change notify requests for the remote passed in.
rclone test changenotify remote: [flags]

-h, --help                     help for changenotify
    --poll-interval duration   Time to wait between polling for changes. (default 10s)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone test (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test/) - Run a test command

Makes a histogram of file name characters.

This command outputs JSON which shows the histogram of characters used in filenames in the remote:path specified.

The data doesn't contain any identifying information but is useful for the rclone developers when developing filename compression.

rclone test histogram [remote:path] [flags]

-h, --help   help for histogram

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone test (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test/) - Run a test command

Discovers file name or other limitations for paths.

rclone info discovers what filenames and upload methods are possible to write to the paths passed in and how long they can be. It can take some time. It will write test files into the remote:path passed in. It outputs a bit of go code for each one.

NB this can create undeletable files and other hazards - use with care

rclone test info [remote:path]+ [flags]

    --all                    Run all tests.
    --check-control          Check control characters.
    --check-length           Check max filename length.
    --check-normalization    Check UTF-8 Normalization.
    --check-streaming        Check uploads with indeterminate file size.
-h, --help                   help for info
    --upload-wait duration   Wait after writing a file.
    --write-json string      Write results to file.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone test (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test/) - Run a test command

Make a random file hierarchy in a directory
rclone test makefiles <dir> [flags]

    --files int                  Number of files to create (default 1000)
    --files-per-directory int    Average number of files per directory (default 10)
-h, --help                       help for makefiles
    --max-file-size SizeSuffix   Maximum size of files to create (default 100)
    --max-name-length int        Maximum size of file names (default 12)
    --min-file-size SizeSuffix   Minimum size of file to create
    --min-name-length int        Minimum size of file names (default 4)
    --seed int                   Seed for the random number generator (0 for random) (default 1)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone test (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test/) - Run a test command

Load all the objects at remote:path into memory and report memory stats.
rclone test memory remote:path [flags]

-h, --help   help for memory

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone test (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_test/) - Run a test command

Create new file or change file modification time.

Set the modification time on object(s) as specified by remote:path to have the current time.

If remote:path does not exist then a zero sized object will be created unless the --no-create flag is provided.

If --timestamp is used then it will set the modification time to that time instead of the current time. Times may be specified as one of:

'YYMMDD' - e.g. 17.10.30
'YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS' - e.g. 2006-01-02T15:04:05
'YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS.SSS' - e.g. 2006-01-02T15:04:05.123456789

Note that --timestamp is in UTC if you want local time then add the --localtime flag.

rclone touch remote:path [flags]

-h, --help               help for touch
    --localtime          Use localtime for timestamp, not UTC.
-C, --no-create          Do not create the file if it does not exist.
-t, --timestamp string   Use specified time instead of the current time of day.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

List the contents of the remote in a tree like fashion.

rclone tree lists the contents of a remote in a similar way to the unix tree command.

For example

$ rclone tree remote:path
/
├── file1
├── file2
├── file3
└── subdir
    ├── file4
    └── file5
1 directories, 5 files

You can use any of the filtering options with the tree command (e.g. --include and --exclude). You can also use --fast-list.

The tree command has many options for controlling the listing which are compatible with the tree command. Note that not all of them have short options as they conflict with rclone's short options.

rclone tree remote:path [flags]

-a, --all             All files are listed (list . files too).
-C, --color           Turn colorization on always.
-d, --dirs-only       List directories only.
    --dirsfirst       List directories before files (-U disables).
    --full-path       Print the full path prefix for each file.
-h, --help            help for tree
    --human           Print the size in a more human readable way.
    --level int       Descend only level directories deep.
-D, --modtime         Print the date of last modification.
    --noindent        Don't print indentation lines.
    --noreport        Turn off file/directory count at end of tree listing.
-o, --output string   Output to file instead of stdout.
-p, --protections     Print the protections for each file.
-Q, --quote           Quote filenames with double quotes.
-s, --size            Print the size in bytes of each file.
    --sort string     Select sort: name,version,size,mtime,ctime.
    --sort-ctime      Sort files by last status change time.
-t, --sort-modtime    Sort files by last modification time.
-r, --sort-reverse    Reverse the order of the sort.
-U, --unsorted        Leave files unsorted.
    --version         Sort files alphanumerically by version.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone normally syncs or copies directories. However, if the source remote points to a file, rclone will just copy that file. The destination remote must point to a directory - rclone will give the error Failed to create file system for "remote:file": is a file not a directory if it isn't.

For example, suppose you have a remote with a file in called test.jpg, then you could copy just that file like this

rclone copy remote:test.jpg /tmp/download

The file test.jpg will be placed inside /tmp/download.

This is equivalent to specifying

rclone copy --files-from /tmp/files remote: /tmp/download

Where /tmp/files contains the single line

test.jpg

It is recommended to use copy when copying individual files, not sync. They have pretty much the same effect but copy will use a lot less memory.

The syntax of the paths passed to the rclone command are as follows.

This refers to the local file system.

On Windows \ may be used instead of / in local paths only, non local paths must use /. See local filesystem (https://rclone.org/local/#paths-on-windows) documentation for more about Windows-specific paths.

These paths needn't start with a leading / - if they don't then they will be relative to the current directory.

This refers to a directory path/to/dir on remote: as defined in the config file (configured with rclone config).

On most backends this is refers to the same directory as remote:path/to/dir and that format should be preferred. On a very small number of remotes (FTP, SFTP, Dropbox for business) this will refer to a different directory. On these, paths without a leading / will refer to your "home" directory and paths with a leading / will refer to the root.

This is an advanced form for creating remotes on the fly. backend should be the name or prefix of a backend (the type in the config file) and all the configuration for the backend should be provided on the command line (or in environment variables).

Here are some examples:

rclone lsd --http-url https://pub.rclone.org :http:

To list all the directories in the root of https://pub.rclone.org/.

rclone lsf --http-url https://example.com :http:path/to/dir

To list files and directories in https://example.com/path/to/dir/

rclone copy --http-url https://example.com :http:path/to/dir /tmp/dir

To copy files and directories in https://example.com/path/to/dir to /tmp/dir.

rclone copy --sftp-host example.com :sftp:path/to/dir /tmp/dir

To copy files and directories from example.com in the relative directory path/to/dir to /tmp/dir using sftp.

The above examples can also be written using a connection string syntax, so instead of providing the arguments as command line parameters --http-url https://pub.rclone.org they are provided as part of the remote specification as a kind of connection string.
rclone lsd ":http,url='https://pub.rclone.org':"
rclone lsf ":http,url='https://example.com':path/to/dir"
rclone copy ":http,url='https://example.com':path/to/dir" /tmp/dir
rclone copy :sftp,host=example.com:path/to/dir /tmp/dir

These can apply to modify existing remotes as well as create new remotes with the on the fly syntax. This example is equivalent to adding the --drive-shared-with-me parameter to the remote gdrive:.

rclone lsf "gdrive,shared_with_me:path/to/dir"

The major advantage to using the connection string style syntax is that it only applies to the remote, not to all the remotes of that type of the command line. A common confusion is this attempt to copy a file shared on google drive to the normal drive which does not work because the --drive-shared-with-me flag applies to both the source and the destination.

rclone copy --drive-shared-with-me gdrive:shared-file.txt gdrive:

However using the connection string syntax, this does work.

rclone copy "gdrive,shared_with_me:shared-file.txt" gdrive:

Note that the connection string only affects the options of the immediate backend. If for example gdriveCrypt is a crypt based on gdrive, then the following command will not work as intended, because shared_with_me is ignored by the crypt backend:

rclone copy "gdriveCrypt,shared_with_me:shared-file.txt" gdriveCrypt:

The connection strings have the following syntax

remote,parameter=value,parameter2=value2:path/to/dir
:backend,parameter=value,parameter2=value2:path/to/dir

If the parameter has a : or , then it must be placed in quotes " or ', so

remote,parameter="colon:value",parameter2="comma,value":path/to/dir
:backend,parameter='colon:value',parameter2='comma,value':path/to/dir

If a quoted value needs to include that quote, then it should be doubled, so

remote,parameter="with""quote",parameter2='with''quote':path/to/dir

This will make parameter be with"quote and parameter2 be with'quote.

If you leave off the =parameter then rclone will substitute =true which works very well with flags. For example to use s3 configured in the environment you could use:

rclone lsd :s3,env_auth:

Which is equivalent to

rclone lsd :s3,env_auth=true:

Note that on the command line you might need to surround these connection strings with " or ' to stop the shell interpreting any special characters within them.

If you are a shell master then you'll know which strings are OK and which aren't, but if you aren't sure then enclose them in " and use ' as the inside quote. This syntax works on all OSes.

rclone copy ":http,url='https://example.com':path/to/dir" /tmp/dir

On Linux/macOS some characters are still interpreted inside " strings in the shell (notably \ and $ and ") so if your strings contain those you can swap the roles of " and ' thus. (This syntax does not work on Windows.)

rclone copy ':http,url="https://example.com":path/to/dir' /tmp/dir

If you supply extra configuration to a backend by command line flag, environment variable or connection string then rclone will add a suffix based on the hash of the config to the name of the remote, eg
rclone -vv lsf --s3-chunk-size 20M s3:

Has the log message

DEBUG : s3: detected overridden config - adding "{Srj1p}" suffix to name

This is so rclone can tell the modified remote apart from the unmodified remote when caching the backends.

This should only be noticeable in the logs.

This means that on the fly backends such as

rclone -vv lsf :s3,env_auth:

Will get their own names

DEBUG : :s3: detected overridden config - adding "{YTu53}" suffix to name

Remote names may only contain 0-9, A-Z ,a-z ,_ , - and space.
Remote names may not start with -.

When you are typing commands to your computer you are using something called the command line shell. This interprets various characters in an OS specific way.

Here are some gotchas which may help users unfamiliar with the shell rules

If your names have spaces or shell metacharacters (e.g. *, ?, $, ', ", etc.) then you must quote them. Use single quotes ' by default.
rclone copy 'Important files?' remote:backup

If you want to send a ' you will need to use ", e.g.

rclone copy "O'Reilly Reviews" remote:backup

The rules for quoting metacharacters are complicated and if you want the full details you'll have to consult the manual page for your shell.

If your names have spaces in you need to put them in ", e.g.
rclone copy "E:\folder name\folder name\folder name" remote:backup

If you are using the root directory on its own then don't quote it (see #464 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/464) for why), e.g.

rclone copy E:\ remote:backup

rclone uses : to mark a remote name. This is, however, a valid filename component in non-Windows OSes. The remote name parser will only search for a : up to the first / so if you need to act on a file or directory like this then use the full path starting with a /, or use ./ as a current directory prefix.

So to sync a directory called sync:me to a remote called remote: use

rclone sync -i ./sync:me remote:path

or

rclone sync -i /full/path/to/sync:me remote:path

Most remotes (but not all - see the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features)) support server-side copy.

This means if you want to copy one folder to another then rclone won't download all the files and re-upload them; it will instruct the server to copy them in place.

Eg

rclone copy s3:oldbucket s3:newbucket

Will copy the contents of oldbucket to newbucket without downloading and re-uploading.

Remotes which don't support server-side copy will download and re-upload in this case.

Server side copies are used with sync and copy and will be identified in the log when using the -v flag. The move command may also use them if remote doesn't support server-side move directly. This is done by issuing a server-side copy then a delete which is much quicker than a download and re-upload.

Server side copies will only be attempted if the remote names are the same.

This can be used when scripting to make aged backups efficiently, e.g.

rclone sync -i remote:current-backup remote:previous-backup
rclone sync -i /path/to/files remote:current-backup

Rclone has a number of options to control its behaviour.

Options that take parameters can have the values passed in two ways, --option=value or --option value. However boolean (true/false) options behave slightly differently to the other options in that --boolean sets the option to true and the absence of the flag sets it to false. It is also possible to specify --boolean=false or --boolean=true. Note that --boolean false is not valid - this is parsed as --boolean and the false is parsed as an extra command line argument for rclone.

Options which use TIME use the go time parser. A duration string is a possibly signed sequence of decimal numbers, each with optional fraction and a unit suffix, such as "300ms", "-1.5h" or "2h45m". Valid time units are "ns", "us" (or "µs"), "ms", "s", "m", "h".

Options which use SIZE use KiByte (multiples of 1024 bytes) by default. However, a suffix of B for Byte, K for KiByte, M for MiByte, G for GiByte, T for TiByte and P for PiByte may be used. These are the binary units, e.g. 1, 2**10, 2**20, 2**30 respectively.

When using sync, copy or move any files which would have been overwritten or deleted are moved in their original hierarchy into this directory.

If --suffix is set, then the moved files will have the suffix added to them. If there is a file with the same path (after the suffix has been added) in DIR, then it will be overwritten.

The remote in use must support server-side move or copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The backup directory must not overlap the destination directory.

For example

rclone sync -i /path/to/local remote:current --backup-dir remote:old

will sync /path/to/local to remote:current, but for any files which would have been updated or deleted will be stored in remote:old.

If running rclone from a script you might want to use today's date as the directory name passed to --backup-dir to store the old files, or you might want to pass --suffix with today's date.

See --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

Local address to bind to for outgoing connections. This can be an IPv4 address (1.2.3.4), an IPv6 address (1234::789A) or host name. If the host name doesn't resolve or resolves to more than one IP address it will give an error.

This option controls the bandwidth limit. For example
--bwlimit 10M

would mean limit the upload and download bandwidth to 10 MiByte/s. NB this is bytes per second not bits per second. To use a single limit, specify the desired bandwidth in KiByte/s, or use a suffix B|K|M|G|T|P. The default is 0 which means to not limit bandwidth.

The upload and download bandwidth can be specified seperately, as --bwlimit UP:DOWN, so

--bwlimit 10M:100k

would mean limit the upload bandwidth to 10 MiByte/s and the download bandwidth to 100 KiByte/s. Either limit can be "off" meaning no limit, so to just limit the upload bandwidth you would use

--bwlimit 10M:off

this would limit the upload bandwidth to 10 MiByte/s but the download bandwidth would be unlimited.

When specified as above the bandwidth limits last for the duration of run of the rclone binary.

It is also possible to specify a "timetable" of limits, which will cause certain limits to be applied at certain times. To specify a timetable, format your entries as WEEKDAY-HH:MM,BANDWIDTH WEEKDAY-HH:MM,BANDWIDTH... where: WEEKDAY is optional element.

BANDWIDTH can be a single number, e.g.100k or a pair of numbers for upload:download, e.g.10M:1M.
WEEKDAY can be written as the whole word or only using the first 3 characters. It is optional.
HH:MM is an hour from 00:00 to 23:59.

An example of a typical timetable to avoid link saturation during daytime working hours could be:

--bwlimit "08:00,512k 12:00,10M 13:00,512k 18:00,30M 23:00,off"

In this example, the transfer bandwidth will be set to 512 KiByte/s at 8am every day. At noon, it will rise to 10 MiByte/s, and drop back to 512 KiByte/sec at 1pm. At 6pm, the bandwidth limit will be set to 30 MiByte/s, and at 11pm it will be completely disabled (full speed). Anything between 11pm and 8am will remain unlimited.

An example of timetable with WEEKDAY could be:

--bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512 Fri-23:59,10M Sat-10:00,1M Sun-20:00,off"

It means that, the transfer bandwidth will be set to 512 KiByte/s on Monday. It will rise to 10 MiByte/s before the end of Friday. At 10:00 on Saturday it will be set to 1 MiByte/s. From 20:00 on Sunday it will be unlimited.

Timeslots without WEEKDAY are extended to the whole week. So this example:

--bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512 12:00,1M Sun-20:00,off"

Is equivalent to this:

--bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512Mon-12:00,1M Tue-12:00,1M Wed-12:00,1M Thu-12:00,1M Fri-12:00,1M Sat-12:00,1M Sun-12:00,1M Sun-20:00,off"

Bandwidth limit apply to the data transfer for all backends. For most backends the directory listing bandwidth is also included (exceptions being the non HTTP backends, ftp, sftp and tardigrade).

Note that the units are Byte/s, not bit/s. Typically connections are measured in bit/s - to convert divide by 8. For example, let's say you have a 10 Mbit/s connection and you wish rclone to use half of it - 5 Mbit/s. This is 5/8 = 0.625 MiByte/s so you would use a --bwlimit 0.625M parameter for rclone.

On Unix systems (Linux, macOS, ...) the bandwidth limiter can be toggled by sending a SIGUSR2 signal to rclone. This allows to remove the limitations of a long running rclone transfer and to restore it back to the value specified with --bwlimit quickly when needed. Assuming there is only one rclone instance running, you can toggle the limiter like this:

kill -SIGUSR2 $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use change the bwlimit dynamically:

rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=1M

This option controls per file bandwidth limit. For the options see the --bwlimit flag.

For example use this to allow no transfers to be faster than 1 MiByte/s

--bwlimit-file 1M

This can be used in conjunction with --bwlimit.

Note that if a schedule is provided the file will use the schedule in effect at the start of the transfer.

Use this sized buffer to speed up file transfers. Each --transfer will use this much memory for buffering.

When using mount or cmount each open file descriptor will use this much memory for buffering. See the mount (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/#file-buffering) documentation for more details.

Set to 0 to disable the buffering for the minimum memory usage.

Note that the memory allocation of the buffers is influenced by the --use-mmap flag.

If this flag is set then in a sync, copy or move, rclone will do all the checks to see whether files need to be transferred before doing any of the transfers. Normally rclone would start running transfers as soon as possible.

This flag can be useful on IO limited systems where transfers interfere with checking.

It can also be useful to ensure perfect ordering when using --order-by.

Using this flag can use more memory as it effectively sets --max-backlog to infinite. This means that all the info on the objects to transfer is held in memory before the transfers start.

The number of checkers to run in parallel. Checkers do the equality checking of files during a sync. For some storage systems (e.g. S3, Swift, Dropbox) this can take a significant amount of time so they are run in parallel.

The default is to run 8 checkers in parallel.

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check the file hash and size to determine if files are equal.

This is useful when the remote doesn't support setting modified time and a more accurate sync is desired than just checking the file size.

This is very useful when transferring between remotes which store the same hash type on the object, e.g. Drive and Swift. For details of which remotes support which hash type see the table in the overview section (https://rclone.org/overview/).

Eg rclone --checksum sync s3:/bucket swift:/bucket would run much quicker than without the --checksum flag.

When using this flag, rclone won't update mtimes of remote files if they are incorrect as it would normally.

When using sync, copy or move DIR is checked in addition to the destination for files. If a file identical to the source is found that file is NOT copied from source. This is useful to copy just files that have changed since the last backup.

You must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The compare directory must not overlap the destination directory.

See --copy-dest and --backup-dir.

Specify the location of the rclone configuration file, to override the default. E.g. rclone config --config="rclone.conf".

The exact default is a bit complex to describe, due to changes introduced through different versions of rclone while preserving backwards compatibility, but in most cases it is as simple as:

%APPDATA%/rclone/rclone.conf on Windows
~/.config/rclone/rclone.conf on other

The complete logic is as follows: Rclone will look for an existing configuration file in any of the following locations, in priority order:

1.
rclone.conf (in program directory, where rclone executable is)
2.
%APPDATA%/rclone/rclone.conf (only on Windows)
3.
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/rclone/rclone.conf (on all systems, including Windows)
4.
~/.config/rclone/rclone.conf (see below for explanation of ~ symbol)
5.
~/.rclone.conf

If no existing configuration file is found, then a new one will be created in the following location:

On Windows: Location 2 listed above, except in the unlikely event that APPDATA is not defined, then location 4 is used instead.
On Unix: Location 3 if XDG_CONFIG_HOME is defined, else location 4.
Fallback to location 5 (on all OS), when the rclone directory cannot be created, but if also a home directory was not found then path .rclone.conf relative to current working directory will be used as a final resort.

The ~ symbol in paths above represent the home directory of the current user on any OS, and the value is defined as following:

On Windows: %HOME% if defined, else %USERPROFILE%, or else %HOMEDRIVE%\%HOMEPATH%.
On Unix: $HOME if defined, else by looking up current user in OS-specific user database (e.g. passwd file), or else use the result from shell command cd && pwd.

If you run rclone config file you will see where the default location is for you.

The fact that an existing file rclone.conf in the same directory as the rclone executable is always preferred, means that it is easy to run in "portable" mode by downloading rclone executable to a writable directory and then create an empty file rclone.conf in the same directory.

If the location is set to empty string "" or path to a file with name notfound, or the os null device represented by value NUL on Windows and /dev/null on Unix systems, then rclone will keep the config file in memory only.

The file format is basic INI (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INI_file#Format): Sections of text, led by a [section] header and followed by key=value entries on separate lines. In rclone each remote is represented by its own section, where the section name defines the name of the remote. Options are specified as the key=value entries, where the key is the option name without the --backend- prefix, in lowercase and with _ instead of -. E.g. option --mega-hard-delete corresponds to key hard_delete. Only backend options can be specified. A special, and required, key type identifies the storage system (https://rclone.org/overview/), where the value is the internal lowercase name as returned by command rclone help backends. Comments are indicated by ; or # at the beginning of a line.

Example:

[megaremote]
type = mega
user = you@example.com
pass = PDPcQVVjVtzFY-GTdDFozqBhTdsPg3qH

Note that passwords are in obscured (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_obscure/) form. Also, many storage systems uses token-based authentication instead of passwords, and this requires additional steps. It is easier, and safer, to use the interactive command rclone config instead of manually editing the configuration file.

The configuration file will typically contain login information, and should therefore have restricted permissions so that only the current user can read it. Rclone tries to ensure this when it writes the file. You may also choose to encrypt the file.

When token-based authentication are used, the configuration file must be writable, because rclone needs to update the tokens inside it.

Set the connection timeout. This should be in go time format which looks like 5s for 5 seconds, 10m for 10 minutes, or 3h30m.

The connection timeout is the amount of time rclone will wait for a connection to go through to a remote object storage system. It is 1m by default.

When using sync, copy or move DIR is checked in addition to the destination for files. If a file identical to the source is found that file is server-side copied from DIR to the destination. This is useful for incremental backup.

The remote in use must support server-side copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The compare directory must not overlap the destination directory.

See --compare-dest and --backup-dir.

Mode to run dedupe command in. One of interactive, skip, first, newest, oldest, rename. The default is interactive. See the dedupe command for more information as to what these options mean.

This disables a comma separated list of optional features. For example to disable server-side move and server-side copy use:
--disable move,copy

The features can be put in any case.

To see a list of which features can be disabled use:

--disable help

See the overview features (https://rclone.org/overview/#features) and optional features (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) to get an idea of which feature does what.

This flag can be useful for debugging and in exceptional circumstances (e.g. Google Drive limiting the total volume of Server Side Copies to 100 GiB/day).

Specify a DSCP value or name to use in connections. This could help QoS system to identify traffic class. BE, EF, DF, LE, CSx and AFxx are allowed.

See the description of differentiated services (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiated_services) to get an idea of this field. Setting this to 1 (LE) to identify the flow to SCAVENGER class can avoid occupying too much bandwidth in a network with DiffServ support (RFC 8622 (https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8622)).

For example, if you configured QoS on router to handle LE properly. Running:

rclone copy --dscp LE from:/from to:/to

would make the priority lower than usual internet flows.

This option has no effect on Windows (see golang/go#42728 (https://github.com/golang/go/issues/42728)).

Do a trial run with no permanent changes. Use this to see what rclone would do without actually doing it. Useful when setting up the sync command which deletes files in the destination.

This specifies the amount of time to wait for a server's first response headers after fully writing the request headers if the request has an "Expect: 100-continue" header. Not all backends support using this.

Zero means no timeout and causes the body to be sent immediately, without waiting for the server to approve. This time does not include the time to send the request header.

The default is 1s. Set to 0 to disable.

By default, rclone will exit with return code 0 if there were no errors.

This option allows rclone to return exit code 9 if no files were transferred between the source and destination. This allows using rclone in scripts, and triggering follow-on actions if data was copied, or skipping if not.

NB: Enabling this option turns a usually non-fatal error into a potentially fatal one - please check and adjust your scripts accordingly!

When using rclone via the API rclone caches created remotes for 5 minutes by default in the "fs cache". This means that if you do repeated actions on the same remote then rclone won't have to build it again from scratch, which makes it more efficient.

This flag sets the time that the remotes are cached for. If you set it to 0 (or negative) then rclone won't cache the remotes at all.

Note that if you use some flags, eg --backup-dir and if this is set to 0 rclone may build two remotes (one for the source or destination and one for the --backup-dir where it may have only built one before.

This controls how often rclone checks for cached remotes to expire. See the --fs-cache-expire-duration documentation above for more info. The default is 60s, set to 0 to disable expiry.

Add an HTTP header for all transactions. The flag can be repeated to add multiple headers.

If you want to add headers only for uploads use --header-upload and if you want to add headers only for downloads use --header-download.

This flag is supported for all HTTP based backends even those not supported by --header-upload and --header-download so may be used as a workaround for those with care.

rclone ls remote:test --header "X-Rclone: Foo" --header "X-LetMeIn: Yes"

Add an HTTP header for all download transactions. The flag can be repeated to add multiple headers.
rclone sync -i s3:test/src ~/dst --header-download "X-Amz-Meta-Test: Foo" --header-download "X-Amz-Meta-Test2: Bar"

See the GitHub issue here (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/59) for currently supported backends.

Add an HTTP header for all upload transactions. The flag can be repeated to add multiple headers.
rclone sync -i ~/src s3:test/dst --header-upload "Content-Disposition: attachment; filename='cool.html'" --header-upload "X-Amz-Meta-Test: FooBar"

See the GitHub issue here (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/59) for currently supported backends.

Using this option will cause rclone to ignore the case of the files when synchronizing so files will not be copied/synced when the existing filenames are the same, even if the casing is different.

Normally rclone will check that the checksums of transferred files match, and give an error "corrupted on transfer" if they don't.

You can use this option to skip that check. You should only use it if you have had the "corrupted on transfer" error message and you are sure you might want to transfer potentially corrupted data.

Using this option will make rclone unconditionally skip all files that exist on the destination, no matter the content of these files.

While this isn't a generally recommended option, it can be useful in cases where your files change due to encryption. However, it cannot correct partial transfers in case a transfer was interrupted.

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check only the modification time. If --checksum is set then it only checks the checksum.

It will also cause rclone to skip verifying the sizes are the same after transfer.

This can be useful for transferring files to and from OneDrive which occasionally misreports the size of image files (see #399 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/399) for more info).

Using this option will cause rclone to unconditionally upload all files regardless of the state of files on the destination.

Normally rclone would skip any files that have the same modification time and are the same size (or have the same checksum if using --checksum).

Treat source and destination files as immutable and disallow modification.

With this option set, files will be created and deleted as requested, but existing files will never be updated. If an existing file does not match between the source and destination, rclone will give the error Source and destination exist but do not match: immutable file modified.

Note that only commands which transfer files (e.g. sync, copy, move) are affected by this behavior, and only modification is disallowed. Files may still be deleted explicitly (e.g. delete, purge) or implicitly (e.g. sync, move). Use copy --immutable if it is desired to avoid deletion as well as modification.

This can be useful as an additional layer of protection for immutable or append-only data sets (notably backup archives), where modification implies corruption and should not be propagated.

This flag can be used to tell rclone that you wish a manual confirmation before destructive operations.

It is recommended that you use this flag while learning rclone especially with rclone sync.

For example

$ rclone delete -i /tmp/dir
rclone: delete "important-file.txt"?
y) Yes, this is OK (default)
n) No, skip this
s) Skip all delete operations with no more questions
!) Do all delete operations with no more questions
q) Exit rclone now.
y/n/s/!/q> n

The options mean

y: Yes, this operation should go ahead. You can also press Return for this to happen. You'll be asked every time unless you choose s or !.
n: No, do not do this operation. You'll be asked every time unless you choose s or !.
s: Skip all the following operations of this type with no more questions. This takes effect until rclone exits. If there are any different kind of operations you'll be prompted for them.
!: Do all the following operations with no more questions. Useful if you've decided that you don't mind rclone doing that kind of operation. This takes effect until rclone exits . If there are any different kind of operations you'll be prompted for them.
q: Quit rclone now, just in case!

During rmdirs it will not remove root directory, even if it's empty.

Log all of rclone's output to FILE. This is not active by default. This can be useful for tracking down problems with syncs in combination with the -v flag. See the Logging section for more info.

If FILE exists then rclone will append to it.

Note that if you are using the logrotate program to manage rclone's logs, then you should use the copytruncate option as rclone doesn't have a signal to rotate logs.

Comma separated list of log format options. date, time, microseconds, longfile, shortfile, UTC. The default is "date,time".

This sets the log level for rclone. The default log level is NOTICE.

DEBUG is equivalent to -vv. It outputs lots of debug info - useful for bug reports and really finding out what rclone is doing.

INFO is equivalent to -v. It outputs information about each transfer and prints stats once a minute by default.

NOTICE is the default log level if no logging flags are supplied. It outputs very little when things are working normally. It outputs warnings and significant events.

ERROR is equivalent to -q. It only outputs error messages.

This switches the log format to JSON for rclone. The fields of json log are level, msg, source, time.

This controls the number of low level retries rclone does.

A low level retry is used to retry a failing operation - typically one HTTP request. This might be uploading a chunk of a big file for example. You will see low level retries in the log with the -v flag.

This shouldn't need to be changed from the default in normal operations. However, if you get a lot of low level retries you may wish to reduce the value so rclone moves on to a high level retry (see the --retries flag) quicker.

Disable low level retries with --low-level-retries 1.

This is the maximum allowable backlog of files in a sync/copy/move queued for being checked or transferred.

This can be set arbitrarily large. It will only use memory when the queue is in use. Note that it will use in the order of N KiB of memory when the backlog is in use.

Setting this large allows rclone to calculate how many files are pending more accurately, give a more accurate estimated finish time and make --order-by work more accurately.

Setting this small will make rclone more synchronous to the listings of the remote which may be desirable.

Setting this to a negative number will make the backlog as large as possible.

This tells rclone not to delete more than N files. If that limit is exceeded then a fatal error will be generated and rclone will stop the operation in progress.

This modifies the recursion depth for all the commands except purge.

So if you do rclone --max-depth 1 ls remote:path you will see only the files in the top level directory. Using --max-depth 2 means you will see all the files in first two directory levels and so on.

For historical reasons the lsd command defaults to using a --max-depth of 1 - you can override this with the command line flag.

You can use this command to disable recursion (with --max-depth 1).

Note that if you use this with sync and --delete-excluded the files not recursed through are considered excluded and will be deleted on the destination. Test first with --dry-run if you are not sure what will happen.

Rclone will stop scheduling new transfers when it has run for the duration specified.

Defaults to off.

When the limit is reached any existing transfers will complete.

Rclone won't exit with an error if the transfer limit is reached.

Rclone will stop transferring when it has reached the size specified. Defaults to off.

When the limit is reached all transfers will stop immediately.

Rclone will exit with exit code 8 if the transfer limit is reached.

This modifies the behavior of --max-transfer Defaults to --cutoff-mode=hard.

Specifying --cutoff-mode=hard will stop transferring immediately when Rclone reaches the limit.

Specifying --cutoff-mode=soft will stop starting new transfers when Rclone reaches the limit.

Specifying --cutoff-mode=cautious will try to prevent Rclone from reaching the limit.

When checking whether a file has been modified, this is the maximum allowed time difference that a file can have and still be considered equivalent.

The default is 1ns unless this is overridden by a remote. For example OS X only stores modification times to the nearest second so if you are reading and writing to an OS X filing system this will be 1s by default.

This command line flag allows you to override that computed default.

When downloading files to the local backend above this size, rclone will use multiple threads to download the file (default 250M).

Rclone preallocates the file (using fallocate(FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE) on unix or NTSetInformationFile on Windows both of which takes no time) then each thread writes directly into the file at the correct place. This means that rclone won't create fragmented or sparse files and there won't be any assembly time at the end of the transfer.

The number of threads used to download is controlled by --multi-thread-streams.

Use -vv if you wish to see info about the threads.

This will work with the sync/copy/move commands and friends copyto/moveto. Multi thread downloads will be used with rclone mount and rclone serve if --vfs-cache-mode is set to writes or above.

NB that this only works for a local destination but will work with any source.

NB that multi thread copies are disabled for local to local copies as they are faster without unless --multi-thread-streams is set explicitly.

NB on Windows using multi-thread downloads will cause the resulting files to be sparse (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparse_file). Use --local-no-sparse to disable sparse files (which may cause long delays at the start of downloads) or disable multi-thread downloads with --multi-thread-streams 0

When using multi thread downloads (see above --multi-thread-cutoff) this sets the maximum number of streams to use. Set to 0 to disable multi thread downloads (Default 4).

Exactly how many streams rclone uses for the download depends on the size of the file. To calculate the number of download streams Rclone divides the size of the file by the --multi-thread-cutoff and rounds up, up to the maximum set with --multi-thread-streams.

So if --multi-thread-cutoff 250M and --multi-thread-streams 4 are in effect (the defaults):

0..250 MiB files will be downloaded with 1 stream
250..500 MiB files will be downloaded with 2 streams
500..750 MiB files will be downloaded with 3 streams
750+ MiB files will be downloaded with 4 streams

The --no-check-dest can be used with move or copy and it causes rclone not to check the destination at all when copying files.

This means that:

the destination is not listed minimising the API calls
files are always transferred
this can cause duplicates on remotes which allow it (e.g. Google Drive)
--retries 1 is recommended otherwise you'll transfer everything again on a retry

This flag is useful to minimise the transactions if you know that none of the files are on the destination.

This is a specialized flag which should be ignored by most users!

Don't set Accept-Encoding: gzip. This means that rclone won't ask the server for compressed files automatically. Useful if you've set the server to return files with Content-Encoding: gzip but you uploaded compressed files.

There is no need to set this in normal operation, and doing so will decrease the network transfer efficiency of rclone.

The --no-traverse flag controls whether the destination file system is traversed when using the copy or move commands. --no-traverse is not compatible with sync and will be ignored if you supply it with sync.

If you are only copying a small number of files (or are filtering most of the files) and/or have a large number of files on the destination then --no-traverse will stop rclone listing the destination and save time.

However, if you are copying a large number of files, especially if you are doing a copy where lots of the files under consideration haven't changed and won't need copying then you shouldn't use --no-traverse.

See rclone copy (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) for an example of how to use it.

Don't normalize unicode characters in filenames during the sync routine.

Sometimes, an operating system will store filenames containing unicode parts in their decomposed form (particularly macOS). Some cloud storage systems will then recompose the unicode, resulting in duplicate files if the data is ever copied back to a local filesystem.

Using this flag will disable that functionality, treating each unicode character as unique. For example, by default é and é will be normalized into the same character. With --no-unicode-normalization they will be treated as unique characters.

When using this flag, rclone won't update modification times of remote files if they are incorrect as it would normally.

This can be used if the remote is being synced with another tool also (e.g. the Google Drive client).

The --order-by flag controls the order in which files in the backlog are processed in rclone sync, rclone copy and rclone move.

The order by string is constructed like this. The first part describes what aspect is being measured:

size - order by the size of the files
name - order by the full path of the files
modtime - order by the modification date of the files

This can have a modifier appended with a comma:

ascending or asc - order so that the smallest (or oldest) is processed first
descending or desc - order so that the largest (or newest) is processed first
mixed - order so that the smallest is processed first for some threads and the largest for others

If the modifier is mixed then it can have an optional percentage (which defaults to 50), e.g. size,mixed,25 which means that 25% of the threads should be taking the smallest items and 75% the largest. The threads which take the smallest first will always take the smallest first and likewise the largest first threads. The mixed mode can be useful to minimise the transfer time when you are transferring a mixture of large and small files - the large files are guaranteed upload threads and bandwidth and the small files will be processed continuously.

If no modifier is supplied then the order is ascending.

For example

--order-by size,desc - send the largest files first
--order-by modtime,ascending - send the oldest files first
--order-by name - send the files with alphabetically by path first

If the --order-by flag is not supplied or it is supplied with an empty string then the default ordering will be used which is as scanned. With --checkers 1 this is mostly alphabetical, however with the default --checkers 8 it is somewhat random.

The --order-by flag does not do a separate pass over the data. This means that it may transfer some files out of the order specified if
there are no files in the backlog or the source has not been fully scanned yet
there are more than --max-backlog files in the backlog

Rclone will do its best to transfer the best file it has so in practice this should not cause a problem. Think of --order-by as being more of a best efforts flag rather than a perfect ordering.

If you want perfect ordering then you will need to specify --check-first which will find all the files which need transferring first before transferring any.

This flag supplies a program which should supply the config password when run. This is an alternative to rclone prompting for the password or setting the RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS variable.

The argument to this should be a command with a space separated list of arguments. If one of the arguments has a space in then enclose it in ", if you want a literal " in an argument then enclose the argument in " and double the ". See CSV encoding (https://godoc.org/encoding/csv) for more info.

Eg

--password-command echo hello
--password-command echo "hello with space"
--password-command echo "hello with ""quotes"" and space"

See the Configuration Encryption for more info.

See a Windows PowerShell example on the Wiki (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/wiki/Windows-Powershell-use-rclone-password-command-for-Config-file-password).

This flag makes rclone update the stats in a static block in the terminal providing a realtime overview of the transfer.

Any log messages will scroll above the static block. Log messages will push the static block down to the bottom of the terminal where it will stay.

Normally this is updated every 500mS but this period can be overridden with the --stats flag.

This can be used with the --stats-one-line flag for a simpler display.

Note: On Windows until this bug (https://github.com/Azure/go-ansiterm/issues/26) is fixed all non-ASCII characters will be replaced with . when --progress is in use.

This flag, when used with -P/--progress, will print the string ETA: %s to the terminal title.

This flag will limit rclone's output to error messages only.

The --refresh-times flag can be used to update modification times of existing files when they are out of sync on backends which don't support hashes.

This is useful if you uploaded files with the incorrect timestamps and you now wish to correct them.

This flag is only useful for destinations which don't support hashes (e.g. crypt).

This can be used any of the sync commands sync, copy or move.

To use this flag you will need to be doing a modification time sync (so not using --size-only or --checksum). The flag will have no effect when using --size-only or --checksum.

If this flag is used when rclone comes to upload a file it will check to see if there is an existing file on the destination. If this file matches the source with size (and checksum if available) but has a differing timestamp then instead of re-uploading it, rclone will update the timestamp on the destination file. If the checksum does not match rclone will upload the new file. If the checksum is absent (e.g. on a crypt backend) then rclone will update the timestamp.

Note that some remotes can't set the modification time without re-uploading the file so this flag is less useful on them.

Normally if you are doing a modification time sync rclone will update modification times without --refresh-times provided that the remote supports checksums and the checksums match on the file. However if the checksums are absent then rclone will upload the file rather than setting the timestamp as this is the safe behaviour.

Retry the entire sync if it fails this many times it fails (default 3).

Some remotes can be unreliable and a few retries help pick up the files which didn't get transferred because of errors.

Disable retries with --retries 1.

This sets the interval between each retry specified by --retries

The default is 0. Use 0 to disable.

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check only the size.

This can be useful transferring files from Dropbox which have been modified by the desktop sync client which doesn't set checksums of modification times in the same way as rclone.

Commands which transfer data (sync, copy, copyto, move, moveto) will print data transfer stats at regular intervals to show their progress.

This sets the interval.

The default is 1m. Use 0 to disable.

If you set the stats interval then all commands can show stats. This can be useful when running other commands, check or mount for example.

Stats are logged at INFO level by default which means they won't show at default log level NOTICE. Use --stats-log-level NOTICE or -v to make them show. See the Logging section for more info on log levels.

Note that on macOS you can send a SIGINFO (which is normally ctrl-T in the terminal) to make the stats print immediately.

By default, the --stats output will truncate file names and paths longer than 40 characters. This is equivalent to providing --stats-file-name-length 40. Use --stats-file-name-length 0 to disable any truncation of file names printed by stats.

Log level to show --stats output at. This can be DEBUG, INFO, NOTICE, or ERROR. The default is INFO. This means at the default level of logging which is NOTICE the stats won't show - if you want them to then use --stats-log-level NOTICE. See the Logging section for more info on log levels.

When this is specified, rclone condenses the stats into a single line showing the most important stats only.

When this is specified, rclone enables the single-line stats and prepends the display with a date string. The default is 2006/01/02 15:04:05 -

When this is specified, rclone enables the single-line stats and prepends the display with a user-supplied date string. The date string MUST be enclosed in quotes. Follow golang specs (https://golang.org/pkg/time/#Time.Format) for date formatting syntax.

By default, data transfer rates will be printed in bytes per second.

This option allows the data rate to be printed in bits per second.

Data transfer volume will still be reported in bytes.

The rate is reported as a binary unit, not SI unit. So 1 Mbit/s equals 1,048,576 bit/s and not 1,000,000 bit/s.

The default is bytes.

When using sync, copy or move any files which would have been overwritten or deleted will have the suffix added to them. If there is a file with the same path (after the suffix has been added), then it will be overwritten.

The remote in use must support server-side move or copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync.

This is for use with files to add the suffix in the current directory or with --backup-dir. See --backup-dir for more info.

For example

rclone copy -i /path/to/local/file remote:current --suffix .bak

will copy /path/to/local to remote:current, but for any files which would have been updated or deleted have .bak added.

If using rclone sync with --suffix and without --backup-dir then it is recommended to put a filter rule in excluding the suffix otherwise the sync will delete the backup files.

rclone sync -i /path/to/local/file remote:current --suffix .bak --exclude "*.bak"

When using --suffix, setting this causes rclone put the SUFFIX before the extension of the files that it backs up rather than after.

So let's say we had --suffix -2019-01-01, without the flag file.txt would be backed up to file.txt-2019-01-01 and with the flag it would be backed up to file-2019-01-01.txt. This can be helpful to make sure the suffixed files can still be opened.

On capable OSes (not Windows or Plan9) send all log output to syslog.

This can be useful for running rclone in a script or rclone mount.

If using --syslog this sets the syslog facility (e.g. KERN, USER). See man syslog for a list of possible facilities. The default facility is DAEMON.

Limit transactions per second to this number. Default is 0 which is used to mean unlimited transactions per second.

A transaction is roughly defined as an API call; its exact meaning will depend on the backend. For HTTP based backends it is an HTTP PUT/GET/POST/etc and its response. For FTP/SFTP it is a round trip transaction over TCP.

For example to limit rclone to 10 transactions per second use --tpslimit 10, or to 1 transaction every 2 seconds use --tpslimit 0.5.

Use this when the number of transactions per second from rclone is causing a problem with the cloud storage provider (e.g. getting you banned or rate limited).

This can be very useful for rclone mount to control the behaviour of applications using it.

This limit applies to all HTTP based backends and to the FTP and SFTP backends. It does not apply to the local backend or the Tardigrade backend.

See also --tpslimit-burst.

Max burst of transactions for --tpslimit (default 1).

Normally --tpslimit will do exactly the number of transaction per second specified. However if you supply --tps-burst then rclone can save up some transactions from when it was idle giving a burst of up to the parameter supplied.

For example if you provide --tpslimit-burst 10 then if rclone has been idle for more than 10*--tpslimit then it can do 10 transactions very quickly before they are limited again.

This may be used to increase performance of --tpslimit without changing the long term average number of transactions per second.

By default, rclone doesn't keep track of renamed files, so if you rename a file locally then sync it to a remote, rclone will delete the old file on the remote and upload a new copy.

If you use this flag, and the remote supports server-side copy or server-side move, and the source and destination have a compatible hash, then this will track renames during sync operations and perform renaming server-side.

Files will be matched by size and hash - if both match then a rename will be considered.

If the destination does not support server-side copy or move, rclone will fall back to the default behaviour and log an error level message to the console.

Encrypted destinations are not currently supported by --track-renames if --track-renames-strategy includes hash.

Note that --track-renames is incompatible with --no-traverse and that it uses extra memory to keep track of all the rename candidates.

Note also that --track-renames is incompatible with --delete-before and will select --delete-after instead of --delete-during.

This option changes the matching criteria for --track-renames.

The matching is controlled by a comma separated selection of these tokens:

modtime - the modification time of the file - not supported on all backends
hash - the hash of the file contents - not supported on all backends
leaf - the name of the file not including its directory name
size - the size of the file (this is always enabled)

So using --track-renames-strategy modtime,leaf would match files based on modification time, the leaf of the file name and the size only.

Using --track-renames-strategy modtime or leaf can enable --track-renames support for encrypted destinations.

If nothing is specified, the default option is matching by hashes.

Note that the hash strategy is not supported with encrypted destinations.

This option allows you to specify when files on your destination are deleted when you sync folders.

Specifying the value --delete-before will delete all files present on the destination, but not on the source before starting the transfer of any new or updated files. This uses two passes through the file systems, one for the deletions and one for the copies.

Specifying --delete-during will delete files while checking and uploading files. This is the fastest option and uses the least memory.

Specifying --delete-after (the default value) will delay deletion of files until all new/updated files have been successfully transferred. The files to be deleted are collected in the copy pass then deleted after the copy pass has completed successfully. The files to be deleted are held in memory so this mode may use more memory. This is the safest mode as it will only delete files if there have been no errors subsequent to that. If there have been errors before the deletions start then you will get the message not deleting files as there were IO errors.

When doing anything which involves a directory listing (e.g. sync, copy, ls - in fact nearly every command), rclone normally lists a directory and processes it before using more directory lists to process any subdirectories. This can be parallelised and works very quickly using the least amount of memory.

However, some remotes have a way of listing all files beneath a directory in one (or a small number) of transactions. These tend to be the bucket based remotes (e.g. S3, B2, GCS, Swift, Hubic).

If you use the --fast-list flag then rclone will use this method for listing directories. This will have the following consequences for the listing:

It will use fewer transactions (important if you pay for them)
It will use more memory. Rclone has to load the whole listing into memory.
It may be faster because it uses fewer transactions
It may be slower because it can't be parallelized

rclone should always give identical results with and without --fast-list.

If you pay for transactions and can fit your entire sync listing into memory then --fast-list is recommended. If you have a very big sync to do then don't use --fast-list otherwise you will run out of memory.

If you use --fast-list on a remote which doesn't support it, then rclone will just ignore it.

This sets the IO idle timeout. If a transfer has started but then becomes idle for this long it is considered broken and disconnected.

The default is 5m. Set to 0 to disable.

The number of file transfers to run in parallel. It can sometimes be useful to set this to a smaller number if the remote is giving a lot of timeouts or bigger if you have lots of bandwidth and a fast remote.

The default is to run 4 file transfers in parallel.

This forces rclone to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source file.

This can be useful when transferring to a remote which doesn't support mod times directly (or when using --use-server-modtime to avoid extra API calls) as it is more accurate than a --size-only check and faster than using --checksum.

If an existing destination file has a modification time equal (within the computed modify window precision) to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different. If --checksum is set then rclone will update the destination if the checksums differ too.

If an existing destination file is older than the source file then it will be updated if the size or checksum differs from the source file.

On remotes which don't support mod time directly (or when using --use-server-modtime) the time checked will be the uploaded time. This means that if uploading to one of these remotes, rclone will skip any files which exist on the destination and have an uploaded time that is newer than the modification time of the source file.

If this flag is set then rclone will use anonymous memory allocated by mmap on Unix based platforms and VirtualAlloc on Windows for its transfer buffers (size controlled by --buffer-size). Memory allocated like this does not go on the Go heap and can be returned to the OS immediately when it is finished with.

If this flag is not set then rclone will allocate and free the buffers using the Go memory allocator which may use more memory as memory pages are returned less aggressively to the OS.

It is possible this does not work well on all platforms so it is disabled by default; in the future it may be enabled by default.

Some object-store backends (e.g, Swift, S3) do not preserve file modification times (modtime). On these backends, rclone stores the original modtime as additional metadata on the object. By default it will make an API call to retrieve the metadata when the modtime is needed by an operation.

Use this flag to disable the extra API call and rely instead on the server's modified time. In cases such as a local to remote sync using --update, knowing the local file is newer than the time it was last uploaded to the remote is sufficient. In those cases, this flag can speed up the process and reduce the number of API calls necessary.

Using this flag on a sync operation without also using --update would cause all files modified at any time other than the last upload time to be uploaded again, which is probably not what you want.

With -v rclone will tell you about each file that is transferred and a small number of significant events.

With -vv rclone will become very verbose telling you about every file it considers and transfers. Please send bug reports with a log with this setting.

Prints the version number

The outgoing SSL/TLS connections rclone makes can be controlled with these options. For example this can be very useful with the HTTP or WebDAV backends. Rclone HTTP servers have their own set of configuration for SSL/TLS which you can find in their documentation.

This loads the PEM encoded certificate authority certificate and uses it to verify the certificates of the servers rclone connects to.

If you have generated certificates signed with a local CA then you will need this flag to connect to servers using those certificates.

This loads the PEM encoded client side certificate.

This is used for mutual TLS authentication (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutual_authentication).

The --client-key flag is required too when using this.

This loads the PEM encoded client side private key used for mutual TLS authentication. Used in conjunction with --client-cert.

--no-check-certificate controls whether a client verifies the server's certificate chain and host name. If --no-check-certificate is true, TLS accepts any certificate presented by the server and any host name in that certificate. In this mode, TLS is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks.

This option defaults to false.

This should be used only for testing.

Your configuration file contains information for logging in to your cloud services. This means that you should keep your rclone.conf file in a secure location.

If you are in an environment where that isn't possible, you can add a password to your configuration. This means that you will have to supply the password every time you start rclone.

To add a password to your rclone configuration, execute rclone config.

>rclone config
Current remotes:
e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/s/q>

Go into s, Set configuration password:

e/n/d/s/q> s
Your configuration is not encrypted.
If you add a password, you will protect your login information to cloud services.
a) Add Password
q) Quit to main menu
a/q> a
Enter NEW configuration password:
password:
Confirm NEW password:
password:
Password set
Your configuration is encrypted.
c) Change Password
u) Unencrypt configuration
q) Quit to main menu
c/u/q>

Your configuration is now encrypted, and every time you start rclone you will have to supply the password. See below for details. In the same menu, you can change the password or completely remove encryption from your configuration.

There is no way to recover the configuration if you lose your password.

rclone uses nacl secretbox (https://godoc.org/golang.org/x/crypto/nacl/secretbox) which in turn uses XSalsa20 and Poly1305 to encrypt and authenticate your configuration with secret-key cryptography. The password is SHA-256 hashed, which produces the key for secretbox. The hashed password is not stored.

While this provides very good security, we do not recommend storing your encrypted rclone configuration in public if it contains sensitive information, maybe except if you use a very strong password.

If it is safe in your environment, you can set the RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS environment variable to contain your password, in which case it will be used for decrypting the configuration.

You can set this for a session from a script. For unix like systems save this to a file called set-rclone-password:

#!/bin/echo Source this file don't run it
read -s RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS
export RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS

Then source the file when you want to use it. From the shell you would do source set-rclone-password. It will then ask you for the password and set it in the environment variable.

An alternate means of supplying the password is to provide a script which will retrieve the password and print on standard output. This script should have a fully specified path name and not rely on any environment variables. The script is supplied either via --password-command="..." command line argument or via the RCLONE_PASSWORD_COMMAND environment variable.

One useful example of this is using the passwordstore application to retrieve the password:

export RCLONE_PASSWORD_COMMAND="pass rclone/config"

If the passwordstore password manager holds the password for the rclone configuration, using the script method means the password is primarily protected by the passwordstore system, and is never embedded in the clear in scripts, nor available for examination using the standard commands available. It is quite possible with long running rclone sessions for copies of passwords to be innocently captured in log files or terminal scroll buffers, etc. Using the script method of supplying the password enhances the security of the config password considerably.

If you are running rclone inside a script, unless you are using the --password-command method, you might want to disable password prompts. To do that, pass the parameter --ask-password=false to rclone. This will make rclone fail instead of asking for a password if RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS doesn't contain a valid password, and --password-command has not been supplied.

Whenever running commands that may be affected by options in a configuration file, rclone will look for an existing file according to the rules described above, and load any it finds. If an encrypted file is found, this includes decrypting it, with the possible consequence of a password prompt. When executing a command line that you know are not actually using anything from such a configuration file, you can avoid it being loaded by overriding the location, e.g. with one of the documented special values for memory-only configuration. Since only backend options can be stored in configuration files, this is normally unnecessary for commands that do not operate on backends, e.g. genautocomplete. However, it will be relevant for commands that do operate on backends in general, but are used without referencing a stored remote, e.g. listing local filesystem paths, or connection strings: rclone --config="" ls .

These options are useful when developing or debugging rclone. There are also some more remote specific options which aren't documented here which are used for testing. These start with remote name e.g. --drive-test-option - see the docs for the remote in question.

Write CPU profile to file. This can be analysed with go tool pprof.

The --dump flag takes a comma separated list of flags to dump info about.

Note that some headers including Accept-Encoding as shown may not be correct in the request and the response may not show Content-Encoding if the go standard libraries auto gzip encoding was in effect. In this case the body of the request will be gunzipped before showing it.

The available flags are:

Dump HTTP headers with Authorization: lines removed. May still contain sensitive info. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only.

Use --dump auth if you do want the Authorization: headers.

Dump HTTP headers and bodies - may contain sensitive info. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only.

Note that the bodies are buffered in memory so don't use this for enormous files.

Like --dump bodies but dumps the request bodies and the response headers. Useful for debugging download problems.

Like --dump bodies but dumps the response bodies and the request headers. Useful for debugging upload problems.

Dump HTTP headers - will contain sensitive info such as Authorization: headers - use --dump headers to dump without Authorization: headers. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only.

Dump the filters to the output. Useful to see exactly what include and exclude options are filtering on.

This dumps a list of the running go-routines at the end of the command to standard output.

This dumps a list of the open files at the end of the command. It uses the lsof command to do that so you'll need that installed to use it.

Write memory profile to file. This can be analysed with go tool pprof.

For the filtering options
--delete-excluded
--filter
--filter-from
--exclude
--exclude-from
--include
--include-from
--files-from
--files-from-raw
--min-size
--max-size
--min-age
--max-age
--dump filters

See the filtering section (https://rclone.org/filtering/).

For the remote control options and for instructions on how to remote control rclone
--rc
and anything starting with --rc-

See the remote control section (https://rclone.org/rc/).

rclone has 4 levels of logging, ERROR, NOTICE, INFO and DEBUG.

By default, rclone logs to standard error. This means you can redirect standard error and still see the normal output of rclone commands (e.g. rclone ls).

By default, rclone will produce Error and Notice level messages.

If you use the -q flag, rclone will only produce Error messages.

If you use the -v flag, rclone will produce Error, Notice and Info messages.

If you use the -vv flag, rclone will produce Error, Notice, Info and Debug messages.

You can also control the log levels with the --log-level flag.

If you use the --log-file=FILE option, rclone will redirect Error, Info and Debug messages along with standard error to FILE.

If you use the --syslog flag then rclone will log to syslog and the --syslog-facility control which facility it uses.

Rclone prefixes all log messages with their level in capitals, e.g. INFO which makes it easy to grep the log file for different kinds of information.

If any errors occur during the command execution, rclone will exit with a non-zero exit code. This allows scripts to detect when rclone operations have failed.

During the startup phase, rclone will exit immediately if an error is detected in the configuration. There will always be a log message immediately before exiting.

When rclone is running it will accumulate errors as it goes along, and only exit with a non-zero exit code if (after retries) there were still failed transfers. For every error counted there will be a high priority log message (visible with -q) showing the message and which file caused the problem. A high priority message is also shown when starting a retry so the user can see that any previous error messages may not be valid after the retry. If rclone has done a retry it will log a high priority message if the retry was successful.

0 - success
1 - Syntax or usage error
2 - Error not otherwise categorised
3 - Directory not found
4 - File not found
5 - Temporary error (one that more retries might fix) (Retry errors)
6 - Less serious errors (like 461 errors from dropbox) (NoRetry errors)
7 - Fatal error (one that more retries won't fix, like account suspended) (Fatal errors)
8 - Transfer exceeded - limit set by --max-transfer reached
9 - Operation successful, but no files transferred

Rclone can be configured entirely using environment variables. These can be used to set defaults for options or config file entries.

Every option in rclone can have its default set by environment variable.

To find the name of the environment variable, first, take the long option name, strip the leading --, change - to _, make upper case and prepend RCLONE_.

For example, to always set --stats 5s, set the environment variable RCLONE_STATS=5s. If you set stats on the command line this will override the environment variable setting.

Or to always use the trash in drive --drive-use-trash, set RCLONE_DRIVE_USE_TRASH=true.

The same parser is used for the options and the environment variables so they take exactly the same form.

The options set by environment variables can be seen with the -vv flag, e.g. rclone version -vv.

You can set defaults for values in the config file on an individual remote basis. The names of the config items are documented in the page for each backend.

To find the name of the environment variable, you need to set, take RCLONE_CONFIG_ + name of remote + _ + name of config file option and make it all uppercase.

For example, to configure an S3 remote named mys3: without a config file (using unix ways of setting environment variables):

$ export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_TYPE=s3
$ export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_ACCESS_KEY_ID=XXX
$ export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=XXX
$ rclone lsd MYS3:
          -1 2016-09-21 12:54:21        -1 my-bucket
$ rclone listremotes | grep mys3
mys3:

Note that if you want to create a remote using environment variables you must create the ..._TYPE variable as above.

Note that you can only set the options of the immediate backend, so RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3CRYPT_ACCESS_KEY_ID has no effect, if myS3Crypt is a crypt remote based on an S3 remote. However RCLONE_S3_ACCESS_KEY_ID will set the access key of all remotes using S3, including myS3Crypt.

Note also that now rclone has connection strings, it is probably easier to use those instead which makes the above example

rclone lsd :s3,access_key_id=XXX,secret_access_key=XXX:

The various different methods of backend configuration are read in this order and the first one with a value is used.
Parameters in connection strings, e.g. myRemote,skip_links:
Flag values as supplied on the command line, e.g. --skip-links
Remote specific environment vars, e.g. RCLONE_CONFIG_MYREMOTE_SKIP_LINKS (see above).
Backend specific environment vars, e.g. RCLONE_LOCAL_SKIP_LINKS.
Backend generic environment vars, e.g. RCLONE_SKIP_LINKS.
Config file, e.g. skip_links = true.
Default values, e.g. false - these can't be changed.

So if both --skip-links is supplied on the command line and an environment variable RCLONE_LOCAL_SKIP_LINKS is set, the command line flag will take preference.

The backend configurations set by environment variables can be seen with the -vv flag, e.g. rclone about myRemote: -vv.

For non backend configuration the order is as follows:

Flag values as supplied on the command line, e.g. --stats 5s.
Environment vars, e.g. RCLONE_STATS=5s.
Default values, e.g. 1m - these can't be changed.

RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS set to contain your config file password (see Configuration Encryption section)
HTTP_PROXY, HTTPS_PROXY and NO_PROXY (or the lowercase versions thereof).
HTTPS_PROXY takes precedence over HTTP_PROXY for https requests.
The environment values may be either a complete URL or a "host[:port]" for, in which case the "http" scheme is assumed.
USER and LOGNAME values are used as fallbacks for current username. The primary method for looking up username is OS-specific: Windows API on Windows, real user ID in /etc/passwd on Unix systems. In the documentation the current username is simply referred to as $USER.
RCLONE_CONFIG_DIR - rclone sets this variable for use in config files and sub processes to point to the directory holding the config file.

The options set by environment variables can be seen with the -vv and --log-level=DEBUG flags, e.g. rclone version -vv.

Some of the configurations (those involving oauth2) require an Internet connected web browser.

If you are trying to set rclone up on a remote or headless box with no browser available on it (e.g. a NAS or a server in a datacenter) then you will need to use an alternative means of configuration. There are two ways of doing it, described below.

On the headless box run rclone config but answer N to the Use auto config? question.
...
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes (default)
n) No
y/n> n
For this to work, you will need rclone available on a machine that has
a web browser available.
For more help and alternate methods see: https://rclone.org/remote_setup/
Execute the following on the machine with the web browser (same rclone
version recommended):
    rclone authorize "amazon cloud drive"
Then paste the result below:
result>

Then on your main desktop machine

rclone authorize "amazon cloud drive"
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
Paste the following into your remote machine --->
SECRET_TOKEN
<---End paste

Then back to the headless box, paste in the code

result> SECRET_TOKEN
--------------------
[acd12]
client_id = 
client_secret = 
token = SECRET_TOKEN
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d>

Rclone stores all of its config in a single configuration file. This can easily be copied to configure a remote rclone.

So first configure rclone on your desktop machine with

rclone config

to set up the config file.

Find the config file by running rclone config file, for example

$ rclone config file
Configuration file is stored at:
/home/user/.rclone.conf

Now transfer it to the remote box (scp, cut paste, ftp, sftp, etc.) and place it in the correct place (use rclone config file on the remote box to find out where).

Filter flags determine which files rclone sync, move, ls, lsl, md5sum, sha1sum, size, delete, check and similar commands apply to.

They are specified in terms of path/file name patterns; path/file lists; file age and size, or presence of a file in a directory. Bucket based remotes without the concept of directory apply filters to object key, age and size in an analogous way.

Rclone purge does not obey filters.

To test filters without risk of damage to data, apply them to rclone ls, or with the --dry-run and -vv flags.

Rclone filter patterns can only be used in filter command line options, not in the specification of a remote.

E.g. rclone copy "remote:dir*.jpg" /path/to/dir does not have a filter effect. rclone copy remote:dir /path/to/dir --include "*.jpg" does.

Important Avoid mixing any two of --include..., --exclude... or --filter... flags in an rclone command. The results may not be what you expect. Instead use a --filter... flag.

Rclone matching rules follow a glob style:
*         matches any sequence of non-separator (/) characters
**        matches any sequence of characters including / separators
?         matches any single non-separator (/) character
[ [ ! ] { character-range } ]
          character class (must be non-empty)
{ pattern-list }
          pattern alternatives
c         matches character c (c != *, **, ?, \, [, {, })
\c        matches reserved character c (c = *, **, ?, \, [, {, })

character-range:

c         matches character c (c != \, -, ])
\c        matches reserved character c (c = \, -, ])
lo - hi   matches character c for lo <= c <= hi

pattern-list:

pattern { , pattern }
          comma-separated (without spaces) patterns

character classes (see Go regular expression reference (https://golang.org/pkg/regexp/syntax/)) include:

Named character classes (e.g. [\d], [^\d], [\D], [^\D])
Perl character classes (e.g. \s, \S, \w, \W)
ASCII character classes (e.g. [[:alnum:]], [[:alpha:]], [[:punct:]], [[:xdigit:]])

If the filter pattern starts with a / then it only matches at the top level of the directory tree, relative to the root of the remote (not necessarily the root of the drive). If it does not start with / then it is matched starting at the end of the path/file name but it only matches a complete path element - it must match from a / separator or the beginning of the path/file.

file.jpg   - matches "file.jpg"
           - matches "directory/file.jpg"
           - doesn't match "afile.jpg"
           - doesn't match "directory/afile.jpg"
/file.jpg  - matches "file.jpg" in the root directory of the remote
           - doesn't match "afile.jpg"
           - doesn't match "directory/file.jpg"

The top level of the remote may not be the top level of the drive.

E.g. for a Microsoft Windows local directory structure

F:
├── bkp
├── data
│   ├── excl
│   │   ├── 123.jpg
│   │   └── 456.jpg
│   ├── incl
│   │   └── document.pdf

To copy the contents of folder data into folder bkp excluding the contents of subfolder exclthe following command treats F:\data and F:\bkp as top level for filtering.

rclone copy F:\data\ F:\bkp\ --exclude=/excl/**

Important Use / in path/file name patterns and not \ even if running on Microsoft Windows.

Simple patterns are case sensitive unless the --ignore-case flag is used.

Without --ignore-case (default)

potato - matches "potato"
       - doesn't match "POTATO"

With --ignore-case

potato - matches "potato"
       - matches "POTATO"

Rclone path/file name filters are made up of one or more of the following flags:
--include
--include-from
--exclude
--exclude-from
--filter
--filter-from

There can be more than one instance of individual flags.

Rclone internally uses a combined list of all the include and exclude rules. The order in which rules are processed can influence the result of the filter.

All flags of the same type are processed together in the order above, regardless of what order the different types of flags are included on the command line.

Multiple instances of the same flag are processed from left to right according to their position in the command line.

To mix up the order of processing includes and excludes use --filter... flags.

Within --include-from, --exclude-from and --filter-from flags rules are processed from top to bottom of the referenced file.

If there is an --include or --include-from flag specified, rclone implies a - ** rule which it adds to the bottom of the internal rule list. Specifying a + rule with a --filter... flag does not imply that rule.

Each path/file name passed through rclone is matched against the combined filter list. At first match to a rule the path/file name is included or excluded and no further filter rules are processed for that path/file.

If rclone does not find a match, after testing against all rules (including the implied rule if appropriate), the path/file name is included.

Any path/file included at that stage is processed by the rclone command.

--files-from and --files-from-raw flags over-ride and cannot be combined with other filter options.

To see the internal combined rule list, in regular expression form, for a command add the --dump filters flag. Running an rclone command with --dump filters and -vv flags lists the internal filter elements and shows how they are applied to each source path/file. There is not currently a means provided to pass regular expression filter options into rclone directly though character class filter rules contain character classes. Go regular expression reference (https://golang.org/pkg/regexp/syntax/)

Rclone commands are applied to path/file names not directories. The entire contents of a directory can be matched to a filter by the pattern directory/* or recursively by directory/**.

Directory filter rules are defined with a closing / separator.

E.g. /directory/subdirectory/ is an rclone directory filter rule.

Rclone commands can use directory filter rules to determine whether they recurse into subdirectories. This potentially optimises access to a remote by avoiding listing unnecessary directories. Whether optimisation is desirable depends on the specific filter rules and source remote content.

Directory recursion optimisation occurs if either:

A source remote does not support the rclone ListR primitive. local, sftp, Microsoft OneDrive and WebDav do not support ListR. Google Drive and most bucket type storage do. Full list (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features)
On other remotes (those that support ListR), if the rclone command is not naturally recursive, and provided it is not run with the --fast-list flag. ls, lsf -R and size are naturally recursive but sync, copy and move are not.
Whenever the --disable ListR flag is applied to an rclone command.

Rclone commands imply directory filter rules from path/file filter rules. To view the directory filter rules rclone has implied for a command specify the --dump filters flag.

E.g. for an include rule

/a/*.jpg

Rclone implies the directory include rule

/a/

Directory filter rules specified in an rclone command can limit the scope of an rclone command but path/file filters still have to be specified.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --include /directory/ will not match any files. Because it is an --include option the --exclude ** rule is implied, and the /directory/ pattern serves only to optimise access to the remote by ignoring everything outside of that directory.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --filter-from filter-list.txt with a file filter-list.txt:

- /dir1/
- /dir2/
+ *.pdf
- **

All files in directories dir1 or dir2 or their subdirectories are completely excluded from the listing. Only files of suffix pdf in the root of remote: or its subdirectories are listed. The - ** rule prevents listing of any path/files not previously matched by the rules above.

Option exclude-if-present creates a directory exclude rule based on the presence of a file in a directory and takes precedence over other rclone directory filter rules.

When using pattern list syntax, if a pattern item contains either / or **, then rclone will not able to imply a directory filter rule from this pattern list.

E.g. for an include rule

{dir1/**,dir2/**}

Rclone will match files below directories dir1 or dir2 only, but will not be able to use this filter to exclude a directory dir3 from being traversed.

Directory recursion optimisation may affect performance, but normally not the result. One exception to this is sync operations with option --create-empty-src-dirs, where any traversed empty directories will be created. With the pattern list example {dir1/**,dir2/**} above, this would create an empty directory dir3 on destination (when it exists on source). Changing the filter to {dir1,dir2}/**, or splitting it into two include rules --include dir1/** --include dir2/**, will match the same files while also filtering directories, with the result that an empty directory dir3 will no longer be created.

Excludes path/file names from an rclone command based on a single exclude rule.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in.

--exclude should not be used with --include, --include-from, --filter or --filter-from flags.

--exclude has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --exclude *.bak excludes all .bak files from listing.

E.g. rclone size remote: "--exclude /dir/**" returns the total size of all files on remote: excluding those in root directory dir and sub directories.

E.g. on Microsoft Windows rclone ls remote: --exclude "*\[{JP,KR,HK}\]*" lists the files in remote: with [JP] or [KR] or [HK] in their name. Quotes prevent the shell from interpreting the \ characters.\ characters escape the [ and ] so an rclone filter treats them literally rather than as a character-range. The { and } define an rclone pattern list. For other operating systems single quotes are required ie rclone ls remote: --exclude '*\[{JP,KR,HK}\]*'

Excludes path/file names from an rclone command based on rules in a named file. The file contains a list of remarks and pattern rules.

For an example exclude-file.txt:

# a sample exclude rule file
*.bak
file2.jpg

rclone ls remote: --exclude-from exclude-file.txt lists the files on remote: except those named file2.jpg or with a suffix .bak. That is equivalent to rclone ls remote: --exclude file2.jpg --exclude "*.bak".

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in.

The --exclude-from flag is useful where multiple exclude filter rules are applied to an rclone command.

--exclude-from should not be used with --include, --include-from, --filter or --filter-from flags.

--exclude-from has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags.

--exclude-from followed by - reads filter rules from standard input.

Adds a single include rule based on path/file names to an rclone command.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in.

--include has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags.

--include implies --exclude ** at the end of an rclone internal filter list. Therefore if you mix --include and --include-from flags with --exclude, --exclude-from, --filter or --filter-from, you must use include rules for all the files you want in the include statement. For more flexibility use the --filter-from flag.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --include "*.{png,jpg}" lists the files on remote: with suffix .png and .jpg. All other files are excluded.

E.g. multiple rclone copy commands can be combined with --include and a pattern-list.

rclone copy /vol1/A remote:A
rclone copy /vol1/B remote:B

is equivalent to:

rclone copy /vol1 remote: --include "{A,B}/**"

E.g. rclone ls remote:/wheat --include "??[^[:punct:]]*" lists the files remote: directory wheat (and subdirectories) whose third character is not punctuation. This example uses an ASCII character class (https://golang.org/pkg/regexp/syntax/).

Adds path/file names to an rclone command based on rules in a named file. The file contains a list of remarks and pattern rules.

For an example include-file.txt:

# a sample include rule file
*.jpg
file2.avi

rclone ls remote: --include-from include-file.txt lists the files on remote: with name file2.avi or suffix .jpg. That is equivalent to rclone ls remote: --include file2.avi --include "*.jpg".

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in.

The --include-from flag is useful where multiple include filter rules are applied to an rclone command.

--include-from implies --exclude ** at the end of an rclone internal filter list. Therefore if you mix --include and --include-from flags with --exclude, --exclude-from, --filter or --filter-from, you must use include rules for all the files you want in the include statement. For more flexibility use the --filter-from flag.

--exclude-from has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags.

--exclude-from followed by - reads filter rules from standard input.

Specifies path/file names to an rclone command, based on a single include or exclude rule, in + or - format.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in.

--filter + differs from --include. In the case of --include rclone implies an --exclude * rule which it adds to the bottom of the internal rule list. --filter...+ does not imply that rule.

--filter has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags.

--filter should not be used with --include, --include-from, --exclude or --exclude-from flags.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --filter "- *.bak" excludes all .bak files from a list of remote:.

Adds path/file names to an rclone command based on rules in a named file. The file contains a list of remarks and pattern rules. Include rules start with + and exclude rules with -. ! clears existing rules. Rules are processed in the order they are defined.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in.

Arrange the order of filter rules with the most restrictive first and work down.

E.g. for filter-file.txt:

# a sample filter rule file
- secret*.jpg
+ *.jpg
+ *.png
+ file2.avi
- /dir/Trash/**
+ /dir/**
# exclude everything else
- *

rclone ls remote: --filter-from filter-file.txt lists the path/files on remote: including all jpg and png files, excluding any matching secret*.jpg and including file2.avi. It also includes everything in the directory dir at the root of remote, except remote:dir/Trash which it excludes. Everything else is excluded.

E.g. for an alternative filter-file.txt:

- secret*.jpg
+ *.jpg
+ *.png
+ file2.avi
- *

Files file1.jpg, file3.png and file2.avi are listed whilst secret17.jpg and files without the suffix .jpgor.png` are excluded.

E.g. for an alternative filter-file.txt:

+ *.jpg
+ *.gif
!
+ 42.doc
- *

Only file 42.doc is listed. Prior rules are cleared by the !.

Adds path/files to an rclone command from a list in a named file. Rclone processes the path/file names in the order of the list, and no others.

Other filter flags (--include, --include-from, --exclude, --exclude-from, --filter and --filter-from) are ignored when --files-from is used.

--files-from expects a list of files as its input. Leading or trailing whitespace is stripped from the input lines. Lines starting with # or ; are ignored.

Rclone commands with a --files-from flag traverse the remote, treating the names in --files-from as a set of filters.

If the --no-traverse and --files-from flags are used together an rclone command does not traverse the remote. Instead it addresses each path/file named in the file individually. For each path/file name, that requires typically 1 API call. This can be efficient for a short --files-from list and a remote containing many files.

Rclone commands do not error if any names in the --files-from file are missing from the source remote.

The --files-from flag can be repeated in a single rclone command to read path/file names from more than one file. The files are read from left to right along the command line.

Paths within the --files-from file are interpreted as starting with the root specified in the rclone command. Leading / separators are ignored. See --files-from-raw if you need the input to be processed in a raw manner.

E.g. for a file files-from.txt:

# comment
file1.jpg
subdir/file2.jpg

rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt /home/me/pics remote:pics copies the following, if they exist, and only those files.

/home/me/pics/file1.jpg        → remote:pics/file1.jpg
/home/me/pics/subdir/file2.jpg → remote:pics/subdir/file2.jpg

E.g. to copy the following files referenced by their absolute paths:

/home/user1/42
/home/user1/dir/ford
/home/user2/prefect

First find a common subdirectory - in this case /home and put the remaining files in files-from.txt with or without leading /, e.g.

user1/42
user1/dir/ford
user2/prefect

Then copy these to a remote:

rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt /home remote:backup

The three files are transferred as follows:

/home/user1/42       → remote:backup/user1/important
/home/user1/dir/ford → remote:backup/user1/dir/file
/home/user2/prefect  → remote:backup/user2/stuff

Alternatively if / is chosen as root files-from.txt will be:

/home/user1/42
/home/user1/dir/ford
/home/user2/prefect

The copy command will be:

rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt / remote:backup

Then there will be an extra home directory on the remote:

/home/user1/42       → remote:backup/home/user1/42
/home/user1/dir/ford → remote:backup/home/user1/dir/ford
/home/user2/prefect  → remote:backup/home/user2/prefect

This flag is the same as --files-from except that input is read in a raw manner. Lines with leading / trailing whitespace, and lines starting with ; or # are read without any processing. rclone lsf (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsf/) has a compatible format that can be used to export file lists from remotes for input to --files-from-raw.

By default rclone filter patterns are case sensitive. The --ignore-case flag makes all of the filters patterns on the command line case insensitive.

E.g. --include "zaphod.txt" does not match a file Zaphod.txt. With --ignore-case a match is made.

Rclone commands with filter patterns containing shell metacharacters may not as work as expected in your shell and may require quoting.

E.g. linux, OSX (* metacharacter)

--include \*.jpg
--include '*.jpg'
--include='*.jpg'

Microsoft Windows expansion is done by the command, not shell, so --include *.jpg does not require quoting.

If the rclone error Command .... needs .... arguments maximum: you provided .... non flag arguments: is encountered, the cause is commonly spaces within the name of a remote or flag value. The fix then is to quote values containing spaces.

Controls the minimum size file within the scope of an rclone command. Default units are KiByte but abbreviations K, M, G, T or P are valid.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --min-size 50k lists files on remote: of 50 KiByte size or larger.

Controls the maximum size file within the scope of an rclone command. Default units are KiByte but abbreviations K, M, G, T or P are valid.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --max-size 1G lists files on remote: of 1 GiByte size or smaller.

Controls the maximum age of files within the scope of an rclone command. Default units are seconds or the following abbreviations are valid:
ms - Milliseconds
s - Seconds
m - Minutes
h - Hours
d - Days
w - Weeks
M - Months
y - Years

--max-age can also be specified as an absolute time in the following formats:

RFC3339 - e.g. 2006-01-02T15:04:05Z or 2006-01-02T15:04:05+07:00
ISO8601 Date and time, local timezone - 2006-01-02T15:04:05
ISO8601 Date and time, local timezone - 2006-01-02 15:04:05
ISO8601 Date - 2006-01-02 (YYYY-MM-DD)

--max-age applies only to files and not to directories.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --max-age 2d lists files on remote: of 2 days old or less.

Controls the minimum age of files within the scope of an rclone command. (see --max-age for valid formats)

--min-age applies only to files and not to directories.

E.g. rclone ls remote: --min-age 2d lists files on remote: of 2 days old or more.

Important this flag is dangerous to your data - use with --dry-run and -v first.

In conjunction with rclone sync, --delete-excluded deletes any files on the destination which are excluded from the command.

E.g. the scope of rclone sync -i A: B: can be restricted:

rclone --min-size 50k --delete-excluded sync A: B:

All files on B: which are less than 50 KiByte are deleted because they are excluded from the rclone sync command.

Dumps the defined filters to standard output in regular expression format.

Useful for debugging.

The --exclude-if-present flag controls whether a directory is within the scope of an rclone command based on the presence of a named file within it.

This flag has a priority over other filter flags.

E.g. for the following directory structure:

dir1/file1
dir1/dir2/file2
dir1/dir2/dir3/file3
dir1/dir2/dir3/.ignore

The command rclone ls --exclude-if-present .ignore dir1 does not list dir3, file3 or .ignore.

--exclude-if-present can only be used once in an rclone command.

The most frequent filter support issues on the rclone forum (https://forum.rclone.org/) are:
Not using paths relative to the root of the remote
Not using / to match from the root of a remote
Not using ** to match the contents of a directory

Rclone can serve a web based GUI (graphical user interface). This is somewhat experimental at the moment so things may be subject to change.

Run this command in a terminal and rclone will download and then display the GUI in a web browser.

rclone rcd --rc-web-gui

This will produce logs like this and rclone needs to continue to run to serve the GUI:

2019/08/25 11:40:14 NOTICE: A new release for gui is present at https://github.com/rclone/rclone-webui-react/releases/download/v0.0.6/currentbuild.zip
2019/08/25 11:40:14 NOTICE: Downloading webgui binary. Please wait. [Size: 3813937, Path :  /home/USER/.cache/rclone/webgui/v0.0.6.zip]
2019/08/25 11:40:16 NOTICE: Unzipping
2019/08/25 11:40:16 NOTICE: Serving remote control on http://127.0.0.1:5572/

This assumes you are running rclone locally on your machine. It is possible to separate the rclone and the GUI - see below for details.

If you wish to check for updates then you can add --rc-web-gui-update to the command line.

If you find your GUI broken, you may force it to update by add --rc-web-gui-force-update.

By default, rclone will open your browser. Add --rc-web-gui-no-open-browser to disable this feature.

Once the GUI opens, you will be looking at the dashboard which has an overall overview.

On the left hand side you will see a series of view buttons you can click on:

Dashboard - main overview
Configs - examine and create new configurations
Explorer - view, download and upload files to the cloud storage systems
Backend - view or alter the backend config
Log out

(More docs and walkthrough video to come!)

When you run the rclone rcd --rc-web-gui this is what happens
Rclone starts but only runs the remote control API ("rc").
The API is bound to localhost with an auto generated username and password.
If the API bundle is missing then rclone will download it.
rclone will start serving the files from the API bundle over the same port as the API
rclone will open the browser with a login_token so it can log straight in.

The rclone rcd may use any of the flags documented on the rc page (https://rclone.org/rc/#supported-parameters).

The flag --rc-web-gui is shorthand for

Download the web GUI if necessary
Check we are using some authentication
--rc-user gui
--rc-pass <random password>
--rc-serve

These flags can be overridden as desired.

See also the rclone rcd documentation (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rcd/).

For example the GUI could be served on a public port over SSL using an htpasswd file using the following flags:
--rc-web-gui
--rc-addr :443
--rc-htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd
--rc-cert /path/to/ssl.crt
--rc-key /path/to/ssl.key

If you want to run the GUI behind a proxy at /rclone you could use these flags:
--rc-web-gui
--rc-baseurl rclone
--rc-htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd

Or instead of htpasswd if you just want a single user and password:

--rc-user me
--rc-pass mypassword

The GUI is being developed in the: rclone/rclone-webui-react repository (https://github.com/rclone/rclone-webui-react).

Bug reports and contributions are very welcome :-)

If you have questions then please ask them on the rclone forum (https://forum.rclone.org/).

If rclone is run with the --rc flag then it starts an HTTP server which can be used to remote control rclone using its API.

You can either use the rclone rc command to access the API or use HTTP directly.

If you just want to run a remote control then see the rcd command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rcd/).

Flag to start the http server listen on remote requests

IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:5572")

SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)

Client certificate authority to verify clients with

htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done

SSL PEM Private key

Maximum size of request header (default 4096)

User name for authentication.

Password for authentication.

Realm for authentication (default "rclone")

Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)

Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)

Enable the serving of remote objects via the HTTP interface. This means objects will be accessible at http://127.0.0.1:5572/ by default, so you can browse to http://127.0.0.1:5572/ or http://127.0.0.1:5572/* to see a listing of the remotes. Objects may be requested from remotes using this syntax http://127.0.0.1:5572/[remote:path]/path/to/object

Default Off.

Path to local files to serve on the HTTP server.

If this is set then rclone will serve the files in that directory. It will also open the root in the web browser if specified. This is for implementing browser based GUIs for rclone functions.

If --rc-user or --rc-pass is set then the URL that is opened will have the authorization in the URL in the http://user:pass@localhost/ style.

Default Off.

Enable OpenMetrics/Prometheus compatible endpoint at /metrics.

Default Off.

Set this flag to serve the default web gui on the same port as rclone.

Default Off.

Set the allowed Access-Control-Allow-Origin for rc requests.

Can be used with --rc-web-gui if the rclone is running on different IP than the web-gui.

Default is IP address on which rc is running.

Set the URL to fetch the rclone-web-gui files from.

Default https://api.github.com/repos/rclone/rclone-webui-react/releases/latest.

Set this flag to check and update rclone-webui-react from the rc-web-fetch-url.

Default Off.

Set this flag to force update rclone-webui-react from the rc-web-fetch-url.

Default Off.

Set this flag to disable opening browser automatically when using web-gui.

Default Off.

Expire finished async jobs older than DURATION (default 60s).

Interval duration to check for expired async jobs (default 10s).

By default rclone will require authorisation to have been set up on the rc interface in order to use any methods which access any rclone remotes. Eg operations/list is denied as it involved creating a remote as is sync/copy.

If this is set then no authorisation will be required on the server to use these methods. The alternative is to use --rc-user and --rc-pass and use these credentials in the request.

Default Off.

Rclone itself implements the remote control protocol in its rclone rc command.

You can use it like this

$ rclone rc rc/noop param1=one param2=two
{
    "param1": "one",
    "param2": "two"
}

Run rclone rc on its own to see the help for the installed remote control commands.

rclone rc also supports a --json flag which can be used to send more complicated input parameters.
$ rclone rc --json '{ "p1": [1,"2",null,4], "p2": { "a":1, "b":2 } }' rc/noop
{
    "p1": [
        1,
        "2",
        null,
        4
    ],
    "p2": {
        "a": 1,
        "b": 2
    }
}

If the parameter being passed is an object then it can be passed as a JSON string rather than using the --json flag which simplifies the command line.

rclone rc operations/list fs=/tmp remote=test opt='{"showHash": true}'

Rather than

rclone rc operations/list --json '{"fs": "/tmp", "remote": "test", "opt": {"showHash": true}}'

The rc interface supports some special parameters which apply to all commands. These start with _ to show they are different.

Each rc call is classified as a job and it is assigned its own id. By default jobs are executed immediately as they are created or synchronously.

If _async has a true value when supplied to an rc call then it will return immediately with a job id and the task will be run in the background. The job/status call can be used to get information of the background job. The job can be queried for up to 1 minute after it has finished.

It is recommended that potentially long running jobs, e.g. sync/sync, sync/copy, sync/move, operations/purge are run with the _async flag to avoid any potential problems with the HTTP request and response timing out.

Starting a job with the _async flag:

$ rclone rc --json '{ "p1": [1,"2",null,4], "p2": { "a":1, "b":2 }, "_async": true }' rc/noop
{
    "jobid": 2
}

Query the status to see if the job has finished. For more information on the meaning of these return parameters see the job/status call.

$ rclone rc --json '{ "jobid":2 }' job/status
{
    "duration": 0.000124163,
    "endTime": "2018-10-27T11:38:07.911245881+01:00",
    "error": "",
    "finished": true,
    "id": 2,
    "output": {
        "_async": true,
        "p1": [
            1,
            "2",
            null,
            4
        ],
        "p2": {
            "a": 1,
            "b": 2
        }
    },
    "startTime": "2018-10-27T11:38:07.911121728+01:00",
    "success": true
}

job/list can be used to show the running or recently completed jobs

$ rclone rc job/list
{
    "jobids": [
        2
    ]
}

If you wish to set config (the equivalent of the global flags) for the duration of an rc call only then pass in the _config parameter.

This should be in the same format as the config key returned by options/get.

For example, if you wished to run a sync with the --checksum parameter, you would pass this parameter in your JSON blob.

"_config":{"CheckSum": true}

If using rclone rc this could be passed as

rclone rc operations/sync ... _config='{"CheckSum": true}'

Any config parameters you don't set will inherit the global defaults which were set with command line flags or environment variables.

Note that it is possible to set some values as strings or integers - see data types (/#data-types) for more info. Here is an example setting the equivalent of --buffer-size in string or integer format.

"_config":{"BufferSize": "42M"}
"_config":{"BufferSize": 44040192}

If you wish to check the _config assignment has worked properly then calling options/local will show what the value got set to.

If you wish to set filters for the duration of an rc call only then pass in the _filter parameter.

This should be in the same format as the filter key returned by options/get.

For example, if you wished to run a sync with these flags

--max-size 1M --max-age 42s --include "a" --include "b"

you would pass this parameter in your JSON blob.

"_filter":{"MaxSize":"1M", "IncludeRule":["a","b"], "MaxAge":"42s"}

If using rclone rc this could be passed as

rclone rc ... _filter='{"MaxSize":"1M", "IncludeRule":["a","b"], "MaxAge":"42s"}'

Any filter parameters you don't set will inherit the global defaults which were set with command line flags or environment variables.

Note that it is possible to set some values as strings or integers - see data types (/#data-types) for more info. Here is an example setting the equivalent of --buffer-size in string or integer format.

"_filter":{"MinSize": "42M"}
"_filter":{"MinSize": 44040192}

If you wish to check the _filter assignment has worked properly then calling options/local will show what the value got set to.

Each rc call has its own stats group for tracking its metrics. By default grouping is done by the composite group name from prefix job/ and id of the job like so job/1.

If _group has a value then stats for that request will be grouped under that value. This allows caller to group stats under their own name.

Stats for specific group can be accessed by passing group to core/stats:

$ rclone rc --json '{ "group": "job/1" }' core/stats
{
    "speed": 12345
    ...
}

When the API returns types, these will mostly be straight forward integer, string or boolean types.

However some of the types returned by the options/get call and taken by the options/set calls as well as the vfsOpt, mountOpt and the _config parameters.

Duration - these are returned as an integer duration in nanoseconds. They may be set as an integer, or they may be set with time string, eg "5s". See the options section (https://rclone.org/docs/#options) for more info.
Size - these are returned as an integer number of bytes. They may be set as an integer or they may be set with a size suffix string, eg "10M". See the options section (https://rclone.org/docs/#options) for more info.
Enumerated type (such as CutoffMode, DumpFlags, LogLevel, VfsCacheMode - these will be returned as an integer and may be set as an integer but more conveniently they can be set as a string, eg "HARD" for CutoffMode or DEBUG for LogLevel.
BandwidthSpec - this will be set and returned as a string, eg "1M".

Remotes are specified with the fs=, srcFs=, dstFs= parameters depending on the command being used.

The parameters can be a string as per the rest of rclone, eg s3:bucket/path or :sftp:/my/dir. They can also be specified as JSON blobs.

If specifyng a JSON blob it should be a object mapping strings to strings. These values will be used to configure the remote. There are 3 special values which may be set:

type - set to type to specify a remote called :type:
_name - set to name to specify a remote called name:
_root - sets the root of the remote - may be empty

One of _name or type should normally be set. If the local backend is desired then type should be set to local. If _root isn't specified then it defaults to the root of the remote.

For example this JSON is equivalent to remote:/tmp

{
    "_name": "remote",
    "_path": "/tmp"
}

And this is equivalent to :sftp,host='example.com':/tmp

{
    "type": "sftp",
    "host": "example.com",
    "_path": "/tmp"
}

And this is equivalent to /tmp/dir

{
    type = "local",
    _ path = "/tmp/dir"
}

This takes the following parameters
command - a string with the command name
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
arg - a list of arguments for the backend command
opt - a map of string to string of options

Returns

result - result from the backend command

For example

rclone rc backend/command command=noop fs=. -o echo=yes -o blue -a path1 -a path2

Returns

{
    "result": {
        "arg": [
            "path1",
            "path2"
        ],
        "name": "noop",
        "opt": {
            "blue": "",
            "echo": "yes"
        }
    }
}

Note that this is the direct equivalent of using this "backend" command:

rclone backend noop . -o echo=yes -o blue path1 path2

Note that arguments must be preceded by the "-a" flag

See the backend (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_backend/) command for more information.

Authentication is required for this call.

Purge a remote from the cache backend. Supports either a directory or a file. Params: - remote = path to remote (required) - withData = true/false to delete cached data (chunks) as well (optional)

Eg

rclone rc cache/expire remote=path/to/sub/folder/
rclone rc cache/expire remote=/ withData=true

Ensure the specified file chunks are cached on disk.

The chunks= parameter specifies the file chunks to check. It takes a comma separated list of array slice indices. The slice indices are similar to Python slices: start[:end]

start is the 0 based chunk number from the beginning of the file to fetch inclusive. end is 0 based chunk number from the beginning of the file to fetch exclusive. Both values can be negative, in which case they count from the back of the file. The value "-5:" represents the last 5 chunks of a file.

Some valid examples are: ":5,-5:" -> the first and last five chunks "0,-2" -> the first and the second last chunk "0:10" -> the first ten chunks

Any parameter with a key that starts with "file" can be used to specify files to fetch, e.g.

rclone rc cache/fetch chunks=0 file=hello file2=home/goodbye

File names will automatically be encrypted when the a crypt remote is used on top of the cache.

Show statistics for the cache remote.

This takes the following parameters
name - name of remote
parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs
type - type of the new remote
opt - a dictionary of options to control the configuration
obscure - declare passwords are plain and need obscuring
noObscure - declare passwords are already obscured and don't need obscuring
nonInteractive - don't interact with a user, return questions
continue - continue the config process with an answer
all - ask all the config questions not just the post config ones
state - state to restart with - used with continue
result - result to restart with - used with continue

See the config create command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_create/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

Parameters:
name - name of remote to delete

See the config delete command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_delete/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

Returns a JSON object: - key: value

Where keys are remote names and values are the config parameters.

See the config dump command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

Parameters:
name - name of remote to get

See the config dump command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

Returns - remotes - array of remote names

See the listremotes command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_listremotes/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
name - name of remote
parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs

See the config password command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_password/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

Returns a JSON object: - providers - array of objects

See the config providers command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_providers/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
name - name of remote
parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs
opt - a dictionary of options to control the configuration
obscure - declare passwords are plain and need obscuring
noObscure - declare passwords are already obscured and don't need obscuring
nonInteractive - don't interact with a user, return questions
continue - continue the config process with an answer
all - ask all the config questions not just the post config ones
state - state to restart with - used with continue
result - result to restart with - used with continue

See the config update command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_update/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This sets the bandwidth limit to the string passed in. This should be a single bandwidth limit entry or a pair of upload:download bandwidth.

Eg

rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=off
{
    "bytesPerSecond": -1,
    "bytesPerSecondTx": -1,
    "bytesPerSecondRx": -1,
    "rate": "off"
}
rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=1M
{
    "bytesPerSecond": 1048576,
    "bytesPerSecondTx": 1048576,
    "bytesPerSecondRx": 1048576,
    "rate": "1M"
}
rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=1M:100k
{
    "bytesPerSecond": 1048576,
    "bytesPerSecondTx": 1048576,
    "bytesPerSecondRx": 131072,
    "rate": "1M"
}

If the rate parameter is not supplied then the bandwidth is queried

rclone rc core/bwlimit
{
    "bytesPerSecond": 1048576,
    "bytesPerSecondTx": 1048576,
    "bytesPerSecondRx": 1048576,
    "rate": "1M"
}

The format of the parameter is exactly the same as passed to --bwlimit except only one bandwidth may be specified.

In either case "rate" is returned as a human readable string, and "bytesPerSecond" is returned as a number.

This takes the following parameters
command - a string with the command name
arg - a list of arguments for the backend command
opt - a map of string to string of options
returnType - one of ("COMBINED_OUTPUT", "STREAM", "STREAM_ONLY_STDOUT", "STREAM_ONLY_STDERR")
defaults to "COMBINED_OUTPUT" if not set
the STREAM returnTypes will write the output to the body of the HTTP message
the COMBINED_OUTPUT will write the output to the "result" parameter

Returns

result - result from the backend command
only set when using returnType "COMBINED_OUTPUT"
error - set if rclone exits with an error code
returnType - one of ("COMBINED_OUTPUT", "STREAM", "STREAM_ONLY_STDOUT", "STREAM_ONLY_STDERR")

For example

rclone rc core/command command=ls -a mydrive:/ -o max-depth=1
rclone rc core/command -a ls -a mydrive:/ -o max-depth=1

Returns

{
    "error": false,
    "result": "<Raw command line output>"
}
OR 
{
    "error": true,
    "result": "<Raw command line output>"
}

Authentication is required for this call.

This tells the go runtime to do a garbage collection run. It isn't necessary to call this normally, but it can be useful for debugging memory problems.

This returns list of stats groups currently in memory.

Returns the following values:

{
    "groups":  an array of group names:
        [
            "group1",
            "group2",
            ...
        ]
}

This returns the memory statistics of the running program. What the values mean are explained in the go docs: https://golang.org/pkg/runtime/#MemStats

The most interesting values for most people are:

HeapAlloc: This is the amount of memory rclone is actually using
HeapSys: This is the amount of memory rclone has obtained from the OS
Sys: this is the total amount of memory requested from the OS
It is virtual memory so may include unused memory

Pass a clear string and rclone will obscure it for the config file: - clear - string

Returns - obscured - string

This returns PID of current process. Useful for stopping rclone process.

(optional) Pass an exit code to be used for terminating the app: - exitCode - int

This returns all available stats:
rclone rc core/stats

If group is not provided then summed up stats for all groups will be returned.

Parameters

group - name of the stats group (string)

Returns the following values:

{
    "bytes": total transferred bytes since the start of the group,
    "checks": number of files checked,
    "deletes" : number of files deleted,
    "elapsedTime": time in floating point seconds since rclone was started,
    "errors": number of errors,
    "eta": estimated time in seconds until the group completes,
    "fatalError": boolean whether there has been at least one fatal error,
    "lastError": last error string,
    "renames" : number of files renamed,
    "retryError": boolean showing whether there has been at least one non-NoRetryError,
    "speed": average speed in bytes per second since start of the group,
    "totalBytes": total number of bytes in the group,
    "totalChecks": total number of checks in the group,
    "totalTransfers": total number of transfers in the group,
    "transferTime" : total time spent on running jobs,
    "transfers": number of transferred files,
    "transferring": an array of currently active file transfers:
        [
            {
                "bytes": total transferred bytes for this file,
                "eta": estimated time in seconds until file transfer completion
                "name": name of the file,
                "percentage": progress of the file transfer in percent,
                "speed": average speed over the whole transfer in bytes per second,
                "speedAvg": current speed in bytes per second as an exponentially weighted moving average,
                "size": size of the file in bytes
            }
        ],
    "checking": an array of names of currently active file checks
        []
}

Values for "transferring", "checking" and "lastError" are only assigned if data is available. The value for "eta" is null if an eta cannot be determined.

This deletes entire stats group

Parameters

group - name of the stats group (string)

This clears counters, errors and finished transfers for all stats or specific stats group if group is provided.

Parameters

group - name of the stats group (string)

This returns stats about completed transfers:
rclone rc core/transferred

If group is not provided then completed transfers for all groups will be returned.

Note only the last 100 completed transfers are returned.

Parameters

group - name of the stats group (string)

Returns the following values:

{
    "transferred":  an array of completed transfers (including failed ones):
        [
            {
                "name": name of the file,
                "size": size of the file in bytes,
                "bytes": total transferred bytes for this file,
                "checked": if the transfer is only checked (skipped, deleted),
                "timestamp": integer representing millisecond unix epoch,
                "error": string description of the error (empty if successful),
                "jobid": id of the job that this transfer belongs to
            }
        ]
}

This shows the current version of go and the go runtime
version - rclone version, e.g. "v1.53.0"
decomposed - version number as [major, minor, patch]
isGit - boolean - true if this was compiled from the git version
isBeta - boolean - true if this is a beta version
os - OS in use as according to Go
arch - cpu architecture in use according to Go
goVersion - version of Go runtime in use
linking - type of rclone executable (static or dynamic)
goTags - space separated build tags or "none"

SetBlockProfileRate controls the fraction of goroutine blocking events that are reported in the blocking profile. The profiler aims to sample an average of one blocking event per rate nanoseconds spent blocked.

To include every blocking event in the profile, pass rate = 1. To turn off profiling entirely, pass rate <= 0.

After calling this you can use this to see the blocking profile:

go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/block

Parameters

rate - int

SetMutexProfileFraction controls the fraction of mutex contention events that are reported in the mutex profile. On average 1/rate events are reported. The previous rate is returned.

To turn off profiling entirely, pass rate 0. To just read the current rate, pass rate < 0. (For n>1 the details of sampling may change.)

Once this is set you can look use this to profile the mutex contention:

go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/mutex

Parameters

rate - int

Results

previousRate - int

This clears the fs cache. This is where remotes created from backends are cached for a short while to make repeated rc calls more efficient.

If you change the parameters of a backend then you may want to call this to clear an existing remote out of the cache before re-creating it.

Authentication is required for this call.

This returns the number of entries in the fs cache.

Returns - entries - number of items in the cache

Authentication is required for this call.

Parameters - None

Results

jobids - array of integer job ids

Parameters
jobid - id of the job (integer)

Results

finished - boolean
duration - time in seconds that the job ran for
endTime - time the job finished (e.g. "2018-10-26T18:50:20.528746884+01:00")
error - error from the job or empty string for no error
finished - boolean whether the job has finished or not
id - as passed in above
startTime - time the job started (e.g. "2018-10-26T18:50:20.528336039+01:00")
success - boolean - true for success false otherwise
output - output of the job as would have been returned if called synchronously
progress - output of the progress related to the underlying job

Parameters
jobid - id of the job (integer)

This shows currently mounted points, which can be used for performing an unmount

This takes no parameters and returns

mountPoints: list of current mount points

Eg

rclone rc mount/listmounts

Authentication is required for this call.

rclone allows Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows to mount any of Rclone's cloud storage systems as a file system with FUSE.

If no mountType is provided, the priority is given as follows: 1. mount 2.cmount 3.mount2

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote path to be mounted (required)
mountPoint: valid path on the local machine (required)
mountType: One of the values (mount, cmount, mount2) specifies the mount implementation to use
mountOpt: a JSON object with Mount options in.
vfsOpt: a JSON object with VFS options in.

Eg

rclone rc mount/mount fs=mydrive: mountPoint=/home/<user>/mountPoint
rclone rc mount/mount fs=mydrive: mountPoint=/home/<user>/mountPoint mountType=mount
rclone rc mount/mount fs=TestDrive: mountPoint=/mnt/tmp vfsOpt='{"CacheMode": 2}' mountOpt='{"AllowOther": true}'

The vfsOpt are as described in options/get and can be seen in the the "vfs" section when running and the mountOpt can be seen in the "mount" section.

rclone rc options/get

Authentication is required for this call.

This shows all possible mount types and returns them as a list.

This takes no parameters and returns

mountTypes: list of mount types

The mount types are strings like "mount", "mount2", "cmount" and can be passed to mount/mount as the mountType parameter.

Eg

rclone rc mount/types

Authentication is required for this call.

rclone allows Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows to mount any of Rclone's cloud storage systems as a file system with FUSE.

This takes the following parameters

mountPoint: valid path on the local machine where the mount was created (required)

Eg

rclone rc mount/unmount mountPoint=/home/<user>/mountPoint

Authentication is required for this call.

This shows currently mounted points, which can be used for performing an unmount

This takes no parameters and returns error if unmount does not succeed.

Eg

rclone rc mount/unmountall

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"

The result is as returned from rclone about --json

See the about command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_size/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"

See the cleanup command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_cleanup/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" for the source
srcRemote - a path within that remote e.g. "file.txt" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive2:" for the destination
dstRemote - a path within that remote e.g. "file2.txt" for the destination

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"
url - string, URL to read from
autoFilename - boolean, set to true to retrieve destination file name from url See the copyurl command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copyurl/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"

See the delete command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_delete/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"

See the deletefile command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_deletefile/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"

This returns info about the remote passed in;

{
    // optional features and whether they are available or not
    "Features": {
        "About": true,
        "BucketBased": false,
        "CanHaveEmptyDirectories": true,
        "CaseInsensitive": false,
        "ChangeNotify": false,
        "CleanUp": false,
        "Copy": false,
        "DirCacheFlush": false,
        "DirMove": true,
        "DuplicateFiles": false,
        "GetTier": false,
        "ListR": false,
        "MergeDirs": false,
        "Move": true,
        "OpenWriterAt": true,
        "PublicLink": false,
        "Purge": true,
        "PutStream": true,
        "PutUnchecked": false,
        "ReadMimeType": false,
        "ServerSideAcrossConfigs": false,
        "SetTier": false,
        "SetWrapper": false,
        "UnWrap": false,
        "WrapFs": false,
        "WriteMimeType": false
    },
    // Names of hashes available
    "Hashes": [
        "MD5",
        "SHA-1",
        "DropboxHash",
        "QuickXorHash"
    ],
    "Name": "local",    // Name as created
    "Precision": 1,     // Precision of timestamps in ns
    "Root": "/",        // Path as created
    "String": "Local file system at /" // how the remote will appear in logs
}

This command does not have a command line equivalent so use this instead:

rclone rc --loopback operations/fsinfo fs=remote:

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"
opt - a dictionary of options to control the listing (optional)
recurse - If set recurse directories
noModTime - If set return modification time
showEncrypted - If set show decrypted names
showOrigIDs - If set show the IDs for each item if known
showHash - If set return a dictionary of hashes

The result is

list
This is an array of objects as described in the lsjson command

See the lsjson command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsjson/) for more information on the above and examples.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"

See the mkdir command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mkdir/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" for the source
srcRemote - a path within that remote e.g. "file.txt" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive2:" for the destination
dstRemote - a path within that remote e.g. "file2.txt" for the destination

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"
unlink - boolean - if set removes the link rather than adding it (optional)
expire - string - the expiry time of the link e.g. "1d" (optional)

Returns

url - URL of the resource

See the link command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_link/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"

See the purge command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_purge/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"

See the rmdir command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rmdir/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"
leaveRoot - boolean, set to true not to delete the root

See the rmdirs command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rmdirs/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:path/to/dir"

Returns

count - number of files
bytes - number of bytes in those files

See the size command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_size/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir"
each part in body represents a file to be uploaded See the uploadfile command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_uploadfile/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

Returns - options - a list of the options block names

Returns an object where keys are option block names and values are an object with the current option values in.

Note that these are the global options which are unaffected by use of the _config and _filter parameters. If you wish to read the parameters set in _config then use options/config and for _filter use options/filter.

This shows the internal names of the option within rclone which should map to the external options very easily with a few exceptions.

Returns an object with the keys "config" and "filter". The "config" key contains the local config and the "filter" key contains the local filters.

Note that these are the local options specific to this rc call. If _config was not supplied then they will be the global options. Likewise with "_filter".

This call is mostly useful for seeing if _config and _filter passing is working.

This shows the internal names of the option within rclone which should map to the external options very easily with a few exceptions.

Parameters
option block name containing an object with
key: value

Repeated as often as required.

Only supply the options you wish to change. If an option is unknown it will be silently ignored. Not all options will have an effect when changed like this.

For example:

This sets DEBUG level logs (-vv) (these can be set by number or string)

rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": "DEBUG"}}'
rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": 8}}'

And this sets INFO level logs (-v)

rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": "INFO"}}'

And this sets NOTICE level logs (normal without -v)

rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": "NOTICE"}}'

used for adding a plugin to the webgui

This takes the following parameters

url: http url of the github repo where the plugin is hosted (http://github.com/rclone/rclone-webui-react)

Eg

rclone rc pluginsctl/addPlugin

Authentication is required for this call.

This shows all possible plugins by a mime type

This takes the following parameters

type: supported mime type by a loaded plugin e.g. (video/mp4, audio/mp3)
pluginType: filter plugins based on their type e.g. (DASHBOARD, FILE_HANDLER, TERMINAL)

and returns

loadedPlugins: list of current production plugins
testPlugins: list of temporarily loaded development plugins, usually running on a different server.

Eg

rclone rc pluginsctl/getPluginsForType type=video/mp4

Authentication is required for this call.

This allows you to get the currently enabled plugins and their details.

This takes no parameters and returns

loadedPlugins: list of current production plugins
testPlugins: list of temporarily loaded development plugins, usually running on a different server.

Eg

rclone rc pluginsctl/listPlugins

Authentication is required for this call.

allows listing of test plugins with the rclone.test set to true in package.json of the plugin

This takes no parameters and returns

loadedTestPlugins: list of currently available test plugins

Eg

rclone rc pluginsctl/listTestPlugins

Authentication is required for this call.

This allows you to remove a plugin using it's name

This takes parameters

name: name of the plugin in the format author/plugin_name

Eg

rclone rc pluginsctl/removePlugin name=rclone/video-plugin

Authentication is required for this call.

This allows you to remove a plugin using it's name

This takes the following parameters

name: name of the plugin in the format author/plugin_name

Eg

rclone rc pluginsctl/removeTestPlugin name=rclone/rclone-webui-react

Authentication is required for this call.

This returns an error with the input as part of its error string. Useful for testing error handling.

This lists all the registered remote control commands as a JSON map in the commands response.

This echoes the input parameters to the output parameters for testing purposes. It can be used to check that rclone is still alive and to check that parameter passing is working properly.

This echoes the input parameters to the output parameters for testing purposes. It can be used to check that rclone is still alive and to check that parameter passing is working properly.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:src" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:dst" for the destination
createEmptySrcDirs - create empty src directories on destination if set

See the copy command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:src" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:dst" for the destination
createEmptySrcDirs - create empty src directories on destination if set
deleteEmptySrcDirs - delete empty src directories if set

See the move command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_move/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This takes the following parameters
srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:src" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:dst" for the destination
createEmptySrcDirs - create empty src directories on destination if set

See the sync command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_sync/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

This forgets the paths in the directory cache causing them to be re-read from the remote when needed.

If no paths are passed in then it will forget all the paths in the directory cache.

rclone rc vfs/forget

Otherwise pass files or dirs in as file=path or dir=path. Any parameter key starting with file will forget that file and any starting with dir will forget that dir, e.g.

rclone rc vfs/forget file=hello file2=goodbye dir=home/junk

This command takes an "fs" parameter. If this parameter is not supplied and if there is only one VFS in use then that VFS will be used. If there is more than one VFS in use then the "fs" parameter must be supplied.

This lists the active VFSes.

It returns a list under the key "vfses" where the values are the VFS names that could be passed to the other VFS commands in the "fs" parameter.

Without any parameter given this returns the current status of the poll-interval setting.

When the interval=duration parameter is set, the poll-interval value is updated and the polling function is notified. Setting interval=0 disables poll-interval.

rclone rc vfs/poll-interval interval=5m

The timeout=duration parameter can be used to specify a time to wait for the current poll function to apply the new value. If timeout is less or equal 0, which is the default, wait indefinitely.

The new poll-interval value will only be active when the timeout is not reached.

If poll-interval is updated or disabled temporarily, some changes might not get picked up by the polling function, depending on the used remote.

This command takes an "fs" parameter. If this parameter is not supplied and if there is only one VFS in use then that VFS will be used. If there is more than one VFS in use then the "fs" parameter must be supplied.

This reads the directories for the specified paths and freshens the directory cache.

If no paths are passed in then it will refresh the root directory.

rclone rc vfs/refresh

Otherwise pass directories in as dir=path. Any parameter key starting with dir will refresh that directory, e.g.

rclone rc vfs/refresh dir=home/junk dir2=data/misc

If the parameter recursive=true is given the whole directory tree will get refreshed. This refresh will use --fast-list if enabled.

This command takes an "fs" parameter. If this parameter is not supplied and if there is only one VFS in use then that VFS will be used. If there is more than one VFS in use then the "fs" parameter must be supplied.

Rclone implements a simple HTTP based protocol.

Each endpoint takes an JSON object and returns a JSON object or an error. The JSON objects are essentially a map of string names to values.

All calls must made using POST.

The input objects can be supplied using URL parameters, POST parameters or by supplying "Content-Type: application/json" and a JSON blob in the body. There are examples of these below using curl.

The response will be a JSON blob in the body of the response. This is formatted to be reasonably human readable.

If an error occurs then there will be an HTTP error status (e.g. 500) and the body of the response will contain a JSON encoded error object, e.g.
{
    "error": "Expecting string value for key \"remote\" (was float64)",
    "input": {
        "fs": "/tmp",
        "remote": 3
    },
    "status": 400
    "path": "operations/rmdir",
}

The keys in the error response are - error - error string - input - the input parameters to the call - status - the HTTP status code - path - the path of the call

The sever implements basic CORS support and allows all origins for that. The response to a preflight OPTIONS request will echo the requested "Access-Control-Request-Headers" back.

curl -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?potato=1&sausage=2'

Response

{
    "potato": "1",
    "sausage": "2"
}

Here is what an error response looks like:

curl -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/error?potato=1&sausage=2'

{
    "error": "arbitrary error on input map[potato:1 sausage:2]",
    "input": {
        "potato": "1",
        "sausage": "2"
    }
}

Note that curl doesn't return errors to the shell unless you use the -f option

$ curl -f -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/error?potato=1&sausage=2'
curl: (22) The requested URL returned error: 400 Bad Request
$ echo $?
22

curl --data "potato=1" --data "sausage=2" http://localhost:5572/rc/noop

Response

{
    "potato": "1",
    "sausage": "2"
}

Note that you can combine these with URL parameters too with the POST parameters taking precedence.

curl --data "potato=1" --data "sausage=2" "http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?rutabaga=3&sausage=4"

Response

{
    "potato": "1",
    "rutabaga": "3",
    "sausage": "4"
}

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"potato":2,"sausage":1}' http://localhost:5572/rc/noop

response

{
    "password": "xyz",
    "username": "xyz"
}

This can be combined with URL parameters too if required. The JSON blob takes precedence.

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"potato":2,"sausage":1}' 'http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?rutabaga=3&potato=4'

{
    "potato": 2,
    "rutabaga": "3",
    "sausage": 1
}

If you use the --rc flag this will also enable the use of the go profiling tools on the same port.

To use these, first install go (https://golang.org/doc/install).

To profile rclone's memory use you can run:
go tool pprof -web http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap

This should open a page in your browser showing what is using what memory.

You can also use the -text flag to produce a textual summary

$ go tool pprof -text http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap
Showing nodes accounting for 1537.03kB, 100% of 1537.03kB total
      flat  flat%   sum%        cum   cum%
 1024.03kB 66.62% 66.62%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.addDecoderNode
     513kB 33.38%   100%      513kB 33.38%  net/http.newBufioWriterSize
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/all.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/serve.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/serve/restic.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.init.0
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  main.init
         0     0%   100%      513kB 33.38%  net/http.(*conn).readRequest
         0     0%   100%      513kB 33.38%  net/http.(*conn).serve
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  runtime.main

Memory leaks are most often caused by go routine leaks keeping memory alive which should have been garbage collected.

See all active go routines using

curl http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1

Or go to http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1 in your browser.

You can see a summary of profiles available at http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/

Here is how to use some of them:

Memory: go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap
Go routines: curl http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1
30-second CPU profile: go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/profile
5-second execution trace: wget http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/trace?seconds=5
Goroutine blocking profile
Enable first with: rclone rc debug/set-block-profile-rate rate=1 (docs)
go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/block
Contended mutexes:
Enable first with: rclone rc debug/set-mutex-profile-fraction rate=1 (docs)
go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/mutex

See the net/http/pprof docs (https://golang.org/pkg/net/http/pprof/) for more info on how to use the profiling and for a general overview see the Go team's blog post on profiling go programs (https://blog.golang.org/profiling-go-programs).

The profiling hook is zero overhead unless it is used (https://stackoverflow.com/q/26545159/164234).

Each cloud storage system is slightly different. Rclone attempts to provide a unified interface to them, but some underlying differences show through.

Here is an overview of the major features of each cloud storage system.
Name Hash ModTime Case Insensitive Duplicate Files MIME Type
1Fichier Whirlpool No No Yes R
Amazon Drive MD5 No Yes No R
Amazon S3 MD5 Yes No No R/W
Backblaze B2 SHA1 Yes No No R/W
Box SHA1 Yes Yes No -
Citrix ShareFile MD5 Yes Yes No -
Dropbox DBHASH ¹ Yes Yes No -
Enterprise File Fabric - Yes Yes No R/W
FTP - No No No -
Google Cloud Storage MD5 Yes No No R/W
Google Drive MD5 Yes No Yes R/W
Google Photos - No No Yes R
HDFS - Yes No No -
HTTP - No No No R
Hubic MD5 Yes No No R/W
Jottacloud MD5 Yes Yes No R
Koofr MD5 No Yes No -
Mail.ru Cloud Mailru ⁶ Yes Yes No -
Mega - No No Yes -
Memory MD5 Yes No No -
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage MD5 Yes No No R/W
Microsoft OneDrive SHA1 ⁵ Yes Yes No R
OpenDrive MD5 Yes Yes Partial ⁸ -
OpenStack Swift MD5 Yes No No R/W
pCloud MD5, SHA1 ⁷ Yes No No W
premiumize.me - No Yes No R
put.io CRC-32 Yes No Yes R
QingStor MD5 No No No R/W
Seafile - No No No -
SFTP MD5, SHA1 ² Yes Depends No -
SugarSync - No No No -
Tardigrade - Yes No No -
Uptobox - No No Yes -
WebDAV MD5, SHA1 ³ Yes ⁴ Depends No -
Yandex Disk MD5 Yes No No R
Zoho WorkDrive - No No No -
The local filesystem All Yes Depends No -

¹ Dropbox supports its own custom hash (https://www.dropbox.com/developers/reference/content-hash). This is an SHA256 sum of all the 4 MiB block SHA256s.

² SFTP supports checksums if the same login has shell access and md5sum or sha1sum as well as echo are in the remote's PATH.

³ WebDAV supports hashes when used with Owncloud and Nextcloud only.

⁴ WebDAV supports modtimes when used with Owncloud and Nextcloud only.

⁵ Microsoft OneDrive Personal supports SHA1 hashes, whereas OneDrive for business and SharePoint server support Microsoft's own QuickXorHash (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/onedrive/developer/code-snippets/quickxorhash).

⁶ Mail.ru uses its own modified SHA1 hash

⁷ pCloud only supports SHA1 (not MD5) in its EU region

⁸ Opendrive does not support creation of duplicate files using their web client interface or other stock clients, but the underlying storage platform has been determined to allow duplicate files, and it is possible to create them with rclone. It may be that this is a mistake or an unsupported feature.

The cloud storage system supports various hash types of the objects. The hashes are used when transferring data as an integrity check and can be specifically used with the --checksum flag in syncs and in the check command.

To use the verify checksums when transferring between cloud storage systems they must support a common hash type.

The cloud storage system supports setting modification times on objects. If it does then this enables a using the modification times as part of the sync. If not then only the size will be checked by default, though the MD5SUM can be checked with the --checksum flag.

All cloud storage systems support some kind of date on the object and these will be set when transferring from the cloud storage system.

If a cloud storage systems is case sensitive then it is possible to have two files which differ only in case, e.g. file.txt and FILE.txt. If a cloud storage system is case insensitive then that isn't possible.

This can cause problems when syncing between a case insensitive system and a case sensitive system. The symptom of this is that no matter how many times you run the sync it never completes fully.

The local filesystem and SFTP may or may not be case sensitive depending on OS.

Windows - usually case insensitive, though case is preserved
OSX - usually case insensitive, though it is possible to format case sensitive
Linux - usually case sensitive, but there are case insensitive file systems (e.g. FAT formatted USB keys)

Most of the time this doesn't cause any problems as people tend to avoid files whose name differs only by case even on case sensitive systems.

If a cloud storage system allows duplicate files then it can have two objects with the same name.

This confuses rclone greatly when syncing - use the rclone dedupe command to rename or remove duplicates.

Some cloud storage systems might have restrictions on the characters that are usable in file or directory names. When rclone detects such a name during a file upload, it will transparently replace the restricted characters with similar looking Unicode characters.

This process is designed to avoid ambiguous file names as much as possible and allow to move files between many cloud storage systems transparently.

The name shown by rclone to the user or during log output will only contain a minimal set of replaced characters to ensure correct formatting and not necessarily the actual name used on the cloud storage.

This transformation is reversed when downloading a file or parsing rclone arguments. For example, when uploading a file named my file?.txt to Onedrive will be displayed as my file?.txt on the console, but stored as my file?.txt (the ? gets replaced by the similar looking ? character) to Onedrive. The reverse transformation allows to read a fileunusual/name.txt from Google Drive, by passing the name unusual/name.txt (the / needs to be replaced by the similar looking / character) on the command line.

The table below shows the characters that are replaced by default.

When a replacement character is found in a filename, this character will be escaped with the ‛ character to avoid ambiguous file names. (e.g. a file named ␀.txt would shown as ‛␀.txt)

Each cloud storage backend can use a different set of characters, which will be specified in the documentation for each backend.

Character Value Replacement
NUL 0x00
SOH 0x01
STX 0x02
ETX 0x03
EOT 0x04
ENQ 0x05
ACK 0x06
BEL 0x07
BS 0x08
HT 0x09
LF 0x0A
VT 0x0B
FF 0x0C
CR 0x0D
SO 0x0E
SI 0x0F
DLE 0x10
DC1 0x11
DC2 0x12
DC3 0x13
DC4 0x14
NAK 0x15
SYN 0x16
ETB 0x17
CAN 0x18
EM 0x19
SUB 0x1A
ESC 0x1B
FS 0x1C
GS 0x1D
RS 0x1E
US 0x1F
/ 0x2F
DEL 0x7F

The default encoding will also encode these file names as they are problematic with many cloud storage systems.

File name Replacement
.
.. ..

Some backends only support a sequence of well formed UTF-8 bytes as file or directory names.

In this case all invalid UTF-8 bytes will be replaced with a quoted representation of the byte value to allow uploading a file to such a backend. For example, the invalid byte 0xFE will be encoded as ‛FE.

A common source of invalid UTF-8 bytes are local filesystems, that store names in a different encoding than UTF-8 or UTF-16, like latin1. See the local filenames (https://rclone.org/local/#filenames) section for details.

Most backends have an encoding options, specified as a flag --backend-encoding where backend is the name of the backend, or as a config parameter encoding (you'll need to select the Advanced config in rclone config to see it).

This will have default value which encodes and decodes characters in such a way as to preserve the maximum number of characters (see above).

However this can be incorrect in some scenarios, for example if you have a Windows file system with characters such as * and ? that you want to remain as those characters on the remote rather than being translated to * and ?.

The --backend-encoding flags allow you to change that. You can disable the encoding completely with --backend-encoding None or set encoding = None in the config file.

Encoding takes a comma separated list of encodings. You can see the list of all available characters by passing an invalid value to this flag, e.g. --local-encoding "help" and rclone help flags encoding will show you the defaults for the backends.

Encoding Characters
Asterisk *
BackQuote `
BackSlash \
Colon :
CrLf CR 0x0D, LF 0x0A
Ctl All control characters 0x00-0x1F
Del DEL 0x7F
Dollar $
Dot .
DoubleQuote "
Hash #
InvalidUtf8 An invalid UTF-8 character (e.g. latin1)
LeftCrLfHtVt CR 0x0D, LF 0x0A,HT 0x09, VT 0x0B on the left of a string
LeftPeriod . on the left of a string
LeftSpace SPACE on the left of a string
LeftTilde ~ on the left of a string
LtGt <, >
None No characters are encoded
Percent %
Pipe |
Question ?
RightCrLfHtVt CR 0x0D, LF 0x0A, HT 0x09, VT 0x0B on the right of a string
RightPeriod . on the right of a string
RightSpace SPACE on the right of a string
SingleQuote '
Slash /

To take a specific example, the FTP backend's default encoding is

--ftp-encoding "Slash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,Dot"

However, let's say the FTP server is running on Windows and can't have any of the invalid Windows characters in file names. You are backing up Linux servers to this FTP server which do have those characters in file names. So you would add the Windows set which are

Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot

to the existing ones, giving:

Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot,Del,RightSpace

This can be specified using the --ftp-encoding flag or using an encoding parameter in the config file.

Or let's say you have a Windows server but you want to preserve * and ?, you would then have this as the encoding (the Windows encoding minus Asterisk and Question).

Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot

This can be specified using the --local-encoding flag or using an encoding parameter in the config file.

MIME types (also known as media types) classify types of documents using a simple text classification, e.g. text/html or application/pdf.

Some cloud storage systems support reading (R) the MIME type of objects and some support writing (W) the MIME type of objects.

The MIME type can be important if you are serving files directly to HTTP from the storage system.

If you are copying from a remote which supports reading (R) to a remote which supports writing (W) then rclone will preserve the MIME types. Otherwise they will be guessed from the extension, or the remote itself may assign the MIME type.

All rclone remotes support a base command set. Other features depend upon backend specific capabilities.
Name Purge Copy Move DirMove CleanUp ListR StreamUpload LinkSharing About EmptyDir
1Fichier No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes
Amazon Drive Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes
Amazon S3 No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Backblaze B2 No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Box Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ‡‡ No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Citrix ShareFile Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes
Dropbox Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Enterprise File Fabric Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes
FTP No No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes
Google Cloud Storage Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No
Google Drive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Google Photos No No No No No No No No No No
HDFS Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes
HTTP No No No No No No No No No Yes
Hubic Yes † Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes No
Jottacloud Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Mail.ru Cloud Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Mega Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Memory No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No
Microsoft OneDrive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
OpenDrive Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes
OpenStack Swift Yes † Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes No
pCloud Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
premiumize.me Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
put.io Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
QingStor No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
Seafile Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SFTP No No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes
SugarSync Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes
Tardigrade Yes † No No No No Yes Yes No No No
Uptobox No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
WebDAV Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes ‡ No Yes Yes
Yandex Disk Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Zoho WorkDrive Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes
The local filesystem Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes

This deletes a directory quicker than just deleting all the files in the directory.

† Note Swift, Hubic, and Tardigrade implement this in order to delete directory markers but they don't actually have a quicker way of deleting files other than deleting them individually.

‡ StreamUpload is not supported with Nextcloud

Used when copying an object to and from the same remote. This known as a server-side copy so you can copy a file without downloading it and uploading it again. It is used if you use rclone copy or rclone move if the remote doesn't support Move directly.

If the server doesn't support Copy directly then for copy operations the file is downloaded then re-uploaded.

Used when moving/renaming an object on the same remote. This is known as a server-side move of a file. This is used in rclone move if the server doesn't support DirMove.

If the server isn't capable of Move then rclone simulates it with Copy then delete. If the server doesn't support Copy then rclone will download the file and re-upload it.

This is used to implement rclone move to move a directory if possible. If it isn't then it will use Move on each file (which falls back to Copy then download and upload - see Move section).

This is used for emptying the trash for a remote by rclone cleanup.

If the server can't do CleanUp then rclone cleanup will return an error.

‡‡ Note that while Box implements this it has to delete every file individually so it will be slower than emptying the trash via the WebUI

The remote supports a recursive list to list all the contents beneath a directory quickly. This enables the --fast-list flag to work. See the rclone docs (https://rclone.org/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

Some remotes allow files to be uploaded without knowing the file size in advance. This allows certain operations to work without spooling the file to local disk first, e.g. rclone rcat.

Sets the necessary permissions on a file or folder and prints a link that allows others to access them, even if they don't have an account on the particular cloud provider.

Rclone about prints quota information for a remote. Typical output includes bytes used, free, quota and in trash.

If a remote lacks about capability rclone about remote:returns an error.

Backends without about capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount, or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

See rclone about command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/)

The remote supports empty directories. See Limitations (https://rclone.org/bugs/#limitations) for details. Most Object/Bucket based remotes do not support this.

This describes the global flags available to every rclone command split into two groups, non backend and backend flags.

These flags are available for every command.
    --ask-password                         Allow prompt for password for encrypted configuration. (default true)
    --auto-confirm                         If enabled, do not request console confirmation.
    --backup-dir string                    Make backups into hierarchy based in DIR.
    --bind string                          Local address to bind to for outgoing connections, IPv4, IPv6 or name.
    --buffer-size SizeSuffix               In memory buffer size when reading files for each --transfer. (default 16Mi)
    --bwlimit BwTimetable                  Bandwidth limit in KiByte/s, or use suffix B|K|M|G|T|P or a full timetable.
    --bwlimit-file BwTimetable             Bandwidth limit per file in KiByte/s, or use suffix B|K|M|G|T|P or a full timetable.
    --ca-cert string                       CA certificate used to verify servers
    --cache-dir string                     Directory rclone will use for caching. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone")
    --check-first                          Do all the checks before starting transfers.
    --checkers int                         Number of checkers to run in parallel. (default 8)
-c, --checksum                             Skip based on checksum (if available) & size, not mod-time & size
    --client-cert string                   Client SSL certificate (PEM) for mutual TLS auth
    --client-key string                    Client SSL private key (PEM) for mutual TLS auth
    --compare-dest stringArray             Include additional comma separated server-side paths during comparison.
    --config string                        Config file. (default "$HOME/.config/rclone/rclone.conf")
    --contimeout duration                  Connect timeout (default 1m0s)
    --copy-dest stringArray                Implies --compare-dest but also copies files from paths into destination.
    --cpuprofile string                    Write cpu profile to file
    --cutoff-mode string                   Mode to stop transfers when reaching the max transfer limit HARD|SOFT|CAUTIOUS (default "HARD")
    --delete-after                         When synchronizing, delete files on destination after transferring (default)
    --delete-before                        When synchronizing, delete files on destination before transferring
    --delete-during                        When synchronizing, delete files during transfer
    --delete-excluded                      Delete files on dest excluded from sync
    --disable string                       Disable a comma separated list of features.  Use --disable help to see a list.
    --disable-http2                        Disable HTTP/2 in the global transport.
-n, --dry-run                              Do a trial run with no permanent changes
    --dscp string                          Set DSCP value to connections. Can be value or names, eg. CS1, LE, DF, AF21.
    --dump DumpFlags                       List of items to dump from: headers,bodies,requests,responses,auth,filters,goroutines,openfiles
    --dump-bodies                          Dump HTTP headers and bodies - may contain sensitive info
    --dump-headers                         Dump HTTP headers - may contain sensitive info
    --error-on-no-transfer                 Sets exit code 9 if no files are transferred, useful in scripts
    --exclude stringArray                  Exclude files matching pattern
    --exclude-from stringArray             Read exclude patterns from file (use - to read from stdin)
    --exclude-if-present string            Exclude directories if filename is present
    --expect-continue-timeout duration     Timeout when using expect / 100-continue in HTTP (default 1s)
    --fast-list                            Use recursive list if available. Uses more memory but fewer transactions.
    --files-from stringArray               Read list of source-file names from file (use - to read from stdin)
    --files-from-raw stringArray           Read list of source-file names from file without any processing of lines (use - to read from stdin)
-f, --filter stringArray                   Add a file-filtering rule
    --filter-from stringArray              Read filtering patterns from a file (use - to read from stdin)
    --fs-cache-expire-duration duration    cache remotes for this long (0 to disable caching) (default 5m0s)
    --fs-cache-expire-interval duration    interval to check for expired remotes (default 1m0s)
    --header stringArray                   Set HTTP header for all transactions
    --header-download stringArray          Set HTTP header for download transactions
    --header-upload stringArray            Set HTTP header for upload transactions
    --ignore-case                          Ignore case in filters (case insensitive)
    --ignore-case-sync                     Ignore case when synchronizing
    --ignore-checksum                      Skip post copy check of checksums.
    --ignore-errors                        delete even if there are I/O errors
    --ignore-existing                      Skip all files that exist on destination
    --ignore-size                          Ignore size when skipping use mod-time or checksum.
-I, --ignore-times                         Don't skip files that match size and time - transfer all files
    --immutable                            Do not modify files. Fail if existing files have been modified.
    --include stringArray                  Include files matching pattern
    --include-from stringArray             Read include patterns from file (use - to read from stdin)
-i, --interactive                          Enable interactive mode
    --log-file string                      Log everything to this file
    --log-format string                    Comma separated list of log format options (default "date,time")
    --log-level string                     Log level DEBUG|INFO|NOTICE|ERROR (default "NOTICE")
    --log-systemd                          Activate systemd integration for the logger.
    --low-level-retries int                Number of low level retries to do. (default 10)
    --max-age Duration                     Only transfer files younger than this in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d|w|M|y (default off)
    --max-backlog int                      Maximum number of objects in sync or check backlog. (default 10000)
    --max-delete int                       When synchronizing, limit the number of deletes (default -1)
    --max-depth int                        If set limits the recursion depth to this. (default -1)
    --max-duration duration                Maximum duration rclone will transfer data for.
    --max-size SizeSuffix                  Only transfer files smaller than this in KiB or suffix B|K|M|G|T|P (default off)
    --max-stats-groups int                 Maximum number of stats groups to keep in memory. On max oldest is discarded. (default 1000)
    --max-transfer SizeSuffix              Maximum size of data to transfer. (default off)
    --memprofile string                    Write memory profile to file
    --min-age Duration                     Only transfer files older than this in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d|w|M|y (default off)
    --min-size SizeSuffix                  Only transfer files bigger than this in KiB or suffix B|K|M|G|T|P (default off)
    --modify-window duration               Max time diff to be considered the same (default 1ns)
    --multi-thread-cutoff SizeSuffix       Use multi-thread downloads for files above this size. (default 250Mi)
    --multi-thread-streams int             Max number of streams to use for multi-thread downloads. (default 4)
    --no-check-certificate                 Do not verify the server SSL certificate. Insecure.
    --no-check-dest                        Don't check the destination, copy regardless.
    --no-console                           Hide console window. Supported on Windows only.
    --no-gzip-encoding                     Don't set Accept-Encoding: gzip.
    --no-traverse                          Don't traverse destination file system on copy.
    --no-unicode-normalization             Don't normalize unicode characters in filenames.
    --no-update-modtime                    Don't update destination mod-time if files identical.
    --order-by string                      Instructions on how to order the transfers, e.g. 'size,descending'
    --password-command SpaceSepList        Command for supplying password for encrypted configuration.
-P, --progress                             Show progress during transfer.
    --progress-terminal-title              Show progress on the terminal title. Requires -P/--progress.
-q, --quiet                                Print as little stuff as possible
    --rc                                   Enable the remote control server.
    --rc-addr string                       IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:5572")
    --rc-allow-origin string               Set the allowed origin for CORS.
    --rc-baseurl string                    Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
    --rc-cert string                       SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
    --rc-client-ca string                  Client certificate authority to verify clients with
    --rc-enable-metrics                    Enable prometheus metrics on /metrics
    --rc-files string                      Path to local files to serve on the HTTP server.
    --rc-htpasswd string                   htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
    --rc-job-expire-duration duration      expire finished async jobs older than this value (default 1m0s)
    --rc-job-expire-interval duration      interval to check for expired async jobs (default 10s)
    --rc-key string                        SSL PEM Private key
    --rc-max-header-bytes int              Maximum size of request header (default 4096)
    --rc-no-auth                           Don't require auth for certain methods.
    --rc-pass string                       Password for authentication.
    --rc-realm string                      realm for authentication (default "rclone")
    --rc-serve                             Enable the serving of remote objects.
    --rc-server-read-timeout duration      Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)
    --rc-server-write-timeout duration     Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
    --rc-template string                   User Specified Template.
    --rc-user string                       User name for authentication.
    --rc-web-fetch-url string              URL to fetch the releases for webgui. (default "https://api.github.com/repos/rclone/rclone-webui-react/releases/latest")
    --rc-web-gui                           Launch WebGUI on localhost
    --rc-web-gui-force-update              Force update to latest version of web gui
    --rc-web-gui-no-open-browser           Don't open the browser automatically
    --rc-web-gui-update                    Check and update to latest version of web gui
    --refresh-times                        Refresh the modtime of remote files.
    --retries int                          Retry operations this many times if they fail (default 3)
    --retries-sleep duration               Interval between retrying operations if they fail, e.g 500ms, 60s, 5m. (0 to disable)
    --size-only                            Skip based on size only, not mod-time or checksum
    --stats duration                       Interval between printing stats, e.g 500ms, 60s, 5m. (0 to disable) (default 1m0s)
    --stats-file-name-length int           Max file name length in stats. 0 for no limit (default 45)
    --stats-log-level string               Log level to show --stats output DEBUG|INFO|NOTICE|ERROR (default "INFO")
    --stats-one-line                       Make the stats fit on one line.
    --stats-one-line-date                  Enables --stats-one-line and add current date/time prefix.
    --stats-one-line-date-format string    Enables --stats-one-line-date and uses custom formatted date. Enclose date string in double quotes ("). See https://golang.org/pkg/time/#Time.Format
    --stats-unit string                    Show data rate in stats as either 'bits' or 'bytes' per second (default "bytes")
    --streaming-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix   Cutoff for switching to chunked upload if file size is unknown. Upload starts after reaching cutoff or when file ends. (default 100Ki)
    --suffix string                        Suffix to add to changed files.
    --suffix-keep-extension                Preserve the extension when using --suffix.
    --syslog                               Use Syslog for logging
    --syslog-facility string               Facility for syslog, e.g. KERN,USER,... (default "DAEMON")
    --timeout duration                     IO idle timeout (default 5m0s)
    --tpslimit float                       Limit HTTP transactions per second to this.
    --tpslimit-burst int                   Max burst of transactions for --tpslimit. (default 1)
    --track-renames                        When synchronizing, track file renames and do a server-side move if possible
    --track-renames-strategy string        Strategies to use when synchronizing using track-renames hash|modtime|leaf (default "hash")
    --transfers int                        Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)
-u, --update                               Skip files that are newer on the destination.
    --use-cookies                          Enable session cookiejar.
    --use-json-log                         Use json log format.
    --use-mmap                             Use mmap allocator (see docs).
    --use-server-modtime                   Use server modified time instead of object metadata
    --user-agent string                    Set the user-agent to a specified string. The default is rclone/ version (default "rclone/v1.56.0")
-v, --verbose count                        Print lots more stuff (repeat for more)

These flags are available for every command. They control the backends and may be set in the config file.
    --acd-auth-url string                                      Auth server URL.
    --acd-client-id string                                     OAuth Client Id
    --acd-client-secret string                                 OAuth Client Secret
    --acd-encoding MultiEncoder                                This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --acd-templink-threshold SizeSuffix                        Files >= this size will be downloaded via their tempLink. (default 9Gi)
    --acd-token string                                         OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --acd-token-url string                                     Token server url.
    --acd-upload-wait-per-gb Duration                          Additional time per GiB to wait after a failed complete upload to see if it appears. (default 3m0s)
    --alias-remote string                                      Remote or path to alias.
    --azureblob-access-tier string                             Access tier of blob: hot, cool or archive.
    --azureblob-account string                                 Storage Account Name (leave blank to use SAS URL or Emulator)
    --azureblob-archive-tier-delete                            Delete archive tier blobs before overwriting.
    --azureblob-chunk-size SizeSuffix                          Upload chunk size (<= 100 MiB). (default 4Mi)
    --azureblob-disable-checksum                               Don't store MD5 checksum with object metadata.
    --azureblob-encoding MultiEncoder                          This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8)
    --azureblob-endpoint string                                Endpoint for the service
    --azureblob-key string                                     Storage Account Key (leave blank to use SAS URL or Emulator)
    --azureblob-list-chunk int                                 Size of blob list. (default 5000)
    --azureblob-memory-pool-flush-time Duration                How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. (default 1m0s)
    --azureblob-memory-pool-use-mmap                           Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
    --azureblob-msi-client-id string                           Object ID of the user-assigned MSI to use, if any. Leave blank if msi_object_id or msi_mi_res_id specified.
    --azureblob-msi-mi-res-id string                           Azure resource ID of the user-assigned MSI to use, if any. Leave blank if msi_client_id or msi_object_id specified.
    --azureblob-msi-object-id string                           Object ID of the user-assigned MSI to use, if any. Leave blank if msi_client_id or msi_mi_res_id specified.
    --azureblob-public-access string                           Public access level of a container: blob, container.
    --azureblob-sas-url string                                 SAS URL for container level access only
    --azureblob-service-principal-file string                  Path to file containing credentials for use with a service principal.
    --azureblob-upload-cutoff string                           Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (<= 256 MiB). (Deprecated)
    --azureblob-use-emulator                                   Uses local storage emulator if provided as 'true' (leave blank if using real azure storage endpoint)
    --azureblob-use-msi                                        Use a managed service identity to authenticate (only works in Azure)
    --b2-account string                                        Account ID or Application Key ID
    --b2-chunk-size SizeSuffix                                 Upload chunk size. Must fit in memory. (default 96Mi)
    --b2-copy-cutoff SizeSuffix                                Cutoff for switching to multipart copy (default 4Gi)
    --b2-disable-checksum                                      Disable checksums for large (> upload cutoff) files
    --b2-download-auth-duration Duration                       Time before the authorization token will expire in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d. (default 1w)
    --b2-download-url string                                   Custom endpoint for downloads.
    --b2-encoding MultiEncoder                                 This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --b2-endpoint string                                       Endpoint for the service.
    --b2-hard-delete                                           Permanently delete files on remote removal, otherwise hide files.
    --b2-key string                                            Application Key
    --b2-memory-pool-flush-time Duration                       How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. (default 1m0s)
    --b2-memory-pool-use-mmap                                  Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
    --b2-test-mode string                                      A flag string for X-Bz-Test-Mode header for debugging.
    --b2-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                              Cutoff for switching to chunked upload. (default 200Mi)
    --b2-versions                                              Include old versions in directory listings.
    --box-access-token string                                  Box App Primary Access Token
    --box-auth-url string                                      Auth server URL.
    --box-box-config-file string                               Box App config.json location
    --box-box-sub-type string                                   (default "user")
    --box-client-id string                                     OAuth Client Id
    --box-client-secret string                                 OAuth Client Secret
    --box-commit-retries int                                   Max number of times to try committing a multipart file. (default 100)
    --box-encoding MultiEncoder                                This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --box-root-folder-id string                                Fill in for rclone to use a non root folder as its starting point.
    --box-token string                                         OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --box-token-url string                                     Token server url.
    --box-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                             Cutoff for switching to multipart upload (>= 50 MiB). (default 50Mi)
    --cache-chunk-clean-interval Duration                      How often should the cache perform cleanups of the chunk storage. (default 1m0s)
    --cache-chunk-no-memory                                    Disable the in-memory cache for storing chunks during streaming.
    --cache-chunk-path string                                  Directory to cache chunk files. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend")
    --cache-chunk-size SizeSuffix                              The size of a chunk (partial file data). (default 5Mi)
    --cache-chunk-total-size SizeSuffix                        The total size that the chunks can take up on the local disk. (default 10Gi)
    --cache-db-path string                                     Directory to store file structure metadata DB. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend")
    --cache-db-purge                                           Clear all the cached data for this remote on start.
    --cache-db-wait-time Duration                              How long to wait for the DB to be available - 0 is unlimited (default 1s)
    --cache-info-age Duration                                  How long to cache file structure information (directory listings, file size, times, etc.). (default 6h0m0s)
    --cache-plex-insecure string                               Skip all certificate verification when connecting to the Plex server
    --cache-plex-password string                               The password of the Plex user (obscured)
    --cache-plex-url string                                    The URL of the Plex server
    --cache-plex-username string                               The username of the Plex user
    --cache-read-retries int                                   How many times to retry a read from a cache storage. (default 10)
    --cache-remote string                                      Remote to cache.
    --cache-rps int                                            Limits the number of requests per second to the source FS (-1 to disable) (default -1)
    --cache-tmp-upload-path string                             Directory to keep temporary files until they are uploaded.
    --cache-tmp-wait-time Duration                             How long should files be stored in local cache before being uploaded (default 15s)
    --cache-workers int                                        How many workers should run in parallel to download chunks. (default 4)
    --cache-writes                                             Cache file data on writes through the FS
    --chunker-chunk-size SizeSuffix                            Files larger than chunk size will be split in chunks. (default 2Gi)
    --chunker-fail-hard                                        Choose how chunker should handle files with missing or invalid chunks.
    --chunker-hash-type string                                 Choose how chunker handles hash sums. All modes but "none" require metadata. (default "md5")
    --chunker-remote string                                    Remote to chunk/unchunk.
    --compress-level int                                       GZIP compression level (-2 to 9). (default -1)
    --compress-mode string                                     Compression mode. (default "gzip")
    --compress-ram-cache-limit SizeSuffix                      Some remotes don't allow the upload of files with unknown size. (default 20Mi)
    --compress-remote string                                   Remote to compress.
-L, --copy-links                                               Follow symlinks and copy the pointed to item.
    --crypt-directory-name-encryption                          Option to either encrypt directory names or leave them intact. (default true)
    --crypt-filename-encryption string                         How to encrypt the filenames. (default "standard")
    --crypt-no-data-encryption                                 Option to either encrypt file data or leave it unencrypted.
    --crypt-password string                                    Password or pass phrase for encryption. (obscured)
    --crypt-password2 string                                   Password or pass phrase for salt. Optional but recommended. (obscured)
    --crypt-remote string                                      Remote to encrypt/decrypt.
    --crypt-server-side-across-configs                         Allow server-side operations (e.g. copy) to work across different crypt configs.
    --crypt-show-mapping                                       For all files listed show how the names encrypt.
    --drive-acknowledge-abuse                                  Set to allow files which return cannotDownloadAbusiveFile to be downloaded.
    --drive-allow-import-name-change                           Allow the filetype to change when uploading Google docs (e.g. file.doc to file.docx). This will confuse sync and reupload every time.
    --drive-auth-owner-only                                    Only consider files owned by the authenticated user.
    --drive-auth-url string                                    Auth server URL.
    --drive-chunk-size SizeSuffix                              Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k. (default 8Mi)
    --drive-client-id string                                   Google Application Client Id
    --drive-client-secret string                               OAuth Client Secret
    --drive-disable-http2                                      Disable drive using http2 (default true)
    --drive-encoding MultiEncoder                              This sets the encoding for the backend. (default InvalidUtf8)
    --drive-export-formats string                              Comma separated list of preferred formats for downloading Google docs. (default "docx,xlsx,pptx,svg")
    --drive-formats string                                     Deprecated: see export_formats
    --drive-impersonate string                                 Impersonate this user when using a service account.
    --drive-import-formats string                              Comma separated list of preferred formats for uploading Google docs.
    --drive-keep-revision-forever                              Keep new head revision of each file forever.
    --drive-list-chunk int                                     Size of listing chunk 100-1000. 0 to disable. (default 1000)
    --drive-pacer-burst int                                    Number of API calls to allow without sleeping. (default 100)
    --drive-pacer-min-sleep Duration                           Minimum time to sleep between API calls. (default 100ms)
    --drive-root-folder-id string                              ID of the root folder
    --drive-scope string                                       Scope that rclone should use when requesting access from drive.
    --drive-server-side-across-configs                         Allow server-side operations (e.g. copy) to work across different drive configs.
    --drive-service-account-credentials string                 Service Account Credentials JSON blob
    --drive-service-account-file string                        Service Account Credentials JSON file path
    --drive-shared-with-me                                     Only show files that are shared with me.
    --drive-size-as-quota                                      Show sizes as storage quota usage, not actual size.
    --drive-skip-checksum-gphotos                              Skip MD5 checksum on Google photos and videos only.
    --drive-skip-gdocs                                         Skip google documents in all listings.
    --drive-skip-shortcuts                                     If set skip shortcut files
    --drive-starred-only                                       Only show files that are starred.
    --drive-stop-on-download-limit                             Make download limit errors be fatal
    --drive-stop-on-upload-limit                               Make upload limit errors be fatal
    --drive-team-drive string                                  ID of the Shared Drive (Team Drive)
    --drive-token string                                       OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --drive-token-url string                                   Token server url.
    --drive-trashed-only                                       Only show files that are in the trash.
    --drive-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                           Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (default 8Mi)
    --drive-use-created-date                                   Use file created date instead of modified date.,
    --drive-use-shared-date                                    Use date file was shared instead of modified date.
    --drive-use-trash                                          Send files to the trash instead of deleting permanently. (default true)
    --drive-v2-download-min-size SizeSuffix                    If Object's are greater, use drive v2 API to download. (default off)
    --dropbox-auth-url string                                  Auth server URL.
    --dropbox-batch-mode string                                Upload file batching sync|async|off. (default "sync")
    --dropbox-batch-size int                                   Max number of files in upload batch.
    --dropbox-batch-timeout Duration                           Max time to allow an idle upload batch before uploading (default 0s)
    --dropbox-chunk-size SizeSuffix                            Upload chunk size. (< 150Mi). (default 48Mi)
    --dropbox-client-id string                                 OAuth Client Id
    --dropbox-client-secret string                             OAuth Client Secret
    --dropbox-encoding MultiEncoder                            This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --dropbox-impersonate string                               Impersonate this user when using a business account.
    --dropbox-shared-files                                     Instructs rclone to work on individual shared files.
    --dropbox-shared-folders                                   Instructs rclone to work on shared folders.
    --dropbox-token string                                     OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --dropbox-token-url string                                 Token server url.
    --fichier-api-key string                                   Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl
    --fichier-encoding MultiEncoder                            This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,SingleQuote,BackQuote,Dollar,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,LeftSpace,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --fichier-file-password string                             If you want to download a shared file that is password protected, add this parameter (obscured)
    --fichier-folder-password string                           If you want to list the files in a shared folder that is password protected, add this parameter (obscured)
    --fichier-shared-folder string                             If you want to download a shared folder, add this parameter
    --filefabric-encoding MultiEncoder                         This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --filefabric-permanent-token string                        Permanent Authentication Token
    --filefabric-root-folder-id string                         ID of the root folder
    --filefabric-token string                                  Session Token
    --filefabric-token-expiry string                           Token expiry time
    --filefabric-url string                                    URL of the Enterprise File Fabric to connect to
    --filefabric-version string                                Version read from the file fabric
    --ftp-close-timeout Duration                               Maximum time to wait for a response to close. (default 1m0s)
    --ftp-concurrency int                                      Maximum number of FTP simultaneous connections, 0 for unlimited
    --ftp-disable-epsv                                         Disable using EPSV even if server advertises support
    --ftp-disable-mlsd                                         Disable using MLSD even if server advertises support
    --ftp-encoding MultiEncoder                                This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,Dot)
    --ftp-explicit-tls                                         Use Explicit FTPS (FTP over TLS)
    --ftp-host string                                          FTP host to connect to
    --ftp-idle-timeout Duration                                Max time before closing idle connections (default 1m0s)
    --ftp-no-check-certificate                                 Do not verify the TLS certificate of the server
    --ftp-pass string                                          FTP password (obscured)
    --ftp-port string                                          FTP port, leave blank to use default (21)
    --ftp-tls                                                  Use Implicit FTPS (FTP over TLS)
    --ftp-user string                                          FTP username, leave blank for current username, $USER
    --gcs-anonymous                                            Access public buckets and objects without credentials
    --gcs-auth-url string                                      Auth server URL.
    --gcs-bucket-acl string                                    Access Control List for new buckets.
    --gcs-bucket-policy-only                                   Access checks should use bucket-level IAM policies.
    --gcs-client-id string                                     OAuth Client Id
    --gcs-client-secret string                                 OAuth Client Secret
    --gcs-encoding MultiEncoder                                This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,CrLf,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --gcs-location string                                      Location for the newly created buckets.
    --gcs-object-acl string                                    Access Control List for new objects.
    --gcs-project-number string                                Project number.
    --gcs-service-account-file string                          Service Account Credentials JSON file path
    --gcs-storage-class string                                 The storage class to use when storing objects in Google Cloud Storage.
    --gcs-token string                                         OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --gcs-token-url string                                     Token server url.
    --gphotos-auth-url string                                  Auth server URL.
    --gphotos-client-id string                                 OAuth Client Id
    --gphotos-client-secret string                             OAuth Client Secret
    --gphotos-include-archived                                 Also view and download archived media.
    --gphotos-read-only                                        Set to make the Google Photos backend read only.
    --gphotos-read-size                                        Set to read the size of media items.
    --gphotos-start-year int                                   Year limits the photos to be downloaded to those which are uploaded after the given year (default 2000)
    --gphotos-token string                                     OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --gphotos-token-url string                                 Token server url.
    --hdfs-data-transfer-protection string                     Kerberos data transfer protection: authentication|integrity|privacy
    --hdfs-encoding MultiEncoder                               This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Colon,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --hdfs-namenode string                                     hadoop name node and port
    --hdfs-service-principal-name string                       Kerberos service principal name for the namenode
    --hdfs-username string                                     hadoop user name
    --http-headers CommaSepList                                Set HTTP headers for all transactions
    --http-no-head                                             Don't use HEAD requests to find file sizes in dir listing
    --http-no-slash                                            Set this if the site doesn't end directories with /
    --http-url string                                          URL of http host to connect to
    --hubic-auth-url string                                    Auth server URL.
    --hubic-chunk-size SizeSuffix                              Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. (default 5Gi)
    --hubic-client-id string                                   OAuth Client Id
    --hubic-client-secret string                               OAuth Client Secret
    --hubic-encoding MultiEncoder                              This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8)
    --hubic-no-chunk                                           Don't chunk files during streaming upload.
    --hubic-token string                                       OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --hubic-token-url string                                   Token server url.
    --jottacloud-encoding MultiEncoder                         This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --jottacloud-hard-delete                                   Delete files permanently rather than putting them into the trash.
    --jottacloud-md5-memory-limit SizeSuffix                   Files bigger than this will be cached on disk to calculate the MD5 if required. (default 10Mi)
    --jottacloud-no-versions                                   Avoid server side versioning by deleting files and recreating files instead of overwriting them.
    --jottacloud-trashed-only                                  Only show files that are in the trash.
    --jottacloud-upload-resume-limit SizeSuffix                Files bigger than this can be resumed if the upload fail's. (default 10Mi)
    --koofr-encoding MultiEncoder                              This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --koofr-endpoint string                                    The Koofr API endpoint to use (default "https://app.koofr.net")
    --koofr-mountid string                                     Mount ID of the mount to use. If omitted, the primary mount is used.
    --koofr-password string                                    Your Koofr password for rclone (generate one at https://app.koofr.net/app/admin/preferences/password) (obscured)
    --koofr-setmtime                                           Does the backend support setting modification time. Set this to false if you use a mount ID that points to a Dropbox or Amazon Drive backend. (default true)
    --koofr-user string                                        Your Koofr user name
-l, --links                                                    Translate symlinks to/from regular files with a '.rclonelink' extension
    --local-case-insensitive                                   Force the filesystem to report itself as case insensitive
    --local-case-sensitive                                     Force the filesystem to report itself as case sensitive.
    --local-encoding MultiEncoder                              This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Dot)
    --local-no-check-updated                                   Don't check to see if the files change during upload
    --local-no-preallocate                                     Disable preallocation of disk space for transferred files
    --local-no-set-modtime                                     Disable setting modtime
    --local-no-sparse                                          Disable sparse files for multi-thread downloads
    --local-nounc string                                       Disable UNC (long path names) conversion on Windows
    --local-unicode-normalization                              Apply unicode NFC normalization to paths and filenames
    --local-zero-size-links                                    Assume the Stat size of links is zero (and read them instead) (Deprecated)
    --mailru-check-hash                                        What should copy do if file checksum is mismatched or invalid (default true)
    --mailru-encoding MultiEncoder                             This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --mailru-pass string                                       Password (obscured)
    --mailru-speedup-enable                                    Skip full upload if there is another file with same data hash. (default true)
    --mailru-speedup-file-patterns string                      Comma separated list of file name patterns eligible for speedup (put by hash). (default "*.mkv,*.avi,*.mp4,*.mp3,*.zip,*.gz,*.rar,*.pdf")
    --mailru-speedup-max-disk SizeSuffix                       This option allows you to disable speedup (put by hash) for large files (default 3Gi)
    --mailru-speedup-max-memory SizeSuffix                     Files larger than the size given below will always be hashed on disk. (default 32Mi)
    --mailru-user string                                       User name (usually email)
    --mega-debug                                               Output more debug from Mega.
    --mega-encoding MultiEncoder                               This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --mega-hard-delete                                         Delete files permanently rather than putting them into the trash.
    --mega-pass string                                         Password. (obscured)
    --mega-user string                                         User name
-x, --one-file-system                                          Don't cross filesystem boundaries (unix/macOS only).
    --onedrive-auth-url string                                 Auth server URL.
    --onedrive-chunk-size SizeSuffix                           Chunk size to upload files with - must be multiple of 320k (327,680 bytes). (default 10Mi)
    --onedrive-client-id string                                OAuth Client Id
    --onedrive-client-secret string                            OAuth Client Secret
    --onedrive-drive-id string                                 The ID of the drive to use
    --onedrive-drive-type string                               The type of the drive ( personal | business | documentLibrary )
    --onedrive-encoding MultiEncoder                           This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,LeftSpace,LeftTilde,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --onedrive-expose-onenote-files                            Set to make OneNote files show up in directory listings.
    --onedrive-link-password string                            Set the password for links created by the link command.
    --onedrive-link-scope string                               Set the scope of the links created by the link command. (default "anonymous")
    --onedrive-link-type string                                Set the type of the links created by the link command. (default "view")
    --onedrive-list-chunk int                                  Size of listing chunk. (default 1000)
    --onedrive-no-versions                                     Remove all versions on modifying operations
    --onedrive-region string                                   Choose national cloud region for OneDrive. (default "global")
    --onedrive-server-side-across-configs                      Allow server-side operations (e.g. copy) to work across different onedrive configs.
    --onedrive-token string                                    OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --onedrive-token-url string                                Token server url.
    --opendrive-chunk-size SizeSuffix                          Files will be uploaded in chunks this size. (default 10Mi)
    --opendrive-encoding MultiEncoder                          This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,LeftSpace,LeftCrLfHtVt,RightSpace,RightCrLfHtVt,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --opendrive-password string                                Password. (obscured)
    --opendrive-username string                                Username
    --pcloud-auth-url string                                   Auth server URL.
    --pcloud-client-id string                                  OAuth Client Id
    --pcloud-client-secret string                              OAuth Client Secret
    --pcloud-encoding MultiEncoder                             This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --pcloud-hostname string                                   Hostname to connect to. (default "api.pcloud.com")
    --pcloud-root-folder-id string                             Fill in for rclone to use a non root folder as its starting point. (default "d0")
    --pcloud-token string                                      OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --pcloud-token-url string                                  Token server url.
    --premiumizeme-encoding MultiEncoder                       This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,DoubleQuote,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --putio-encoding MultiEncoder                              This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --qingstor-access-key-id string                            QingStor Access Key ID
    --qingstor-chunk-size SizeSuffix                           Chunk size to use for uploading. (default 4Mi)
    --qingstor-connection-retries int                          Number of connection retries. (default 3)
    --qingstor-encoding MultiEncoder                           This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Ctl,InvalidUtf8)
    --qingstor-endpoint string                                 Enter an endpoint URL to connection QingStor API.
    --qingstor-env-auth                                        Get QingStor credentials from runtime. Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
    --qingstor-secret-access-key string                        QingStor Secret Access Key (password)
    --qingstor-upload-concurrency int                          Concurrency for multipart uploads. (default 1)
    --qingstor-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                        Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (default 200Mi)
    --qingstor-zone string                                     Zone to connect to.
    --s3-access-key-id string                                  AWS Access Key ID.
    --s3-acl string                                            Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects.
    --s3-bucket-acl string                                     Canned ACL used when creating buckets.
    --s3-chunk-size SizeSuffix                                 Chunk size to use for uploading. (default 5Mi)
    --s3-copy-cutoff SizeSuffix                                Cutoff for switching to multipart copy (default 4.656Gi)
    --s3-disable-checksum                                      Don't store MD5 checksum with object metadata
    --s3-disable-http2                                         Disable usage of http2 for S3 backends
    --s3-encoding MultiEncoder                                 This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --s3-endpoint string                                       Endpoint for S3 API.
    --s3-env-auth                                              Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars).
    --s3-force-path-style                                      If true use path style access if false use virtual hosted style. (default true)
    --s3-leave-parts-on-error                                  If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure, leaving all successfully uploaded parts on S3 for manual recovery.
    --s3-list-chunk int                                        Size of listing chunk (response list for each ListObject S3 request). (default 1000)
    --s3-location-constraint string                            Location constraint - must be set to match the Region.
    --s3-max-upload-parts int                                  Maximum number of parts in a multipart upload. (default 10000)
    --s3-memory-pool-flush-time Duration                       How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. (default 1m0s)
    --s3-memory-pool-use-mmap                                  Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
    --s3-no-check-bucket                                       If set, don't attempt to check the bucket exists or create it
    --s3-no-head                                               If set, don't HEAD uploaded objects to check integrity
    --s3-no-head-object                                        If set, don't HEAD objects
    --s3-profile string                                        Profile to use in the shared credentials file
    --s3-provider string                                       Choose your S3 provider.
    --s3-region string                                         Region to connect to.
    --s3-requester-pays                                        Enables requester pays option when interacting with S3 bucket.
    --s3-secret-access-key string                              AWS Secret Access Key (password)
    --s3-server-side-encryption string                         The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
    --s3-session-token string                                  An AWS session token
    --s3-shared-credentials-file string                        Path to the shared credentials file
    --s3-sse-customer-algorithm string                         If using SSE-C, the server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
    --s3-sse-customer-key string                               If using SSE-C you must provide the secret encryption key used to encrypt/decrypt your data.
    --s3-sse-customer-key-md5 string                           If using SSE-C you may provide the secret encryption key MD5 checksum (optional).
    --s3-sse-kms-key-id string                                 If using KMS ID you must provide the ARN of Key.
    --s3-storage-class string                                  The storage class to use when storing new objects in S3.
    --s3-upload-concurrency int                                Concurrency for multipart uploads. (default 4)
    --s3-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                              Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (default 200Mi)
    --s3-use-accelerate-endpoint                               If true use the AWS S3 accelerated endpoint.
    --s3-v2-auth                                               If true use v2 authentication.
    --seafile-2fa                                              Two-factor authentication ('true' if the account has 2FA enabled)
    --seafile-create-library                                   Should rclone create a library if it doesn't exist
    --seafile-encoding MultiEncoder                            This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,DoubleQuote,BackSlash,Ctl,InvalidUtf8)
    --seafile-library string                                   Name of the library. Leave blank to access all non-encrypted libraries.
    --seafile-library-key string                               Library password (for encrypted libraries only). Leave blank if you pass it through the command line. (obscured)
    --seafile-pass string                                      Password (obscured)
    --seafile-url string                                       URL of seafile host to connect to
    --seafile-user string                                      User name (usually email address)
    --sftp-ask-password                                        Allow asking for SFTP password when needed.
    --sftp-disable-concurrent-reads                            If set don't use concurrent reads
    --sftp-disable-concurrent-writes                           If set don't use concurrent writes
    --sftp-disable-hashcheck                                   Disable the execution of SSH commands to determine if remote file hashing is available.
    --sftp-host string                                         SSH host to connect to
    --sftp-idle-timeout Duration                               Max time before closing idle connections (default 1m0s)
    --sftp-key-file string                                     Path to PEM-encoded private key file, leave blank or set key-use-agent to use ssh-agent.
    --sftp-key-file-pass string                                The passphrase to decrypt the PEM-encoded private key file. (obscured)
    --sftp-key-pem string                                      Raw PEM-encoded private key, If specified, will override key_file parameter.
    --sftp-key-use-agent                                       When set forces the usage of the ssh-agent.
    --sftp-known-hosts-file string                             Optional path to known_hosts file.
    --sftp-md5sum-command string                               The command used to read md5 hashes. Leave blank for autodetect.
    --sftp-pass string                                         SSH password, leave blank to use ssh-agent. (obscured)
    --sftp-path-override string                                Override path used by SSH connection.
    --sftp-port string                                         SSH port, leave blank to use default (22)
    --sftp-pubkey-file string                                  Optional path to public key file.
    --sftp-server-command string                               Specifies the path or command to run a sftp server on the remote host.
    --sftp-set-modtime                                         Set the modified time on the remote if set. (default true)
    --sftp-sha1sum-command string                              The command used to read sha1 hashes. Leave blank for autodetect.
    --sftp-skip-links                                          Set to skip any symlinks and any other non regular files.
    --sftp-subsystem string                                    Specifies the SSH2 subsystem on the remote host. (default "sftp")
    --sftp-use-fstat                                           If set use fstat instead of stat
    --sftp-use-insecure-cipher                                 Enable the use of insecure ciphers and key exchange methods.
    --sftp-user string                                         SSH username, leave blank for current username, $USER
    --sharefile-chunk-size SizeSuffix                          Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k. (default 64Mi)
    --sharefile-encoding MultiEncoder                          This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,LeftSpace,LeftPeriod,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --sharefile-endpoint string                                Endpoint for API calls.
    --sharefile-root-folder-id string                          ID of the root folder
    --sharefile-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                       Cutoff for switching to multipart upload. (default 128Mi)
    --skip-links                                               Don't warn about skipped symlinks.
    --sugarsync-access-key-id string                           Sugarsync Access Key ID.
    --sugarsync-app-id string                                  Sugarsync App ID.
    --sugarsync-authorization string                           Sugarsync authorization
    --sugarsync-authorization-expiry string                    Sugarsync authorization expiry
    --sugarsync-deleted-id string                              Sugarsync deleted folder id
    --sugarsync-encoding MultiEncoder                          This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --sugarsync-hard-delete                                    Permanently delete files if true
    --sugarsync-private-access-key string                      Sugarsync Private Access Key
    --sugarsync-refresh-token string                           Sugarsync refresh token
    --sugarsync-root-id string                                 Sugarsync root id
    --sugarsync-user string                                    Sugarsync user
    --swift-application-credential-id string                   Application Credential ID (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_ID)
    --swift-application-credential-name string                 Application Credential Name (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_NAME)
    --swift-application-credential-secret string               Application Credential Secret (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_SECRET)
    --swift-auth string                                        Authentication URL for server (OS_AUTH_URL).
    --swift-auth-token string                                  Auth Token from alternate authentication - optional (OS_AUTH_TOKEN)
    --swift-auth-version int                                   AuthVersion - optional - set to (1,2,3) if your auth URL has no version (ST_AUTH_VERSION)
    --swift-chunk-size SizeSuffix                              Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. (default 5Gi)
    --swift-domain string                                      User domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME)
    --swift-encoding MultiEncoder                              This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8)
    --swift-endpoint-type string                               Endpoint type to choose from the service catalogue (OS_ENDPOINT_TYPE) (default "public")
    --swift-env-auth                                           Get swift credentials from environment variables in standard OpenStack form.
    --swift-key string                                         API key or password (OS_PASSWORD).
    --swift-leave-parts-on-error                               If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure. It should be set to true for resuming uploads across different sessions.
    --swift-no-chunk                                           Don't chunk files during streaming upload.
    --swift-region string                                      Region name - optional (OS_REGION_NAME)
    --swift-storage-policy string                              The storage policy to use when creating a new container
    --swift-storage-url string                                 Storage URL - optional (OS_STORAGE_URL)
    --swift-tenant string                                      Tenant name - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant_id required otherwise (OS_TENANT_NAME or OS_PROJECT_NAME)
    --swift-tenant-domain string                               Tenant domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME)
    --swift-tenant-id string                                   Tenant ID - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant required otherwise (OS_TENANT_ID)
    --swift-user string                                        User name to log in (OS_USERNAME).
    --swift-user-id string                                     User ID to log in - optional - most swift systems use user and leave this blank (v3 auth) (OS_USER_ID).
    --tardigrade-access-grant string                           Access Grant.
    --tardigrade-api-key string                                API Key.
    --tardigrade-passphrase string                             Encryption Passphrase. To access existing objects enter passphrase used for uploading.
    --tardigrade-provider string                               Choose an authentication method. (default "existing")
    --tardigrade-satellite-address <nodeid>@<address>:<port>   Satellite Address. Custom satellite address should match the format: <nodeid>@<address>:<port>. (default "us-central-1.tardigrade.io")
    --union-action-policy string                               Policy to choose upstream on ACTION category. (default "epall")
    --union-cache-time int                                     Cache time of usage and free space (in seconds). This option is only useful when a path preserving policy is used. (default 120)
    --union-create-policy string                               Policy to choose upstream on CREATE category. (default "epmfs")
    --union-search-policy string                               Policy to choose upstream on SEARCH category. (default "ff")
    --union-upstreams string                                   List of space separated upstreams.
    --uptobox-access-token string                              Your access Token, get it from https://uptobox.com/my_account
    --uptobox-encoding MultiEncoder                            This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,BackQuote,Del,Ctl,LeftSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --webdav-bearer-token string                               Bearer token instead of user/pass (e.g. a Macaroon)
    --webdav-bearer-token-command string                       Command to run to get a bearer token
    --webdav-encoding string                                   This sets the encoding for the backend.
    --webdav-headers CommaSepList                              Set HTTP headers for all transactions
    --webdav-pass string                                       Password. (obscured)
    --webdav-url string                                        URL of http host to connect to
    --webdav-user string                                       User name. In case NTLM authentication is used, the username should be in the format 'Domain\User'.
    --webdav-vendor string                                     Name of the Webdav site/service/software you are using
    --yandex-auth-url string                                   Auth server URL.
    --yandex-client-id string                                  OAuth Client Id
    --yandex-client-secret string                              OAuth Client Secret
    --yandex-encoding MultiEncoder                             This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
    --yandex-token string                                      OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --yandex-token-url string                                  Token server url.
    --zoho-auth-url string                                     Auth server URL.
    --zoho-client-id string                                    OAuth Client Id
    --zoho-client-secret string                                OAuth Client Secret
    --zoho-encoding MultiEncoder                               This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8)
    --zoho-region string                                       Zoho region to connect to.
    --zoho-token string                                        OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
    --zoho-token-url string                                    Token server url.

Docker 1.9 has added support for creating named volumes (https://docs.docker.com/storage/volumes/) via command-line interface (https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/volume_create/) and mounting them in containers as a way to share data between them. Since Docker 1.10 you can create named volumes with Docker Compose (https://docs.docker.com/compose/) by descriptions in docker-compose.yml (https://docs.docker.com/compose/compose-file/compose-file-v2/#volume-configuration-reference) files for use by container groups on a single host. As of Docker 1.12 volumes are supported by Docker Swarm (https://docs.docker.com/engine/swarm/key-concepts/) included with Docker Engine and created from descriptions in swarm compose v3 (https://docs.docker.com/compose/compose-file/compose-file-v3/#volume-configuration-reference) files for use with swarm stacks across multiple cluster nodes.

Docker Volume Plugins (https://docs.docker.com/engine/extend/plugins_volume/) augment the default local volume driver included in Docker with stateful volumes shared across containers and hosts. Unlike local volumes, your data will not be deleted when such volume is removed. Plugins can run managed by the docker daemon, as a native system service (under systemd, sysv or upstart) or as a standalone executable. Rclone can run as docker volume plugin in all these modes. It interacts with the local docker daemon via plugin API (https://docs.docker.com/engine/extend/plugin_api/) and handles mounting of remote file systems into docker containers so it must run on the same host as the docker daemon or on every Swarm node.

In the first example we will use the SFTP (https://rclone.org/sftp/) rclone volume with Docker engine on a standalone Ubuntu machine.

Start from installing Docker (https://docs.docker.com/engine/install/) on the host.

The FUSE driver is a prerequisite for rclone mounting and should be installed on host:

sudo apt-get -y install fuse

Create two directories required by rclone docker plugin:

sudo mkdir -p /var/lib/docker-plugins/rclone/config
sudo mkdir -p /var/lib/docker-plugins/rclone/cache

Install the managed rclone docker plugin:

docker plugin install rclone/docker-volume-rclone args="-v" --alias rclone --grant-all-permissions
docker plugin list

Create your SFTP volume (https://rclone.org/sftp/#standard-options):

docker volume create firstvolume -d rclone -o type=sftp -o sftp-host=_hostname_ -o sftp-user=_username_ -o sftp-pass=_password_ -o allow-other=true

Note that since all options are static, you don't even have to run rclone config or create the rclone.conf file (but the config directory should still be present). In the simplest case you can use localhost as hostname and your SSH credentials as username and password. You can also change the remote path to your home directory on the host, for example -o path=/home/username.

Time to create a test container and mount the volume into it:

docker run --rm -it -v firstvolume:/mnt --workdir /mnt ubuntu:latest bash

If all goes well, you will enter the new container and change right to the mounted SFTP remote. You can type ls to list the mounted directory or otherwise play with it. Type exit when you are done. The container will stop but the volume will stay, ready to be reused. When it's not needed anymore, remove it:

docker volume list
docker volume remove firstvolume

Now let us try something more elaborate: Google Drive (https://rclone.org/drive/) volume on multi-node Docker Swarm.

You should start from installing Docker and FUSE, creating plugin directories and installing rclone plugin on every swarm node. Then setup the Swarm (https://docs.docker.com/engine/swarm/swarm-mode/).

Google Drive volumes need an access token which can be setup via web browser and will be periodically renewed by rclone. The managed plugin cannot run a browser so we will use a technique similar to the rclone setup on a headless box (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/).

Run rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_create/) on another machine equipped with web browser and graphical user interface. Create the Google Drive remote (https://rclone.org/drive/#standard-options). When done, transfer the resulting rclone.conf to the Swarm cluster and save as /var/lib/docker-plugins/rclone/config/rclone.conf on every node. By default this location is accessible only to the root user so you will need appropriate privileges. The resulting config will look like this:

[gdrive]
type = drive
scope = drive
drive_id = 1234567...
root_folder_id = 0Abcd...
token = {"access_token":...}

Now create the file named example.yml with a swarm stack description like this:

version: '3'
services:
  heimdall:
    image: linuxserver/heimdall:latest
    ports: [8080:80]
    volumes: [configdata:/config]
volumes:
  configdata:
    driver: rclone
    driver_opts:
      remote: 'gdrive:heimdall'
      allow_other: 'true'
      vfs_cache_mode: full
      poll_interval: 0

and run the stack:

docker stack deploy example -c ./example.yml

After a few seconds docker will spread the parsed stack description over cluster, create the example_heimdall service on port 8080, run service containers on one or more cluster nodes and request the example_configdata volume from rclone plugins on the node hosts. You can use the following commands to confirm results:

docker service ls
docker service ps example_heimdall
docker volume ls

Point your browser to http://cluster.host.address:8080 and play with the service. Stop it with docker stack remove example when you are done. Note that the example_configdata volume(s) created on demand at the cluster nodes will not be automatically removed together with the stack but stay for future reuse. You can remove them manually by invoking the docker volume remove example_configdata command on every node.

Volumes can be created with docker volume create (https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/volume_create/). Here are a few examples:
docker volume create vol1 -d rclone -o remote=storj: -o vfs-cache-mode=full
docker volume create vol2 -d rclone -o remote=:tardigrade,access_grant=xxx:heimdall
docker volume create vol3 -d rclone -o type=tardigrade -o path=heimdall -o tardigrade-access-grant=xxx -o poll-interval=0

Note the -d rclone flag that tells docker to request volume from the rclone driver. This works even if you installed managed driver by its full name rclone/docker-volume-rclone because you provided the --alias rclone option.

Volumes can be inspected as follows:

docker volume list
docker volume inspect vol1

Rclone flags and volume options are set via the -o flag to the docker volume create command. They include backend-specific parameters as well as mount and VFS options. Also there are a few special -o options: remote, fs, type, path, mount-type and persist.

remote determines an existing remote name from the config file, with trailing colon and optionally with a remote path. See the full syntax in the rclone documentation (https://rclone.org/docs/#syntax-of-remote-paths). This option can be aliased as fs to prevent confusion with the remote parameter of such backends as crypt or alias.

The remote=:backend:dir/subdir syntax can be used to create on-the-fly (config-less) remotes (https://rclone.org/docs/#backend-path-to-dir), while the type and path options provide a simpler alternative for this. Using two split options

-o type=backend -o path=dir/subdir

is equivalent to the combined syntax

-o remote=:backend:dir/subdir

but is arguably easier to parameterize in scripts. The path part is optional.

Mount and VFS options (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_docker/#options) as well as backend parameters (https://rclone.org/flags/#backend-flags) are named like their twin command-line flags without the -- CLI prefix. Optionally you can use underscores instead of dashes in option names. For example, --vfs-cache-mode full becomes -o vfs-cache-mode=full or -o vfs_cache_mode=full. Boolean CLI flags without value will gain the true value, e.g. --allow-other becomes -o allow-other=true or -o allow_other=true.

Please note that you can provide parameters only for the backend immediately referenced by the backend type of mounted remote. If this is a wrapping backend like alias, chunker or crypt, you cannot provide options for the referred to remote or backend. This limitation is imposed by the rclone connection string parser. The only workaround is to feed plugin with rclone.conf or configure plugin arguments (see below).

mount-type determines the mount method and in general can be one of: mount, cmount, or mount2. This can be aliased as mount_type. It should be noted that the managed rclone docker plugin currently does not support the cmount method and mount2 is rarely needed. This option defaults to the first found method, which is usually mount so you generally won't need it.

persist is a reserved boolean (true/false) option. In future it will allow to persist on-the-fly remotes in the plugin rclone.conf file.

The remote value can be extended with connection strings (https://rclone.org/docs/#connection-strings) as an alternative way to supply backend parameters. This is equivalent to the -o backend options with one syntactic difference. Inside connection string the backend prefix must be dropped from parameter names but in the -o param=value array it must be present. For instance, compare the following option array
-o remote=:sftp:/home -o sftp-host=localhost

with equivalent connection string:

-o remote=:sftp,host=localhost:/home

This difference exists because flag options -o key=val include not only backend parameters but also mount/VFS flags and possibly other settings. Also it allows to discriminate the remote option from the crypt-remote (or similarly named backend parameters) and arguably simplifies scripting due to clearer value substitution.

Both Docker Swarm and Docker Compose use YAML (http://yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html)-formatted text files to describe groups (stacks) of containers, their properties, networks and volumes. Compose uses the compose v2 (https://docs.docker.com/compose/compose-file/compose-file-v2/#volume-configuration-reference) format, Swarm uses the compose v3 (https://docs.docker.com/compose/compose-file/compose-file-v3/#volume-configuration-reference) format. They are mostly similar, differences are explained in the docker documentation (https://docs.docker.com/compose/compose-file/compose-versioning/#upgrading).

Volumes are described by the children of the top-level volumes: node. Each of them should be named after its volume and have at least two elements, the self-explanatory driver: rclone value and the driver_opts: structure playing the same role as -o key=val CLI flags:

volumes:
  volume_name_1:
    driver: rclone
    driver_opts:
      remote: 'gdrive:'
      allow_other: 'true'
      vfs_cache_mode: full
      token: '{"type": "borrower", "expires": "2021-12-31"}'
      poll_interval: 0

Notice a few important details: - YAML prefers _ in option names instead of -. - YAML treats single and double quotes interchangeably. Simple strings and integers can be left unquoted. - Boolean values must be quoted like 'true' or "false" because these two words are reserved by YAML. - The filesystem string is keyed with remote (or with fs). Normally you can omit quotes here, but if the string ends with colon, you must quote it like remote: "storage_box:". - YAML is picky about surrounding braces in values as this is in fact another syntax for key/value mappings (http://yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html#id2790832). For example, JSON access tokens usually contain double quotes and surrounding braces, so you must put them in single quotes.

Docker daemon can install plugins from an image registry and run them managed. We maintain the docker-volume-rclone (https://hub.docker.com/p/rclone/docker-volume-rclone/) plugin image on Docker Hub (https://hub.docker.com).

The plugin requires presence of two directories on the host before it can be installed. Note that plugin will not create them automatically. By default they must exist on host at the following locations (though you can tweak the paths): - /var/lib/docker-plugins/rclone/config is reserved for the rclone.conf config file and must exist even if it's empty and the config file is not present. - /var/lib/docker-plugins/rclone/cache holds the plugin state file as well as optional VFS caches.

You can install managed plugin (https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/plugin_install/) with default settings as follows:

docker plugin install rclone/docker-volume-rclone:latest --grant-all-permissions --alias rclone

Managed plugin is in fact a special container running in a namespace separate from normal docker containers. Inside it runs the rclone serve docker command. The config and cache directories are bind-mounted into the container at start. The docker daemon connects to a unix socket created by the command inside the container. The command creates on-demand remote mounts right inside, then docker machinery propagates them through kernel mount namespaces and bind-mounts into requesting user containers.

You can tweak a few plugin settings after installation when it's disabled (not in use), for instance:

docker plugin disable rclone
docker plugin set rclone RCLONE_VERBOSE=2 config=/etc/rclone args="--vfs-cache-mode=writes --allow-other"
docker plugin enable rclone
docker plugin inspect rclone

Note that if docker refuses to disable the plugin, you should find and remove all active volumes connected with it as well as containers and swarm services that use them. This is rather tedious so please carefully plan in advance.

You can tweak the following settings: args, config, cache, and RCLONE_VERBOSE. It's your task to keep plugin settings in sync across swarm cluster nodes.

args sets command-line arguments for the rclone serve docker command (none by default). Arguments should be separated by space so you will normally want to put them in quotes on the docker plugin set (https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/plugin_set/) command line. Both serve docker flags (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_docker/#options) and generic rclone flags (https://rclone.org/flags/) are supported, including backend parameters that will be used as defaults for volume creation. Note that plugin will fail (due to this docker bug (https://github.com/moby/moby/blob/v20.10.7/plugin/v2/plugin.go#L195)) if the args value is empty. Use e.g. args="-v" as a workaround.

config=/host/dir sets alternative host location for the config directory. Plugin will look for rclone.conf here. It's not an error if the config file is not present but the directory must exist. Please note that plugin can periodically rewrite the config file, for example when it renews storage access tokens. Keep this in mind and try to avoid races between the plugin and other instances of rclone on the host that might try to change the config simultaneously resulting in corrupted rclone.conf. You can also put stuff like private key files for SFTP remotes in this directory. Just note that it's bind-mounted inside the plugin container at the predefined path /data/config. For example, if your key file is named sftp-box1.key on the host, the corresponding volume config option should read -o sftp-key-file=/data/config/sftp-box1.key.

cache=/host/dir sets alternative host location for the cache directory. The plugin will keep VFS caches here. Also it will create and maintain the docker-plugin.state file in this directory. When the plugin is restarted or reinstalled, it will look in this file to recreate any volumes that existed previously. However, they will not be re-mounted into consuming containers after restart. Usually this is not a problem as the docker daemon normally will restart affected user containers after failures, daemon restarts or host reboots.

RCLONE_VERBOSE sets plugin verbosity from 0 (errors only, by default) to 2 (debugging). Verbosity can be also tweaked via args="-v [-v] ...". Since arguments are more generic, you will rarely need this setting. The plugin output by default feeds the docker daemon log on local host. Log entries are reflected as errors in the docker log but retain their actual level assigned by rclone in the encapsulated message string.

You can set custom plugin options right when you install it, in one go:

docker plugin remove rclone
docker plugin install rclone/docker-volume-rclone:latest \
       --alias rclone --grant-all-permissions \
       args="-v --allow-other" config=/etc/rclone
docker plugin inspect rclone

The docker plugin volume protocol doesn't provide a way for plugins to inform the docker daemon that a volume is (un-)available. As a workaround you can setup a healthcheck to verify that the mount is responding, for example:
services:
  my_service:
    image: my_image
    healthcheck:
      test: ls /path/to/rclone/mount || exit 1
      interval: 1m
      timeout: 15s
      retries: 3
      start_period: 15s

In most cases you should prefer managed mode. Moreover, MacOS and Windows do not support native Docker plugins. Please use managed mode on these systems. Proceed further only if you are on Linux.

First, install rclone (https://rclone.org/install/). You can just run it (type rclone serve docker and hit enter) for the test.

Install FUSE:

sudo apt-get -y install fuse

Download two systemd configuration files: docker-volume-rclone.service (https://raw.githubusercontent.com/rclone/rclone/master/cmd/serve/docker/contrib/systemd/docker-volume-rclone.service) and docker-volume-rclone.socket (https://raw.githubusercontent.com/rclone/rclone/master/cmd/serve/docker/contrib/systemd/docker-volume-rclone.socket).

Put them to the /etc/systemd/system/ directory:

cp docker-volume-plugin.service /etc/systemd/system/
cp docker-volume-plugin.socket  /etc/systemd/system/

Please note that all commands in this section must be run as root but we omit sudo prefix for brevity. Now create directories required by the service:

mkdir -p /var/lib/docker-volumes/rclone
mkdir -p /var/lib/docker-plugins/rclone/config
mkdir -p /var/lib/docker-plugins/rclone/cache

Run the docker plugin service in the socket activated mode:

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start docker-volume-rclone.service
systemctl enable docker-volume-rclone.socket
systemctl start docker-volume-rclone.socket
systemctl restart docker

Or run the service directly: - run systemctl daemon-reload to let systemd pick up new config - run systemctl enable docker-volume-rclone.service to make the new service start automatically when you power on your machine. - run systemctl start docker-volume-rclone.service to start the service now. - run systemctl restart docker to restart docker daemon and let it detect the new plugin socket. Note that this step is not needed in managed mode where docker knows about plugin state changes.

The two methods are equivalent from the user perspective, but I personally prefer socket activation.

You can see managed plugin settings (https://docs.docker.com/engine/extend/#debugging-plugins) with
docker plugin list
docker plugin inspect rclone

Note that docker (including latest 20.10.7) will not show actual values of args, just the defaults.

Use journalctl --unit docker to see managed plugin output as part of the docker daemon log. Note that docker reflects plugin lines as errors but their actual level can be seen from encapsulated message string.

You will usually install the latest version of managed plugin. Use the following commands to print the actual installed version:

PLUGID=$(docker plugin list --no-trunc | awk '/rclone/{print$1}')
sudo runc --root /run/docker/runtime-runc/plugins.moby exec $PLUGID rclone version

You can even use runc to run shell inside the plugin container:

sudo runc --root /run/docker/runtime-runc/plugins.moby exec --tty $PLUGID bash

Also you can use curl to check the plugin socket connectivity:

docker plugin list --no-trunc
PLUGID=123abc...
sudo curl -H Content-Type:application/json -XPOST -d {} --unix-socket /run/docker/plugins/$PLUGID/rclone.sock http://localhost/Plugin.Activate

though this is rarely needed.

Finally I'd like to mention a caveat with updating volume settings. Docker CLI does not have a dedicated command like docker volume update. It may be tempting to invoke docker volume create with updated options on existing volume, but there is a gotcha. The command will do nothing, it won't even return an error. I hope that docker maintainers will fix this some day. In the meantime be aware that you must remove your volume before recreating it with new settings:

docker volume remove my_vol
docker volume create my_vol -d rclone -o opt1=new_val1 ...

and verify that settings did update:

docker volume list
docker volume inspect my_vol

If docker refuses to remove the volume, you should find containers or swarm services that use it and stop them first.

This is a backend for the 1fichier (https://1fichier.com) cloud storage service. Note that a Premium subscription is required to use the API.

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, e.g. remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for 1Fichier involves getting the API key from the website which you need to do in your browser.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / 1Fichier
   \ "fichier"
[snip]
Storage> fichier
** See help for fichier backend at: https://rclone.org/fichier/ **
Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
api_key> example_key
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> 
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = fichier
api_key = example_key
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your 1Fichier account

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your 1Fichier account

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to a 1Fichier directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

1Fichier does not support modification times. It supports the Whirlpool hash algorithm.

1Fichier can have two files with exactly the same name and path (unlike a normal file system).

Duplicated files cause problems with the syncing and you will see messages in the log about duplicates.

In addition to the default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:
Character Value Replacement
\ 0x5C
< 0x3C
> 0x3E
" 0x22
$ 0x24
` 0x60
' 0x27

File names can also not start or end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are the first or last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement
SP 0x20

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Here are the standard options specific to fichier (1Fichier).

Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl
Config: api_key
Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_API_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

Here are the advanced options specific to fichier (1Fichier).

If you want to download a shared folder, add this parameter
Config: shared_folder
Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_SHARED_FOLDER
Type: string
Default: ""

If you want to download a shared file that is password protected, add this parameter

NB Input to this must be obscured - see rclone obscure (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_obscure/).

Config: file_password
Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_FILE_PASSWORD
Type: string
Default: ""

If you want to list the files in a shared folder that is password protected, add this parameter

NB Input to this must be obscured - see rclone obscure (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_obscure/).

Config: folder_password
Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_FOLDER_PASSWORD
Type: string
Default: ""

This sets the encoding for the backend.

See: the encoding section in the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#encoding) for more info.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,SingleQuote,BackQuote,Dollar,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,LeftSpace,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot

rclone about is not supported by the 1Fichier backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

See List of backends that do not support rclone about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) See rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/)

The alias remote provides a new name for another remote.

Paths may be as deep as required or a local path, e.g. remote:directory/subdirectory or /directory/subdirectory.

During the initial setup with rclone config you will specify the target remote. The target remote can either be a local path or another remote.

Subfolders can be used in target remote. Assume an alias remote named backup with the target mydrive:private/backup. Invoking rclone mkdir backup:desktop is exactly the same as invoking rclone mkdir mydrive:private/backup/desktop.

There will be no special handling of paths containing .. segments. Invoking rclone mkdir backup:../desktop is exactly the same as invoking rclone mkdir mydrive:private/backup/../desktop. The empty path is not allowed as a remote. To alias the current directory use . instead.

Here is an example of how to make an alias called remote for local folder. First run:

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Alias for an existing remote
   \ "alias"
[snip]
Storage> alias
Remote or path to alias.
Can be "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket", "myremote:" or "/local/path".
remote> /mnt/storage/backup
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
remote = /mnt/storage/backup
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y
Current remotes:
Name                 Type
====                 ====
remote               alias
e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> q

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level in /mnt/storage/backup

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in /mnt/storage/backup

rclone ls remote:

Copy another local directory to the alias directory called source

rclone copy /home/source remote:source

Here are the standard options specific to alias (Alias for an existing remote).

Remote or path to alias. Can be "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket", "myremote:" or "/local/path".
Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_ALIAS_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""

Amazon Drive, formerly known as Amazon Cloud Drive, is a cloud storage service run by Amazon for consumers.

Important: rclone supports Amazon Drive only if you have your own set of API keys. Unfortunately the Amazon Drive developer program (https://developer.amazon.com/amazon-drive) is now closed to new entries so if you don't already have your own set of keys you will not be able to use rclone with Amazon Drive.

For the history on why rclone no longer has a set of Amazon Drive API keys see the forum (https://forum.rclone.org/t/rclone-has-been-banned-from-amazon-drive/2314).

If you happen to know anyone who works at Amazon then please ask them to re-instate rclone into the Amazon Drive developer program - thanks!

The initial setup for Amazon Drive involves getting a token from Amazon which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

The configuration process for Amazon Drive may involve using an oauth proxy (https://github.com/ncw/oauthproxy). This is used to keep the Amazon credentials out of the source code. The proxy runs in Google's very secure App Engine environment and doesn't store any credentials which pass through it.

Since rclone doesn't currently have its own Amazon Drive credentials so you will either need to have your own client_id and client_secret with Amazon Drive, or use a third party oauth proxy in which case you will need to enter client_id, client_secret, auth_url and token_url.

Note also if you are not using Amazon's auth_url and token_url, (ie you filled in something for those) then if setting up on a remote machine you can only use the copying the config method of configuration (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/#configuring-by-copying-the-config-file) - rclone authorize will not work.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/r/c/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Amazon Drive
   \ "amazon cloud drive"
[snip]
Storage> amazon cloud drive
Amazon Application Client Id - required.
client_id> your client ID goes here
Amazon Application Client Secret - required.
client_secret> your client secret goes here
Auth server URL - leave blank to use Amazon's.
auth_url> Optional auth URL
Token server url - leave blank to use Amazon's.
token_url> Optional token URL
Remote config
Make sure your Redirect URL is set to "http://127.0.0.1:53682/" in your custom config.
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id = your client ID goes here
client_secret = your client secret goes here
auth_url = Optional auth URL
token_url = Optional token URL
token = {"access_token":"xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","expiry":"2015-09-06T16:07:39.658438471+01:00"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Amazon. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Amazon Drive

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your Amazon Drive

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an Amazon Drive directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Amazon Drive doesn't allow modification times to be changed via the API so these won't be accurate or used for syncing.

It does store MD5SUMs so for a more accurate sync, you can use the --checksum flag.

Character Value Replacement
NUL 0x00
/ 0x2F

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Any files you delete with rclone will end up in the trash. Amazon don't provide an API to permanently delete files, nor to empty the trash, so you will have to do that with one of Amazon's apps or via the Amazon Drive website. As of November 17, 2016, files are automatically deleted by Amazon from the trash after 30 days.

Let's say you usually use amazon.co.uk. When you authenticate with rclone it will take you to an amazon.com page to log in. Your amazon.co.uk email and password should work here just fine.

Here are the standard options specific to amazon cloud drive (Amazon Drive).

OAuth Client Id Leave blank normally.
Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

OAuth Client Secret Leave blank normally.
Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

Here are the advanced options specific to amazon cloud drive (Amazon Drive).

OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
Config: token
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

Auth server URL. Leave blank to use the provider defaults.
Config: auth_url
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_AUTH_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

Token server url. Leave blank to use the provider defaults.
Config: token_url
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_TOKEN_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

Checkpoint for internal polling (debug).
Config: checkpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CHECKPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

Additional time per GiB to wait after a failed complete upload to see if it appears.

Sometimes Amazon Drive gives an error when a file has been fully uploaded but the file appears anyway after a little while. This happens sometimes for files over 1 GiB in size and nearly every time for files bigger than 10 GiB. This parameter controls the time rclone waits for the file to appear.

The default value for this parameter is 3 minutes per GiB, so by default it will wait 3 minutes for every GiB uploaded to see if the file appears.

You can disable this feature by setting it to 0. This may cause conflict errors as rclone retries the failed upload but the file will most likely appear correctly eventually.

These values were determined empirically by observing lots of uploads of big files for a range of file sizes.

Upload with the "-v" flag to see more info about what rclone is doing in this situation.

Config: upload_wait_per_gb
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_UPLOAD_WAIT_PER_GB
Type: Duration
Default: 3m0s
Files >= this size will be downloaded via their tempLink.

Files this size or more will be downloaded via their "tempLink". This is to work around a problem with Amazon Drive which blocks downloads of files bigger than about 10 GiB. The default for this is 9 GiB which shouldn't need to be changed.

To download files above this threshold, rclone requests a "tempLink" which downloads the file through a temporary URL directly from the underlying S3 storage.

Config: templink_threshold
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_TEMPLINK_THRESHOLD
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 9Gi

This sets the encoding for the backend.

See: the encoding section in the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#encoding) for more info.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot

Note that Amazon Drive is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

Amazon Drive has rate limiting so you may notice errors in the sync (429 errors). rclone will automatically retry the sync up to 3 times by default (see --retries flag) which should hopefully work around this problem.

Amazon Drive has an internal limit of file sizes that can be uploaded to the service. This limit is not officially published, but all files larger than this will fail.

At the time of writing (Jan 2016) is in the area of 50 GiB per file. This means that larger files are likely to fail.

Unfortunately there is no way for rclone to see that this failure is because of file size, so it will retry the operation, as any other failure. To avoid this problem, use --max-size 50000M option to limit the maximum size of uploaded files. Note that --max-size does not split files into segments, it only ignores files over this size.

rclone about is not supported by the Amazon Drive backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

See List of backends that do not support rclone about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) See rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/)

The S3 backend can be used with a number of different providers:
AWS S3
Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) Object Storage System (OSS)
Ceph
DigitalOcean Spaces
Dreamhost
IBM COS S3
Minio
Scaleway
SeaweedFS
StackPath
Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS)
Wasabi

Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, e.g. remote:bucket/path/to/dir.

Once you have made a remote (see the provider specific section above) you can use it like this:

See all buckets

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new bucket

rclone mkdir remote:bucket

List the contents of a bucket

rclone ls remote:bucket

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket.

rclone sync -i /home/local/directory remote:bucket

Here is an example of making an s3 configuration. First run
rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Ceph, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, and Tencent COS
   \ "s3"
[snip]
Storage> s3
Choose your S3 provider.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3
   \ "AWS"
 2 / Ceph Object Storage
   \ "Ceph"
 3 / Digital Ocean Spaces
   \ "DigitalOcean"
 4 / Dreamhost DreamObjects
   \ "Dreamhost"
 5 / IBM COS S3
   \ "IBMCOS"
 6 / Minio Object Storage
   \ "Minio"
 7 / Wasabi Object Storage
   \ "Wasabi"
 8 / Any other S3 compatible provider
   \ "Other"
provider> 1
Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)
   \ "true"
env_auth> 1
AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
access_key_id> XXX
AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
secret_access_key> YYY
Region to connect to.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
   / The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure.
 1 | US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest.
   | Leave location constraint empty.
   \ "us-east-1"
   / US East (Ohio) Region
 2 | Needs location constraint us-east-2.
   \ "us-east-2"
   / US West (Oregon) Region
 3 | Needs location constraint us-west-2.
   \ "us-west-2"
   / US West (Northern California) Region
 4 | Needs location constraint us-west-1.
   \ "us-west-1"
   / Canada (Central) Region
 5 | Needs location constraint ca-central-1.
   \ "ca-central-1"
   / EU (Ireland) Region
 6 | Needs location constraint EU or eu-west-1.
   \ "eu-west-1"
   / EU (London) Region
 7 | Needs location constraint eu-west-2.
   \ "eu-west-2"
   / EU (Frankfurt) Region
 8 | Needs location constraint eu-central-1.
   \ "eu-central-1"
   / Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region
 9 | Needs location constraint ap-southeast-1.
   \ "ap-southeast-1"
   / Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region
10 | Needs location constraint ap-southeast-2.
   \ "ap-southeast-2"
   / Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region
11 | Needs location constraint ap-northeast-1.
   \ "ap-northeast-1"
   / Asia Pacific (Seoul)
12 | Needs location constraint ap-northeast-2.
   \ "ap-northeast-2"
   / Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
13 | Needs location constraint ap-south-1.
   \ "ap-south-1"
   / Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region
14 | Needs location constraint ap-east-1.
   \ "ap-east-1"
   / South America (Sao Paulo) Region
15 | Needs location constraint sa-east-1.
   \ "sa-east-1"
region> 1
Endpoint for S3 API.
Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region.
endpoint> 
Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest.
   \ ""
 2 / US East (Ohio) Region.
   \ "us-east-2"
 3 / US West (Oregon) Region.
   \ "us-west-2"
 4 / US West (Northern California) Region.
   \ "us-west-1"
 5 / Canada (Central) Region.
   \ "ca-central-1"
 6 / EU (Ireland) Region.
   \ "eu-west-1"
 7 / EU (London) Region.
   \ "eu-west-2"
 8 / EU Region.
   \ "EU"
 9 / Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region.
   \ "ap-southeast-1"
10 / Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region.
   \ "ap-southeast-2"
11 / Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region.
   \ "ap-northeast-1"
12 / Asia Pacific (Seoul)
   \ "ap-northeast-2"
13 / Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
   \ "ap-south-1"
14 / Asia Pacific (Hong Kong)
   \ "ap-east-1"
15 / South America (Sao Paulo) Region.
   \ "sa-east-1"
location_constraint> 1
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3.
For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
   \ "private"
 2 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access.
   \ "public-read"
   / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access.
 3 | Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended.
   \ "public-read-write"
 4 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access.
   \ "authenticated-read"
   / Object owner gets FULL_CONTROL. Bucket owner gets READ access.
 5 | If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it.
   \ "bucket-owner-read"
   / Both the object owner and the bucket owner get FULL_CONTROL over the object.
 6 | If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it.
   \ "bucket-owner-full-control"
acl> 1
The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / None
   \ ""
 2 / AES256
   \ "AES256"
server_side_encryption> 1
The storage class to use when storing objects in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Default
   \ ""
 2 / Standard storage class
   \ "STANDARD"
 3 / Reduced redundancy storage class
   \ "REDUCED_REDUNDANCY"
 4 / Standard Infrequent Access storage class
   \ "STANDARD_IA"
 5 / One Zone Infrequent Access storage class
   \ "ONEZONE_IA"
 6 / Glacier storage class
   \ "GLACIER"
 7 / Glacier Deep Archive storage class
   \ "DEEP_ARCHIVE"
 8 / Intelligent-Tiering storage class
   \ "INTELLIGENT_TIERING"
storage_class> 1
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = s3
provider = AWS
env_auth = false
access_key_id = XXX
secret_access_key = YYY
region = us-east-1
endpoint = 
location_constraint = 
acl = private
server_side_encryption = 
storage_class = 
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> 

The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as X-Amz-Meta-Mtime as floating point since the epoch accurate to 1 ns.

If the modification time needs to be updated rclone will attempt to perform a server side copy to update the modification if the object can be copied in a single part. In the case the object is larger than 5Gb or is in Glacier or Glacier Deep Archive storage the object will be uploaded rather than copied.

Note that reading this from the object takes an additional HEAD request as the metadata isn't returned in object listings.

By default rclone will use the modification time of objects stored in S3 for syncing. This is stored in object metadata which unfortunately takes an extra HEAD request to read which can be expensive (in time and money).

The modification time is used by default for all operations that require checking the time a file was last updated. It allows rclone to treat the remote more like a true filesystem, but it is inefficient on S3 because it requires an extra API call to retrieve the metadata.

The extra API calls can be avoided when syncing (using rclone sync or rclone copy) in a few different ways, each with its own tradeoffs.

--size-only
Only checks the size of files.
Uses no extra transactions.
If the file doesn't change size then rclone won't detect it has changed.
rclone sync --size-only /path/to/source s3:bucket
--checksum
Checks the size and MD5 checksum of files.
Uses no extra transactions.
The most accurate detection of changes possible.
Will cause the source to read an MD5 checksum which, if it is a local disk, will cause lots of disk activity.
If the source and destination are both S3 this is the recommended flag to use for maximum efficiency.
rclone sync --checksum /path/to/source s3:bucket
--update --use-server-modtime
Uses no extra transactions.
Modification time becomes the time the object was uploaded.
For many operations this is sufficient to determine if it needs uploading.
Using --update along with --use-server-modtime, avoids the extra API call and uploads files whose local modification time is newer than the time it was last uploaded.
Files created with timestamps in the past will be missed by the sync.
rclone sync --update --use-server-modtime /path/to/source s3:bucket

These flags can and should be used in combination with --fast-list - see below.

If using rclone mount or any command using the VFS (eg rclone serve) commands then you might want to consider using the VFS flag --no-modtime which will stop rclone reading the modification time for every object. You could also use --use-server-modtime if you are happy with the modification times of the objects being the time of upload.

Rclone's default directory traversal is to process each directory individually. This takes one API call per directory. Using the --fast-list flag will read all info about the the objects into memory first using a smaller number of API calls (one per 1000 objects). See the rclone docs (https://rclone.org/docs/#fast-list) for more details.
rclone sync --fast-list --checksum /path/to/source s3:bucket

--fast-list trades off API transactions for memory use. As a rough guide rclone uses 1k of memory per object stored, so using --fast-list on a sync of a million objects will use roughly 1 GiB of RAM.

If you are only copying a small number of files into a big repository then using --no-traverse is a good idea. This finds objects directly instead of through directory listings. You can do a "top-up" sync very cheaply by using --max-age and --no-traverse to copy only recent files, eg

rclone copy --min-age 24h --no-traverse /path/to/source s3:bucket

You'd then do a full rclone sync less often.

Note that --fast-list isn't required in the top-up sync.

By default rclone will HEAD every object it uploads. It does this to check the object got uploaded correctly.

You can disable this with the --s3-no-head option - see there for more details.

Setting this flag increases the chance for undetected upload failures.

For small objects which weren't uploaded as multipart uploads (objects sized below --s3-upload-cutoff if uploaded with rclone) rclone uses the ETag: header as an MD5 checksum.

However for objects which were uploaded as multipart uploads or with server side encryption (SSE-AWS or SSE-C) the ETag header is no longer the MD5 sum of the data, so rclone adds an additional piece of metadata X-Amz-Meta-Md5chksum which is a base64 encoded MD5 hash (in the same format as is required for Content-MD5).

For large objects, calculating this hash can take some time so the addition of this hash can be disabled with --s3-disable-checksum. This will mean that these objects do not have an MD5 checksum.

Note that reading this from the object takes an additional HEAD request as the metadata isn't returned in object listings.

If you run rclone cleanup s3:bucket then it will remove all pending multipart uploads older than 24 hours. You can use the -i flag to see exactly what it will do. If you want more control over the expiry date then run rclone backend cleanup s3:bucket -o max-age=1h to expire all uploads older than one hour. You can use rclone backend list-multipart-uploads s3:bucket to see the pending multipart uploads.

S3 allows any valid UTF-8 string as a key.

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in XML.

The following characters are replaced since these are problematic when dealing with the REST API:

Character Value Replacement
NUL 0x00
/ 0x2F

The encoding will also encode these file names as they don't seem to work with the SDK properly:

File name Replacement
.
.. ..

rclone supports multipart uploads with S3 which means that it can upload files bigger than 5 GiB.

Note that files uploaded both with multipart upload and through crypt remotes do not have MD5 sums.

rclone switches from single part uploads to multipart uploads at the point specified by --s3-upload-cutoff. This can be a maximum of 5 GiB and a minimum of 0 (ie always upload multipart files).

The chunk sizes used in the multipart upload are specified by --s3-chunk-size and the number of chunks uploaded concurrently is specified by --s3-upload-concurrency.

Multipart uploads will use --transfers * --s3-upload-concurrency * --s3-chunk-size extra memory. Single part uploads to not use extra memory.

Single part transfers can be faster than multipart transfers or slower depending on your latency from S3 - the more latency, the more likely single part transfers will be faster.

Increasing --s3-upload-concurrency will increase throughput (8 would be a sensible value) and increasing --s3-chunk-size also increases throughput (16M would be sensible). Increasing either of these will use more memory. The default values are high enough to gain most of the possible performance without using too much memory.

With Amazon S3 you can list buckets (rclone lsd) using any region, but you can only access the content of a bucket from the region it was created in. If you attempt to access a bucket from the wrong region, you will get an error, incorrect region, the bucket is not in 'XXX' region.

There are a number of ways to supply rclone with a set of AWS credentials, with and without using the environment.

The different authentication methods are tried in this order:

Directly in the rclone configuration file (env_auth = false in the config file):
access_key_id and secret_access_key are required.
session_token can be optionally set when using AWS STS.
Runtime configuration (env_auth = true in the config file):
Export the following environment variables before running rclone:
Access Key ID: AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID or AWS_ACCESS_KEY
Secret Access Key: AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY or AWS_SECRET_KEY
Session Token: AWS_SESSION_TOKEN (optional)
Or, use a named profile (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/userguide/cli-multiple-profiles.html):
Profile files are standard files used by AWS CLI tools
By default it will use the profile in your home directory (e.g. ~/.aws/credentials on unix based systems) file and the "default" profile, to change set these environment variables:
AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE to control which file.
AWS_PROFILE to control which profile to use.
Or, run rclone in an ECS task with an IAM role (AWS only).
Or, run rclone on an EC2 instance with an IAM role (AWS only).
Or, run rclone in an EKS pod with an IAM role that is associated with a service account (AWS only).

If none of these option actually end up providing rclone with AWS credentials then S3 interaction will be non-authenticated (see below).

When using the sync subcommand of rclone the following minimum permissions are required to be available on the bucket being written to:
ListBucket
DeleteObject
GetObject
PutObject
PutObjectACL

When using the lsd subcommand, the ListAllMyBuckets permission is required.

Example policy:

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Principal": {
                "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::USER_SID:user/USER_NAME"
            },
            "Action": [
                "s3:ListBucket",
                "s3:DeleteObject",
                "s3:GetObject",
                "s3:PutObject",
                "s3:PutObjectAcl"
            ],
            "Resource": [
              "arn:aws:s3:::BUCKET_NAME/*",
              "arn:aws:s3:::BUCKET_NAME"
            ]
        },
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": "s3:ListAllMyBuckets",
            "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::*"
        }   
    ]
}

Notes on above:

1.
This is a policy that can be used when creating bucket. It assumes that USER_NAME has been created.
2.
The Resource entry must include both resource ARNs, as one implies the bucket and the other implies the bucket's objects.

For reference, here's an Ansible script (https://gist.github.com/ebridges/ebfc9042dd7c756cd101cfa807b7ae2b) that will generate one or more buckets that will work with rclone sync.

If you are using server-side encryption with KMS then you must make sure rclone is configured with server_side_encryption = aws:kms otherwise you will find you can't transfer small objects - these will create checksum errors.

You can upload objects using the glacier storage class or transition them to glacier using a lifecycle policy (http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/user-guide/create-lifecycle.html). The bucket can still be synced or copied into normally, but if rclone tries to access data from the glacier storage class you will see an error like below.
2017/09/11 19:07:43 Failed to sync: failed to open source object: Object in GLACIER, restore first: path/to/file

In this case you need to restore (http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/user-guide/restore-archived-objects.html) the object(s) in question before using rclone.

Note that rclone only speaks the S3 API it does not speak the Glacier Vault API, so rclone cannot directly access Glacier Vaults.

Here are the standard options specific to s3 (Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, SeaweedFS, and Tencent COS).

Choose your S3 provider.
Config: provider
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_PROVIDER
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"AWS"
Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3
"Alibaba"
Alibaba Cloud Object Storage System (OSS) formerly Aliyun
"Ceph"
Ceph Object Storage
"DigitalOcean"
Digital Ocean Spaces
"Dreamhost"
Dreamhost DreamObjects
"IBMCOS"
IBM COS S3
"Minio"
Minio Object Storage
"Netease"
Netease Object Storage (NOS)
"Scaleway"
Scaleway Object Storage
"SeaweedFS"
SeaweedFS S3
"StackPath"
StackPath Object Storage
"TencentCOS"
Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS)
"Wasabi"
Wasabi Object Storage
"Other"
Any other S3 compatible provider

Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Config: env_auth
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENV_AUTH
Type: bool
Default: false
Examples:
"false"
Enter AWS credentials in the next step
"true"
Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)

AWS Access Key ID. Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
Config: access_key_id
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ACCESS_KEY_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

AWS Secret Access Key (password) Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
Config: secret_access_key
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

Region to connect to.
Config: region
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REGION
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"us-east-1"
The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure.
US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest.
Leave location constraint empty.
"us-east-2"
US East (Ohio) Region
Needs location constraint us-east-2.
"us-west-1"
US West (Northern California) Region
Needs location constraint us-west-1.
"us-west-2"
US West (Oregon) Region
Needs location constraint us-west-2.
"ca-central-1"
Canada (Central) Region
Needs location constraint ca-central-1.
"eu-west-1"
EU (Ireland) Region
Needs location constraint EU or eu-west-1.
"eu-west-2"
EU (London) Region
Needs location constraint eu-west-2.
"eu-west-3"
EU (Paris) Region
Needs location constraint eu-west-3.
"eu-north-1"
EU (Stockholm) Region
Needs location constraint eu-north-1.
"eu-south-1"
EU (Milan) Region
Needs location constraint eu-south-1.
"eu-central-1"
EU (Frankfurt) Region
Needs location constraint eu-central-1.
"ap-southeast-1"
Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region
Needs location constraint ap-southeast-1.
"ap-southeast-2"
Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region
Needs location constraint ap-southeast-2.
"ap-northeast-1"
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region
Needs location constraint ap-northeast-1.
"ap-northeast-2"
Asia Pacific (Seoul)
Needs location constraint ap-northeast-2.
"ap-northeast-3"
Asia Pacific (Osaka-Local)
Needs location constraint ap-northeast-3.
"ap-south-1"
Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
Needs location constraint ap-south-1.
"ap-east-1"
Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region
Needs location constraint ap-east-1.
"sa-east-1"
South America (Sao Paulo) Region
Needs location constraint sa-east-1.
"me-south-1"
Middle East (Bahrain) Region
Needs location constraint me-south-1.
"af-south-1"
Africa (Cape Town) Region
Needs location constraint af-south-1.
"cn-north-1"
China (Beijing) Region
Needs location constraint cn-north-1.
"cn-northwest-1"
China (Ningxia) Region
Needs location constraint cn-northwest-1.
"us-gov-east-1"
AWS GovCloud (US-East) Region
Needs location constraint us-gov-east-1.
"us-gov-west-1"
AWS GovCloud (US) Region
Needs location constraint us-gov-west-1.

Region to connect to.
Config: region
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REGION
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"nl-ams"
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
"fr-par"
Paris, France

Region to connect to. Leave blank if you are using an S3 clone and you don't have a region.
Config: region
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REGION
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Use this if unsure. Will use v4 signatures and an empty region.
"other-v2-signature"
Use this only if v4 signatures don't work, e.g. pre Jewel/v10 CEPH.

Endpoint for S3 API. Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

Endpoint for IBM COS S3 API. Specify if using an IBM COS On Premise.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"s3.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Cross Region Endpoint
"s3.dal.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Cross Region Dallas Endpoint
"s3.wdc.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Cross Region Washington DC Endpoint
"s3.sjc.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Cross Region San Jose Endpoint
"s3.private.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Cross Region Private Endpoint
"s3.private.dal.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Cross Region Dallas Private Endpoint
"s3.private.wdc.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Cross Region Washington DC Private Endpoint
"s3.private.sjc.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Cross Region San Jose Private Endpoint
"s3.us-east.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Region East Endpoint
"s3.private.us-east.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Region East Private Endpoint
"s3.us-south.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Region South Endpoint
"s3.private.us-south.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
US Region South Private Endpoint
"s3.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Cross Region Endpoint
"s3.fra.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Cross Region Frankfurt Endpoint
"s3.mil.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Cross Region Milan Endpoint
"s3.ams.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Cross Region Amsterdam Endpoint
"s3.private.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Cross Region Private Endpoint
"s3.private.fra.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Cross Region Frankfurt Private Endpoint
"s3.private.mil.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Cross Region Milan Private Endpoint
"s3.private.ams.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Cross Region Amsterdam Private Endpoint
"s3.eu-gb.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Great Britain Endpoint
"s3.private.eu-gb.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Great Britain Private Endpoint
"s3.eu-de.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Region DE Endpoint
"s3.private.eu-de.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
EU Region DE Private Endpoint
"s3.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Cross Regional Endpoint
"s3.tok.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Cross Regional Tokyo Endpoint
"s3.hkg.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Cross Regional HongKong Endpoint
"s3.seo.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Cross Regional Seoul Endpoint
"s3.private.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Cross Regional Private Endpoint
"s3.private.tok.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Cross Regional Tokyo Private Endpoint
"s3.private.hkg.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Cross Regional HongKong Private Endpoint
"s3.private.seo.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Cross Regional Seoul Private Endpoint
"s3.jp-tok.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Region Japan Endpoint
"s3.private.jp-tok.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Region Japan Private Endpoint
"s3.au-syd.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Region Australia Endpoint
"s3.private.au-syd.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
APAC Region Australia Private Endpoint
"s3.ams03.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Amsterdam Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.ams03.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Amsterdam Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.che01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Chennai Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.che01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Chennai Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.mel01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Melbourne Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.mel01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Melbourne Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.osl01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Oslo Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.osl01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Oslo Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.tor01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Toronto Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.tor01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Toronto Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.seo01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Seoul Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.seo01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Seoul Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.mon01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Montreal Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.mon01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Montreal Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.mex01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Mexico Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.mex01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Mexico Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.sjc04.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
San Jose Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.sjc04.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
San Jose Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.mil01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Milan Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.mil01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Milan Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.hkg02.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Hong Kong Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.hkg02.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Hong Kong Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.par01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Paris Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.par01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Paris Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.sng01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Singapore Single Site Endpoint
"s3.private.sng01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud"
Singapore Single Site Private Endpoint

Endpoint for OSS API.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"oss-accelerate.aliyuncs.com"
Global Accelerate
"oss-accelerate-overseas.aliyuncs.com"
Global Accelerate (outside mainland China)
"oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com"
East China 1 (Hangzhou)
"oss-cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com"
East China 2 (Shanghai)
"oss-cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com"
North China 1 (Qingdao)
"oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com"
North China 2 (Beijing)
"oss-cn-zhangjiakou.aliyuncs.com"
North China 3 (Zhangjiakou)
"oss-cn-huhehaote.aliyuncs.com"
North China 5 (Hohhot)
"oss-cn-wulanchabu.aliyuncs.com"
North China 6 (Ulanqab)
"oss-cn-shenzhen.aliyuncs.com"
South China 1 (Shenzhen)
"oss-cn-heyuan.aliyuncs.com"
South China 2 (Heyuan)
"oss-cn-guangzhou.aliyuncs.com"
South China 3 (Guangzhou)
"oss-cn-chengdu.aliyuncs.com"
West China 1 (Chengdu)
"oss-cn-hongkong.aliyuncs.com"
Hong Kong (Hong Kong)
"oss-us-west-1.aliyuncs.com"
US West 1 (Silicon Valley)
"oss-us-east-1.aliyuncs.com"
US East 1 (Virginia)
"oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com"
Southeast Asia Southeast 1 (Singapore)
"oss-ap-southeast-2.aliyuncs.com"
Asia Pacific Southeast 2 (Sydney)
"oss-ap-southeast-3.aliyuncs.com"
Southeast Asia Southeast 3 (Kuala Lumpur)
"oss-ap-southeast-5.aliyuncs.com"
Asia Pacific Southeast 5 (Jakarta)
"oss-ap-northeast-1.aliyuncs.com"
Asia Pacific Northeast 1 (Japan)
"oss-ap-south-1.aliyuncs.com"
Asia Pacific South 1 (Mumbai)
"oss-eu-central-1.aliyuncs.com"
Central Europe 1 (Frankfurt)
"oss-eu-west-1.aliyuncs.com"
West Europe (London)
"oss-me-east-1.aliyuncs.com"
Middle East 1 (Dubai)

Endpoint for Scaleway Object Storage.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"s3.nl-ams.scw.cloud"
Amsterdam Endpoint
"s3.fr-par.scw.cloud"
Paris Endpoint

Endpoint for StackPath Object Storage.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"s3.us-east-2.stackpathstorage.com"
US East Endpoint
"s3.us-west-1.stackpathstorage.com"
US West Endpoint
"s3.eu-central-1.stackpathstorage.com"
EU Endpoint

Endpoint for Tencent COS API.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"cos.ap-beijing.myqcloud.com"
Beijing Region.
"cos.ap-nanjing.myqcloud.com"
Nanjing Region.
"cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com"
Shanghai Region.
"cos.ap-guangzhou.myqcloud.com"
Guangzhou Region.
"cos.ap-nanjing.myqcloud.com"
Nanjing Region.
"cos.ap-chengdu.myqcloud.com"
Chengdu Region.
"cos.ap-chongqing.myqcloud.com"
Chongqing Region.
"cos.ap-hongkong.myqcloud.com"
Hong Kong (China) Region.
"cos.ap-singapore.myqcloud.com"
Singapore Region.
"cos.ap-mumbai.myqcloud.com"
Mumbai Region.
"cos.ap-seoul.myqcloud.com"
Seoul Region.
"cos.ap-bangkok.myqcloud.com"
Bangkok Region.
"cos.ap-tokyo.myqcloud.com"
Tokyo Region.
"cos.na-siliconvalley.myqcloud.com"
Silicon Valley Region.
"cos.na-ashburn.myqcloud.com"
Virginia Region.
"cos.na-toronto.myqcloud.com"
Toronto Region.
"cos.eu-frankfurt.myqcloud.com"
Frankfurt Region.
"cos.eu-moscow.myqcloud.com"
Moscow Region.
"cos.accelerate.myqcloud.com"
Use Tencent COS Accelerate Endpoint.

Endpoint for S3 API. Required when using an S3 clone.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"objects-us-east-1.dream.io"
Dream Objects endpoint
"nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com"
Digital Ocean Spaces New York 3
"ams3.digitaloceanspaces.com"
Digital Ocean Spaces Amsterdam 3
"sgp1.digitaloceanspaces.com"
Digital Ocean Spaces Singapore 1
"localhost:8333"
SeaweedFS S3 localhost
"s3.wasabisys.com"
Wasabi US East endpoint
"s3.us-west-1.wasabisys.com"
Wasabi US West endpoint
"s3.eu-central-1.wasabisys.com"
Wasabi EU Central endpoint

Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only.
Config: location_constraint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest.
"us-east-2"
US East (Ohio) Region.
"us-west-1"
US West (Northern California) Region.
"us-west-2"
US West (Oregon) Region.
"ca-central-1"
Canada (Central) Region.
"eu-west-1"
EU (Ireland) Region.
"eu-west-2"
EU (London) Region.
"eu-west-3"
EU (Paris) Region.
"eu-north-1"
EU (Stockholm) Region.
"eu-south-1"
EU (Milan) Region.
"EU"
EU Region.
"ap-southeast-1"
Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region.
"ap-southeast-2"
Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region.
"ap-northeast-1"
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region.
"ap-northeast-2"
Asia Pacific (Seoul) Region.
"ap-northeast-3"
Asia Pacific (Osaka-Local) Region.
"ap-south-1"
Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region.
"ap-east-1"
Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region.
"sa-east-1"
South America (Sao Paulo) Region.
"me-south-1"
Middle East (Bahrain) Region.
"af-south-1"
Africa (Cape Town) Region.
"cn-north-1"
China (Beijing) Region
"cn-northwest-1"
China (Ningxia) Region.
"us-gov-east-1"
AWS GovCloud (US-East) Region.
"us-gov-west-1"
AWS GovCloud (US) Region.

Location constraint - must match endpoint when using IBM Cloud Public. For on-prem COS, do not make a selection from this list, hit enter
Config: location_constraint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"us-standard"
US Cross Region Standard
"us-vault"
US Cross Region Vault
"us-cold"
US Cross Region Cold
"us-flex"
US Cross Region Flex
"us-east-standard"
US East Region Standard
"us-east-vault"
US East Region Vault
"us-east-cold"
US East Region Cold
"us-east-flex"
US East Region Flex
"us-south-standard"
US South Region Standard
"us-south-vault"
US South Region Vault
"us-south-cold"
US South Region Cold
"us-south-flex"
US South Region Flex
"eu-standard"
EU Cross Region Standard
"eu-vault"
EU Cross Region Vault
"eu-cold"
EU Cross Region Cold
"eu-flex"
EU Cross Region Flex
"eu-gb-standard"
Great Britain Standard
"eu-gb-vault"
Great Britain Vault
"eu-gb-cold"
Great Britain Cold
"eu-gb-flex"
Great Britain Flex
"ap-standard"
APAC Standard
"ap-vault"
APAC Vault
"ap-cold"
APAC Cold
"ap-flex"
APAC Flex
"mel01-standard"
Melbourne Standard
"mel01-vault"
Melbourne Vault
"mel01-cold"
Melbourne Cold
"mel01-flex"
Melbourne Flex
"tor01-standard"
Toronto Standard
"tor01-vault"
Toronto Vault
"tor01-cold"
Toronto Cold
"tor01-flex"
Toronto Flex

Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Leave blank if not sure. Used when creating buckets only.
Config: location_constraint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT
Type: string
Default: ""

Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects.

This ACL is used for creating objects and if bucket_acl isn't set, for creating buckets too.

For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl

Note that this ACL is applied when server-side copying objects as S3 doesn't copy the ACL from the source but rather writes a fresh one.

Config: acl
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ACL
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"default"
Owner gets Full_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
"private"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
"public-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access.
"public-read-write"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access.
Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended.
"authenticated-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access.
"bucket-owner-read"
Object owner gets FULL_CONTROL. Bucket owner gets READ access.
If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it.
"bucket-owner-full-control"
Both the object owner and the bucket owner get FULL_CONTROL over the object.
If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it.
"private"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise COS
"public-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise IBM COS
"public-read-write"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), On-Premise IBM COS
"authenticated-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. Not supported on Buckets. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra) and On-Premise IBM COS

The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
Config: server_side_encryption
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SERVER_SIDE_ENCRYPTION
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
None
"AES256"
AES256
"aws:kms"
aws:kms

If using KMS ID you must provide the ARN of Key.
Config: sse_kms_key_id
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_KMS_KEY_ID
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
None
"arn:aws:kms:us-east-1:*"
arn:aws:kms:*

The storage class to use when storing new objects in S3.
Config: storage_class
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Default
"STANDARD"
Standard storage class
"REDUCED_REDUNDANCY"
Reduced redundancy storage class
"STANDARD_IA"
Standard Infrequent Access storage class
"ONEZONE_IA"
One Zone Infrequent Access storage class
"GLACIER"
Glacier storage class
"DEEP_ARCHIVE"
Glacier Deep Archive storage class
"INTELLIGENT_TIERING"
Intelligent-Tiering storage class

The storage class to use when storing new objects in OSS.
Config: storage_class
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Default
"STANDARD"
Standard storage class
"GLACIER"
Archive storage mode.
"STANDARD_IA"
Infrequent access storage mode.

The storage class to use when storing new objects in Tencent COS.
Config: storage_class
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Default
"STANDARD"
Standard storage class
"ARCHIVE"
Archive storage mode.
"STANDARD_IA"
Infrequent access storage mode.

The storage class to use when storing new objects in S3.
Config: storage_class
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Default
"STANDARD"
The Standard class for any upload; suitable for on-demand content like streaming or CDN.
"GLACIER"
Archived storage; prices are lower, but it needs to be restored first to be accessed.

Here are the advanced options specific to s3 (Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, SeaweedFS, and Tencent COS).

Canned ACL used when creating buckets.

For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl

Note that this ACL is applied when only when creating buckets. If it isn't set then "acl" is used instead.

Config: bucket_acl
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_BUCKET_ACL
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"private"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
"public-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access.
"public-read-write"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access.
Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended.
"authenticated-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access.

Enables requester pays option when interacting with S3 bucket.
Config: requester_pays
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REQUESTER_PAYS
Type: bool
Default: false

If using SSE-C, the server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
Config: sse_customer_algorithm
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_CUSTOMER_ALGORITHM
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
None
"AES256"
AES256

If using SSE-C you must provide the secret encryption key used to encrypt/decrypt your data.
Config: sse_customer_key
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_CUSTOMER_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
None

If using SSE-C you may provide the secret encryption key MD5 checksum (optional).

If you leave it blank, this is calculated automatically from the sse_customer_key provided.

Config: sse_customer_key_md5
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_CUSTOMER_KEY_MD5
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
None

Cutoff for switching to chunked upload

Any files larger than this will be uploaded in chunks of chunk_size. The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 5 GiB.

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 200Mi

Chunk size to use for uploading.

When uploading files larger than upload_cutoff or files with unknown size (e.g. from "rclone rcat" or uploaded with "rclone mount" or google photos or google docs) they will be uploaded as multipart uploads using this chunk size.

Note that "--s3-upload-concurrency" chunks of this size are buffered in memory per transfer.

If you are transferring large files over high-speed links and you have enough memory, then increasing this will speed up the transfers.

Rclone will automatically increase the chunk size when uploading a large file of known size to stay below the 10,000 chunks limit.

Files of unknown size are uploaded with the configured chunk_size. Since the default chunk size is 5 MiB and there can be at most 10,000 chunks, this means that by default the maximum size of a file you can stream upload is 48 GiB. If you wish to stream upload larger files then you will need to increase chunk_size.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 5Mi

Maximum number of parts in a multipart upload.

This option defines the maximum number of multipart chunks to use when doing a multipart upload.

This can be useful if a service does not support the AWS S3 specification of 10,000 chunks.

Rclone will automatically increase the chunk size when uploading a large file of a known size to stay below this number of chunks limit.

Config: max_upload_parts
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_MAX_UPLOAD_PARTS
Type: int
Default: 10000

Cutoff for switching to multipart copy

Any files larger than this that need to be server-side copied will be copied in chunks of this size.

The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 5 GiB.

Config: copy_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_COPY_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 4.656Gi

Don't store MD5 checksum with object metadata

Normally rclone will calculate the MD5 checksum of the input before uploading it so it can add it to metadata on the object. This is great for data integrity checking but can cause long delays for large files to start uploading.

Config: disable_checksum
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_DISABLE_CHECKSUM
Type: bool
Default: false

Path to the shared credentials file

If env_auth = true then rclone can use a shared credentials file.

If this variable is empty rclone will look for the "AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE" env variable. If the env value is empty it will default to the current user's home directory.

Linux/OSX: "$HOME/.aws/credentials"
Windows:   "%USERPROFILE%\.aws\credentials"

Config: shared_credentials_file
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE
Type: string
Default: ""

Profile to use in the shared credentials file

If env_auth = true then rclone can use a shared credentials file. This variable controls which profile is used in that file.

If empty it will default to the environment variable "AWS_PROFILE" or "default" if that environment variable is also not set.

Config: profile
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_PROFILE
Type: string
Default: ""

An AWS session token
Config: session_token
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SESSION_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

Concurrency for multipart uploads.

This is the number of chunks of the same file that are uploaded concurrently.

If you are uploading small numbers of large files over high-speed links and these uploads do not fully utilize your bandwidth, then increasing this may help to speed up the transfers.

Config: upload_concurrency
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_UPLOAD_CONCURRENCY
Type: int
Default: 4

If true use path style access if false use virtual hosted style.

If this is true (the default) then rclone will use path style access, if false then rclone will use virtual path style. See the AWS S3 docs (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/UsingBucket.html#access-bucket-intro) for more info.

Some providers (e.g. AWS, Aliyun OSS, Netease COS, or Tencent COS) require this set to false - rclone will do this automatically based on the provider setting.

Config: force_path_style
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_FORCE_PATH_STYLE
Type: bool
Default: true

If true use v2 authentication.

If this is false (the default) then rclone will use v4 authentication. If it is set then rclone will use v2 authentication.

Use this only if v4 signatures don't work, e.g. pre Jewel/v10 CEPH.

Config: v2_auth
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_V2_AUTH
Type: bool
Default: false

If true use the AWS S3 accelerated endpoint.

See: AWS S3 Transfer acceleration (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/transfer-acceleration-examples.html)

Config: use_accelerate_endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_USE_ACCELERATE_ENDPOINT
Type: bool
Default: false

If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure, leaving all successfully uploaded parts on S3 for manual recovery.

It should be set to true for resuming uploads across different sessions.

WARNING: Storing parts of an incomplete multipart upload counts towards space usage on S3 and will add additional costs if not cleaned up.

Config: leave_parts_on_error
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LEAVE_PARTS_ON_ERROR
Type: bool
Default: false

Size of listing chunk (response list for each ListObject S3 request).

This option is also known as "MaxKeys", "max-items", or "page-size" from the AWS S3 specification. Most services truncate the response list to 1000 objects even if requested more than that. In AWS S3 this is a global maximum and cannot be changed, see AWS S3 (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/reference/s3/ls.html). In Ceph, this can be increased with the "rgw list buckets max chunk" option.

Config: list_chunk
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LIST_CHUNK
Type: int
Default: 1000

If set, don't attempt to check the bucket exists or create it

This can be useful when trying to minimise the number of transactions rclone does if you know the bucket exists already.

It can also be needed if the user you are using does not have bucket creation permissions. Before v1.52.0 this would have passed silently due to a bug.

Config: no_check_bucket
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_NO_CHECK_BUCKET
Type: bool
Default: false

If set, don't HEAD uploaded objects to check integrity

This can be useful when trying to minimise the number of transactions rclone does.

Setting it means that if rclone receives a 200 OK message after uploading an object with PUT then it will assume that it got uploaded properly.

In particular it will assume:

the metadata, including modtime, storage class and content type was as uploaded
the size was as uploaded

It reads the following items from the response for a single part PUT:

the MD5SUM
The uploaded date

For multipart uploads these items aren't read.

If an source object of unknown length is uploaded then rclone will do a HEAD request.

Setting this flag increases the chance for undetected upload failures, in particular an incorrect size, so it isn't recommended for normal operation. In practice the chance of an undetected upload failure is very small even with this flag.

Config: no_head
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_NO_HEAD
Type: bool
Default: false

If set, don't HEAD objects
Config: no_head_object
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_NO_HEAD_OBJECT
Type: bool
Default: false

This sets the encoding for the backend.

See: the encoding section in the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#encoding) for more info.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot

How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. Uploads which requires additional buffers (f.e multipart) will use memory pool for allocations. This option controls how often unused buffers will be removed from the pool.
Config: memory_pool_flush_time
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_MEMORY_POOL_FLUSH_TIME
Type: Duration
Default: 1m0s

Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
Config: memory_pool_use_mmap
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_MEMORY_POOL_USE_MMAP
Type: bool
Default: false

Disable usage of http2 for S3 backends

There is currently an unsolved issue with the s3 (specifically minio) backend and HTTP/2. HTTP/2 is enabled by default for the s3 backend but can be disabled here. When the issue is solved this flag will be removed.

See: https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/4673, https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/3631

Config: disable_http2
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_DISABLE_HTTP2
Type: bool
Default: false

Here are the commands specific to the s3 backend.

Run them with

rclone backend COMMAND remote:

The help below will explain what arguments each command takes.

See the "rclone backend" command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_backend/) for more info on how to pass options and arguments.

These can be run on a running backend using the rc command backend/command (https://rclone.org/rc/#backend/command).

Restore objects from GLACIER to normal storage
rclone backend restore remote: [options] [<arguments>+]

This command can be used to restore one or more objects from GLACIER to normal storage.

Usage Examples:

rclone backend restore s3:bucket/path/to/object [-o priority=PRIORITY] [-o lifetime=DAYS]
rclone backend restore s3:bucket/path/to/directory [-o priority=PRIORITY] [-o lifetime=DAYS]
rclone backend restore s3:bucket [-o priority=PRIORITY] [-o lifetime=DAYS]

This flag also obeys the filters. Test first with -i/--interactive or --dry-run flags

rclone -i backend restore --include "*.txt" s3:bucket/path -o priority=Standard

All the objects shown will be marked for restore, then

rclone backend restore --include "*.txt" s3:bucket/path -o priority=Standard

It returns a list of status dictionaries with Remote and Status keys. The Status will be OK if it was successful or an error message if not.

[
    {
        "Status": "OK",
        "Path": "test.txt"
    },
    {
        "Status": "OK",
        "Path": "test/file4.txt"
    }
]

Options:

"description": The optional description for the job.
"lifetime": Lifetime of the active copy in days
"priority": Priority of restore: Standard|Expedited|Bulk

List the unfinished multipart uploads
rclone backend list-multipart-uploads remote: [options] [<arguments>+]

This command lists the unfinished multipart uploads in JSON format.

rclone backend list-multipart s3:bucket/path/to/object

It returns a dictionary of buckets with values as lists of unfinished multipart uploads.

You can call it with no bucket in which case it lists all bucket, with a bucket or with a bucket and path.

{
  "rclone": [
    {
      "Initiated": "2020-06-26T14:20:36Z",
      "Initiator": {
        "DisplayName": "XXX",
        "ID": "arn:aws:iam::XXX:user/XXX"
      },
      "Key": "KEY",
      "Owner": {
        "DisplayName": null,
        "ID": "XXX"
      },
      "StorageClass": "STANDARD",
      "UploadId": "XXX"
    }
  ],
  "rclone-1000files": [],
  "rclone-dst": []
}

Remove unfinished multipart uploads.
rclone backend cleanup remote: [options] [<arguments>+]

This command removes unfinished multipart uploads of age greater than max-age which defaults to 24 hours.

Note that you can use -i/--dry-run with this command to see what it would do.

rclone backend cleanup s3:bucket/path/to/object
rclone backend cleanup -o max-age=7w s3:bucket/path/to/object

Durations are parsed as per the rest of rclone, 2h, 7d, 7w etc.

Options:

"max-age": Max age of upload to delete

If you want to use rclone to access a public bucket, configure with a blank access_key_id and secret_access_key. Your config should end up looking like this:
[anons3]
type = s3
provider = AWS
env_auth = false
access_key_id = 
secret_access_key = 
region = us-east-1
endpoint = 
location_constraint = 
acl = private
server_side_encryption = 
storage_class = 

Then use it as normal with the name of the public bucket, e.g.

rclone lsd anons3:1000genomes

You will be able to list and copy data but not upload it.

Ceph (https://ceph.com/) is an open source unified, distributed storage system designed for excellent performance, reliability and scalability. It has an S3 compatible object storage interface.

To use rclone with Ceph, configure as above but leave the region blank and set the endpoint. You should end up with something like this in your config:

[ceph]
type = s3
provider = Ceph
env_auth = false
access_key_id = XXX
secret_access_key = YYY
region =
endpoint = https://ceph.endpoint.example.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

If you are using an older version of CEPH, e.g. 10.2.x Jewel, then you may need to supply the parameter --s3-upload-cutoff 0 or put this in the config file as upload_cutoff 0 to work around a bug which causes uploading of small files to fail.

Note also that Ceph sometimes puts / in the passwords it gives users. If you read the secret access key using the command line tools you will get a JSON blob with the / escaped as \/. Make sure you only write / in the secret access key.

Eg the dump from Ceph looks something like this (irrelevant keys removed).

{
    "user_id": "xxx",
    "display_name": "xxxx",
    "keys": [
        {
            "user": "xxx",
            "access_key": "xxxxxx",
            "secret_key": "xxxxxx\/xxxx"
        }
    ],
}

Because this is a json dump, it is encoding the / as \/, so if you use the secret key as xxxxxx/xxxx it will work fine.

Dreamhost DreamObjects (https://www.dreamhost.com/cloud/storage/) is an object storage system based on CEPH.

To use rclone with Dreamhost, configure as above but leave the region blank and set the endpoint. You should end up with something like this in your config:

[dreamobjects]
type = s3
provider = DreamHost
env_auth = false
access_key_id = your_access_key
secret_access_key = your_secret_key
region =
endpoint = objects-us-west-1.dream.io
location_constraint =
acl = private
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

Spaces (https://www.digitalocean.com/products/object-storage/) is an S3-interoperable (https://developers.digitalocean.com/documentation/spaces/) object storage service from cloud provider DigitalOcean.

To connect to DigitalOcean Spaces you will need an access key and secret key. These can be retrieved on the "Applications & API (https://cloud.digitalocean.com/settings/api/tokens)" page of the DigitalOcean control panel. They will be needed when prompted by rclone config for your access_key_id and secret_access_key.

When prompted for a region or location_constraint, press enter to use the default value. The region must be included in the endpoint setting (e.g. nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com). The default values can be used for other settings.

Going through the whole process of creating a new remote by running rclone config, each prompt should be answered as shown below:

Storage> s3
env_auth> 1
access_key_id> YOUR_ACCESS_KEY
secret_access_key> YOUR_SECRET_KEY
region>
endpoint> nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com
location_constraint>
acl>
storage_class>

The resulting configuration file should look like:

[spaces]
type = s3
provider = DigitalOcean
env_auth = false
access_key_id = YOUR_ACCESS_KEY
secret_access_key = YOUR_SECRET_KEY
region =
endpoint = nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

Once configured, you can create a new Space and begin copying files. For example:

rclone mkdir spaces:my-new-space
rclone copy /path/to/files spaces:my-new-space

Information stored with IBM Cloud Object Storage is encrypted and dispersed across multiple geographic locations, and accessed through an implementation of the S3 API. This service makes use of the distributed storage technologies provided by IBM’s Cloud Object Storage System (formerly Cleversafe). For more information visit: (http://www.ibm.com/cloud/object-storage)

To configure access to IBM COS S3, follow the steps below:

1.
Run rclone config and select n for a new remote.
2018/02/14 14:13:11 NOTICE: Config file "C:\\Users\\a\\.config\\rclone\\rclone.conf" not found - using defaults
No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n

2.
Enter the name for the configuration
name> <YOUR NAME>

3.
Select "s3" storage.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
    1 / Alias for an existing remote
    \ "alias"
    2 / Amazon Drive
    \ "amazon cloud drive"
    3 / Amazon S3 Complaint Storage Providers (Dreamhost, Ceph, Minio, IBM COS)
    \ "s3"
    4 / Backblaze B2
    \ "b2"
[snip]
    23 / http Connection
    \ "http"
Storage> 3

4.
Select IBM COS as the S3 Storage Provider.
Choose the S3 provider.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
     1 / Choose this option to configure Storage to AWS S3
       \ "AWS"
     2 / Choose this option to configure Storage to Ceph Systems
     \ "Ceph"
     3 /  Choose this option to configure Storage to Dreamhost
     \ "Dreamhost"
   4 / Choose this option to the configure Storage to IBM COS S3
     \ "IBMCOS"
     5 / Choose this option to the configure Storage to Minio
     \ "Minio"
     Provider>4

5.
Enter the Access Key and Secret.
AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
access_key_id> <>
AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
secret_access_key> <>

6.
Specify the endpoint for IBM COS. For Public IBM COS, choose from the option below. For On Premise IBM COS, enter an endpoint address.
    Endpoint for IBM COS S3 API.
    Specify if using an IBM COS On Premise.
    Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
     1 / US Cross Region Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
     2 / US Cross Region Dallas Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.dal.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
     3 / US Cross Region Washington DC Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.wdc-us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
     4 / US Cross Region San Jose Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.sjc-us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
     5 / US Cross Region Private Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
     6 / US Cross Region Dallas Private Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.dal-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
     7 / US Cross Region Washington DC Private Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.wdc-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
     8 / US Cross Region San Jose Private Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.sjc-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
     9 / US Region East Endpoint
       \ "s3.us-east.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
    10 / US Region East Private Endpoint
       \ "s3.us-east.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
    11 / US Region South Endpoint
[snip]
    34 / Toronto Single Site Private Endpoint
       \ "s3.tor01.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
    endpoint>1

7.
Specify a IBM COS Location Constraint. The location constraint must match endpoint when using IBM Cloud Public. For on-prem COS, do not make a selection from this list, hit enter
     1 / US Cross Region Standard
       \ "us-standard"
     2 / US Cross Region Vault
       \ "us-vault"
     3 / US Cross Region Cold
       \ "us-cold"
     4 / US Cross Region Flex
       \ "us-flex"
     5 / US East Region Standard
       \ "us-east-standard"
     6 / US East Region Vault
       \ "us-east-vault"
     7 / US East Region Cold
       \ "us-east-cold"
     8 / US East Region Flex
       \ "us-east-flex"
     9 / US South Region Standard
       \ "us-south-standard"
    10 / US South Region Vault
       \ "us-south-vault"
[snip]
    32 / Toronto Flex
       \ "tor01-flex"
location_constraint>1

9.
Specify a canned ACL. IBM Cloud (Storage) supports "public-read" and "private". IBM Cloud(Infra) supports all the canned ACLs. On-Premise COS supports all the canned ACLs.
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3.
For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
      1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise COS
      \ "private"
      2  / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise IBM COS
      \ "public-read"
      3 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), On-Premise IBM COS
      \ "public-read-write"
      4  / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. Not supported on Buckets. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra) and On-Premise IBM COS
      \ "authenticated-read"
acl> 1

12.
Review the displayed configuration and accept to save the "remote" then quit. The config file should look like this
[xxx]
type = s3
Provider = IBMCOS
access_key_id = xxx
secret_access_key = yyy
endpoint = s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net
location_constraint = us-standard
acl = private

13.
Execute rclone commands
1)  Create a bucket.
    rclone mkdir IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
2)  List available buckets.
    rclone lsd IBM-COS-XREGION:
    -1 2017-11-08 21:16:22        -1 test
    -1 2018-02-14 20:16:39        -1 newbucket
3)  List contents of a bucket.
    rclone ls IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
    18685952 test.exe
4)  Copy a file from local to remote.
    rclone copy /Users/file.txt IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
5)  Copy a file from remote to local.
    rclone copy IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket/file.txt .
6)  Delete a file on remote.
    rclone delete IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket/file.txt

Minio (https://minio.io/) is an object storage server built for cloud application developers and devops.

It is very easy to install and provides an S3 compatible server which can be used by rclone.

To use it, install Minio following the instructions here (https://docs.minio.io/docs/minio-quickstart-guide).

When it configures itself Minio will print something like this

Endpoint:  http://192.168.1.106:9000  http://172.23.0.1:9000
AccessKey: USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE
SecretKey: MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03
Region:    us-east-1
SQS ARNs:  arn:minio:sqs:us-east-1:1:redis arn:minio:sqs:us-east-1:2:redis
Browser Access:
   http://192.168.1.106:9000  http://172.23.0.1:9000
Command-line Access: https://docs.minio.io/docs/minio-client-quickstart-guide
   $ mc config host add myminio http://192.168.1.106:9000 USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03
Object API (Amazon S3 compatible):
   Go:         https://docs.minio.io/docs/golang-client-quickstart-guide
   Java:       https://docs.minio.io/docs/java-client-quickstart-guide
   Python:     https://docs.minio.io/docs/python-client-quickstart-guide
   JavaScript: https://docs.minio.io/docs/javascript-client-quickstart-guide
   .NET:       https://docs.minio.io/docs/dotnet-client-quickstart-guide
Drive Capacity: 26 GiB Free, 165 GiB Total

These details need to go into rclone config like this. Note that it is important to put the region in as stated above.

env_auth> 1
access_key_id> USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE
secret_access_key> MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03
region> us-east-1
endpoint> http://192.168.1.106:9000
location_constraint>
server_side_encryption>

Which makes the config file look like this

[minio]
type = s3
provider = Minio
env_auth = false
access_key_id = USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE
secret_access_key = MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03
region = us-east-1
endpoint = http://192.168.1.106:9000
location_constraint =
server_side_encryption =

So once set up, for example to copy files into a bucket

rclone copy /path/to/files minio:bucket

Scaleway (https://www.scaleway.com/object-storage/) The Object Storage platform allows you to store anything from backups, logs and web assets to documents and photos. Files can be dropped from the Scaleway console or transferred through our API and CLI or using any S3-compatible tool.

Scaleway provides an S3 interface which can be configured for use with rclone like this:

[scaleway]
type = s3
provider = Scaleway
env_auth = false
endpoint = s3.nl-ams.scw.cloud
access_key_id = SCWXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
secret_access_key = 1111111-2222-3333-44444-55555555555555
region = nl-ams
location_constraint =
acl = private
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

SeaweedFS (https://github.com/chrislusf/seaweedfs/) is a distributed storage system for blobs, objects, files, and data lake, with O(1) disk seek and a scalable file metadata store. It has an S3 compatible object storage interface.

Assuming the SeaweedFS are configured with weed shell as such:

> s3.bucket.create -name foo
> s3.configure -access_key=any -secret_key=any -buckets=foo -user=me -actions=Read,Write,List,Tagging,Admin -apply
{
  "identities": [
    {
      "name": "me",
      "credentials": [
        {
          "accessKey": "any",
          "secretKey": "any"
        }
      ],
      "actions": [
        "Read:foo",
        "Write:foo",
        "List:foo",
        "Tagging:foo",
        "Admin:foo"
      ]
    }
  ]
}

To use rclone with SeaweedFS, above configuration should end up with something like this in your config:

[seaweedfs_s3]
type = s3
provider = SeaweedFS
access_key_id = any
secret_access_key = any
endpoint = localhost:8333

So once set up, for example to copy files into a bucket

rclone copy /path/to/files seaweedfs_s3:foo

Wasabi (https://wasabi.com) is a cloud-based object storage service for a broad range of applications and use cases. Wasabi is designed for individuals and organizations that require a high-performance, reliable, and secure data storage infrastructure at minimal cost.

Wasabi provides an S3 interface which can be configured for use with rclone like this.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
n/s> n
name> wasabi
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Amazon S3 (also Dreamhost, Ceph, Minio)
   \ "s3"
[snip]
Storage> s3
Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)
   \ "true"
env_auth> 1
AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
access_key_id> YOURACCESSKEY
AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
secret_access_key> YOURSECRETACCESSKEY
Region to connect to.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
   / The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure.
 1 | US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest.
   | Leave location constraint empty.
   \ "us-east-1"
[snip]
region> us-east-1
Endpoint for S3 API.
Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region.
Specify if using an S3 clone such as Ceph.
endpoint> s3.wasabisys.com
Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest.
   \ ""
[snip]
location_constraint>
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3.
For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
   \ "private"
[snip]
acl>
The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / None
   \ ""
 2 / AES256
   \ "AES256"
server_side_encryption>
The storage class to use when storing objects in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Default
   \ ""
 2 / Standard storage class
   \ "STANDARD"
 3 / Reduced redundancy storage class
   \ "REDUCED_REDUNDANCY"
 4 / Standard Infrequent Access storage class
   \ "STANDARD_IA"
storage_class>
Remote config
--------------------
[wasabi]
env_auth = false
access_key_id = YOURACCESSKEY
secret_access_key = YOURSECRETACCESSKEY
region = us-east-1
endpoint = s3.wasabisys.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

This will leave the config file looking like this.

[wasabi]
type = s3
provider = Wasabi
env_auth = false
access_key_id = YOURACCESSKEY
secret_access_key = YOURSECRETACCESSKEY
region =
endpoint = s3.wasabisys.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

Here is an example of making an Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) OSS (https://www.alibabacloud.com/product/oss/) configuration. First run:
rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> oss
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
 4 / Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, and Tencent COS
   \ "s3"
[snip]
Storage> s3
Choose your S3 provider.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3
   \ "AWS"
 2 / Alibaba Cloud Object Storage System (OSS) formerly Aliyun
   \ "Alibaba"
 3 / Ceph Object Storage
   \ "Ceph"
[snip]
provider> Alibaba
Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars).
Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)
   \ "true"
env_auth> 1
AWS Access Key ID.
Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
access_key_id> accesskeyid
AWS Secret Access Key (password)
Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
secret_access_key> secretaccesskey
Endpoint for OSS API.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / East China 1 (Hangzhou)
   \ "oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com"
 2 / East China 2 (Shanghai)
   \ "oss-cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com"
 3 / North China 1 (Qingdao)
   \ "oss-cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com"
[snip]
endpoint> 1
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects.
Note that this ACL is applied when server-side copying objects as S3
doesn't copy the ACL from the source but rather writes a fresh one.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
   \ "private"
 2 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access.
   \ "public-read"
   / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access.
[snip]
acl> 1
The storage class to use when storing new objects in OSS.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Default
   \ ""
 2 / Standard storage class
   \ "STANDARD"
 3 / Archive storage mode.
   \ "GLACIER"
 4 / Infrequent access storage mode.
   \ "STANDARD_IA"
storage_class> 1
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[oss]
type = s3
provider = Alibaba
env_auth = false
access_key_id = accesskeyid
secret_access_key = secretaccesskey
endpoint = oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com
acl = private
storage_class = Standard
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS) (https://intl.cloud.tencent.com/product/cos) is a distributed storage service offered by Tencent Cloud for unstructured data. It is secure, stable, massive, convenient, low-delay and low-cost.

To configure access to Tencent COS, follow the steps below:

1.
Run rclone config and select n for a new remote.
rclone config
No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n

2.
Give the name of the configuration. For example, name it 'cos'.
name> cos

3.
Select s3 storage.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / 1Fichier
   \ "fichier"
 2 / Alias for an existing remote
   \ "alias"
 3 / Amazon Drive
   \ "amazon cloud drive"
 4 / Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, and Tencent COS
   \ "s3"
[snip]
Storage> s3

4.
Select TencentCOS provider.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3
   \ "AWS"
[snip]
11 / Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS)
   \ "TencentCOS"
[snip]
provider> TencentCOS

5.
Enter your SecretId and SecretKey of Tencent Cloud.
Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars).
Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)
   \ "true"
env_auth> 1
AWS Access Key ID.
Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
access_key_id> AKIDxxxxxxxxxx
AWS Secret Access Key (password)
Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
secret_access_key> xxxxxxxxxxx

6.
Select endpoint for Tencent COS. This is the standard endpoint for different region.
 1 / Beijing Region.
   \ "cos.ap-beijing.myqcloud.com"
 2 / Nanjing Region.
   \ "cos.ap-nanjing.myqcloud.com"
 3 / Shanghai Region.
   \ "cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com"
 4 / Guangzhou Region.
   \ "cos.ap-guangzhou.myqcloud.com"
[snip]
endpoint> 4

7.
Choose acl and storage class.
Note that this ACL is applied when server-side copying objects as S3
doesn't copy the ACL from the source but rather writes a fresh one.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Owner gets Full_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
   \ "default"
[snip]
acl> 1
The storage class to use when storing new objects in Tencent COS.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Default
   \ ""
[snip]
storage_class> 1
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No (default)
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[cos]
type = s3
provider = TencentCOS
env_auth = false
access_key_id = xxx
secret_access_key = xxx
endpoint = cos.ap-guangzhou.myqcloud.com
acl = default
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK (default)
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y
Current remotes:
Name                 Type
====                 ====
cos                  s3

For Netease NOS configure as per the configurator rclone config setting the provider Netease. This will automatically set force_path_style = false which is necessary for it to run properly.

rclone about is not supported by the S3 backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

See List of backends that do not support rclone about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) See rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/)

B2 is Backblaze's cloud storage system (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/).

Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, e.g. remote:bucket/path/to/dir.

Here is an example of making a b2 configuration. First run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process. To authenticate you will either need your Account ID (a short hex number) and Master Application Key (a long hex number) OR an Application Key, which is the recommended method. See below for further details on generating and using an Application Key.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Backblaze B2
   \ "b2"
[snip]
Storage> b2
Account ID or Application Key ID
account> 123456789abc
Application Key
key> 0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789
Endpoint for the service - leave blank normally.
endpoint>
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
account = 123456789abc
key = 0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789
endpoint =
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all buckets

rclone lsd remote:

Create a new bucket

rclone mkdir remote:bucket

List the contents of a bucket

rclone ls remote:bucket

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket.

rclone sync -i /home/local/directory remote:bucket

B2 supports multiple Application Keys for different access permission to B2 Buckets (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/application_keys.html).

You can use these with rclone too; you will need to use rclone version 1.43 or later.

Follow Backblaze's docs to create an Application Key with the required permission and add the applicationKeyId as the account and the Application Key itself as the key.

Note that you must put the applicationKeyId as the account – you can't use the master Account ID. If you try then B2 will return 401 errors.

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (https://rclone.org/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as X-Bz-Info-src_last_modified_millis as milliseconds since 1970-01-01 in the Backblaze standard. Other tools should be able to use this as a modified time.

Modified times are used in syncing and are fully supported. Note that if a modification time needs to be updated on an object then it will create a new version of the object.

In addition to the default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:
Character Value Replacement
\ 0x5C

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Note that in 2020-05 Backblaze started allowing  characters in file names. Rclone hasn't changed its encoding as this could cause syncs to re-transfer files. If you want rclone not to replace  then see the --b2-encoding flag below and remove the BackSlash from the string. This can be set in the config.

The SHA1 checksums of the files are checked on upload and download and will be used in the syncing process.

Large files (bigger than the limit in --b2-upload-cutoff) which are uploaded in chunks will store their SHA1 on the object as X-Bz-Info-large_file_sha1 as recommended by Backblaze.

For a large file to be uploaded with an SHA1 checksum, the source needs to support SHA1 checksums. The local disk supports SHA1 checksums so large file transfers from local disk will have an SHA1. See the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#features) for exactly which remotes support SHA1.

Sources which don't support SHA1, in particular crypt will upload large files without SHA1 checksums. This may be fixed in the future (see #1767 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1767)).

Files sizes below --b2-upload-cutoff will always have an SHA1 regardless of the source.

Backblaze recommends that you do lots of transfers simultaneously for maximum speed. In tests from my SSD equipped laptop the optimum setting is about --transfers 32 though higher numbers may be used for a slight speed improvement. The optimum number for you may vary depending on your hardware, how big the files are, how much you want to load your computer, etc. The default of --transfers 4 is definitely too low for Backblaze B2 though.

Note that uploading big files (bigger than 200 MiB by default) will use a 96 MiB RAM buffer by default. There can be at most --transfers of these in use at any moment, so this sets the upper limit on the memory used.

When rclone uploads a new version of a file it creates a new version of it (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/file_versions.html). Likewise when you delete a file, the old version will be marked hidden and still be available. Conversely, you may opt in to a "hard delete" of files with the --b2-hard-delete flag which would permanently remove the file instead of hiding it.

Old versions of files, where available, are visible using the --b2-versions flag.

If you wish to remove all the old versions then you can use the rclone cleanup remote:bucket command which will delete all the old versions of files, leaving the current ones intact. You can also supply a path and only old versions under that path will be deleted, e.g. rclone cleanup remote:bucket/path/to/stuff.

Note that cleanup will remove partially uploaded files from the bucket if they are more than a day old.

When you purge a bucket, the current and the old versions will be deleted then the bucket will be deleted.

However delete will cause the current versions of the files to become hidden old versions.

Here is a session showing the listing and retrieval of an old version followed by a cleanup of the old versions.

Show current version and all the versions with --b2-versions flag.

$ rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt
$ rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt
        8 one-v2016-07-04-141032-000.txt
       16 one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt
       15 one-v2016-07-02-155621-000.txt

Retrieve an old version

$ rclone -q --b2-versions copy b2:cleanup-test/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt /tmp
$ ls -l /tmp/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt
-rw-rw-r-- 1 ncw ncw 16 Jul  2 17:46 /tmp/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt

Clean up all the old versions and show that they've gone.

$ rclone -q cleanup b2:cleanup-test
$ rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt
$ rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt

It is useful to know how many requests are sent to the server in different scenarios.

All copy commands send the following 4 requests:

/b2api/v1/b2_authorize_account
/b2api/v1/b2_create_bucket
/b2api/v1/b2_list_buckets
/b2api/v1/b2_list_file_names

The b2_list_file_names request will be sent once for every 1k files in the remote path, providing the checksum and modification time of the listed files. As of version 1.33 issue #818 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/818) causes extra requests to be sent when using B2 with Crypt. When a copy operation does not require any files to be uploaded, no more requests will be sent.

Uploading files that do not require chunking, will send 2 requests per file upload:

/b2api/v1/b2_get_upload_url
/b2api/v1/b2_upload_file/

Uploading files requiring chunking, will send 2 requests (one each to start and finish the upload) and another 2 requests for each chunk:

/b2api/v1/b2_start_large_file
/b2api/v1/b2_get_upload_part_url
/b2api/v1/b2_upload_part/
/b2api/v1/b2_finish_large_file

Versions can be viewed with the --b2-versions flag. When it is set rclone will show and act on older versions of files. For example

Listing without --b2-versions

$ rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt

And with

$ rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt
        8 one-v2016-07-04-141032-000.txt
       16 one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt
       15 one-v2016-07-02-155621-000.txt

Showing that the current version is unchanged but older versions can be seen. These have the UTC date that they were uploaded to the server to the nearest millisecond appended to them.

Note that when using --b2-versions no file write operations are permitted, so you can't upload files or delete them.

Rclone supports generating file share links for private B2 buckets. They can either be for a file for example:
./rclone link B2:bucket/path/to/file.txt
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/to/file.txt?Authorization=xxxxxxxx

or if run on a directory you will get:

./rclone link B2:bucket/path
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path?Authorization=xxxxxxxx

you can then use the authorization token (the part of the url from the ?Authorization= on) on any file path under that directory. For example:

https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/to/file1?Authorization=xxxxxxxx
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/file2?Authorization=xxxxxxxx
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/folder/file3?Authorization=xxxxxxxx

Here are the standard options specific to b2 (Backblaze B2).

Account ID or Application Key ID
Config: account
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_ACCOUNT
Type: string
Default: ""

Application Key
Config: key
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

Permanently delete files on remote removal, otherwise hide files.
Config: hard_delete
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_HARD_DELETE
Type: bool
Default: false

Here are the advanced options specific to b2 (Backblaze B2).

Endpoint for the service. Leave blank normally.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

A flag string for X-Bz-Test-Mode header for debugging.

This is for debugging purposes only. Setting it to one of the strings below will cause b2 to return specific errors:

"fail_some_uploads"
"expire_some_account_authorization_tokens"
"force_cap_exceeded"

These will be set in the "X-Bz-Test-Mode" header which is documented in the b2 integrations checklist (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/integration_checklist.html).

Config: test_mode
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_TEST_MODE
Type: string
Default: ""

Include old versions in directory listings. Note that when using this no file write operations are permitted, so you can't upload files or delete them.
Config: versions
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_VERSIONS
Type: bool
Default: false

Cutoff for switching to chunked upload.

Files above this size will be uploaded in chunks of "--b2-chunk-size".

This value should be set no larger than 4.657 GiB (== 5 GB).

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 200Mi

Cutoff for switching to multipart copy

Any files larger than this that need to be server-side copied will be copied in chunks of this size.

The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 4.6 GiB.

Config: copy_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_COPY_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 4Gi

Upload chunk size. Must fit in memory.

When uploading large files, chunk the file into this size. Note that these chunks are buffered in memory and there might a maximum of "--transfers" chunks in progress at once. 5,000,000 Bytes is the minimum size.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 96Mi

Disable checksums for large (> upload cutoff) files

Normally rclone will calculate the SHA1 checksum of the input before uploading it so it can add it to metadata on the object. This is great for data integrity checking but can cause long delays for large files to start uploading.

Config: disable_checksum
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_DISABLE_CHECKSUM
Type: bool
Default: false

Custom endpoint for downloads.

This is usually set to a Cloudflare CDN URL as Backblaze offers free egress for data downloaded through the Cloudflare network. Rclone works with private buckets by sending an "Authorization" header. If the custom endpoint rewrites the requests for authentication, e.g., in Cloudflare Workers, this header needs to be handled properly. Leave blank if you want to use the endpoint provided by Backblaze.

Config: download_url
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_DOWNLOAD_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

Time before the authorization token will expire in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d.

The duration before the download authorization token will expire. The minimum value is 1 second. The maximum value is one week.

Config: download_auth_duration
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_DOWNLOAD_AUTH_DURATION
Type: Duration
Default: 1w

How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. Uploads which requires additional buffers (f.e multipart) will use memory pool for allocations. This option controls how often unused buffers will be removed from the pool.
Config: memory_pool_flush_time
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_MEMORY_POOL_FLUSH_TIME
Type: Duration
Default: 1m0s

Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
Config: memory_pool_use_mmap
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_MEMORY_POOL_USE_MMAP
Type: bool
Default: false

This sets the encoding for the backend.

See: the encoding section in the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#encoding) for more info.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot

rclone about is not supported by the B2 backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

See List of backends that do not support rclone about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) See rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/)

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, e.g. remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for Box involves getting a token from Box which you can do either in your browser, or with a config.json downloaded from Box to use JWT authentication. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Box
   \ "box"
[snip]
Storage> box
Box App Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id> 
Box App Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret>
Box App config.json location
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
box_config_file>
Box App Primary Access Token
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
access_token>
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("user").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Rclone should act on behalf of a user
   \ "user"
 2 / Rclone should act on behalf of a service account
   \ "enterprise"
box_sub_type>
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id = 
client_secret = 
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"XXX"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Box. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Box

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your Box

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an Box directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

If you have an "Enterprise" account type with Box with single sign on (SSO), you need to create a password to use Box with rclone. This can be done at your Enterprise Box account by going to Settings, "Account" Tab, and then set the password in the "Authentication" field.

Once you have done this, you can setup your Enterprise Box account using the same procedure detailed above in the, using the password you have just set.

According to the box docs (https://developer.box.com/v2.0/docs/oauth-20#section-6-using-the-access-and-refresh-tokens):

Each refresh_token is valid for one use in 60 days.

This means that if you

Don't use the box remote for 60 days
Copy the config file with a box refresh token in and use it in two places
Get an error on a token refresh

then rclone will return an error which includes the text Invalid refresh token.

To fix this you will need to use oauth2 again to update the refresh token. You can use the methods in the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/), bearing in mind that if you use the copy the config file method, you should not use that remote on the computer you did the authentication on.

Here is how to do it.

$ rclone config
Current remotes:
Name                 Type
====                 ====
remote               box
e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> e
Choose a number from below, or type in an existing value
 1 > remote
remote> remote
--------------------
[remote]
type = box
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"2017-07-08T23:40:08.059167677+01:00"}
--------------------
Edit remote
Value "client_id" = ""
Edit? (y/n)>
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Value "client_secret" = ""
Edit? (y/n)>
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
Already have a token - refresh?
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
type = box
token = {"access_token":"YYY","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"YYY","expiry":"2017-07-23T12:22:29.259137901+01:00"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Box allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not.

Box supports SHA1 type hashes, so you can use the --checksum flag.

In addition to the default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:
Character Value Replacement
\ 0x5C

File names can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are the last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement
SP 0x20

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

For files above 50 MiB rclone will use a chunked transfer. Rclone will upload up to --transfers chunks at the same time (shared among all the multipart uploads). Chunks are buffered in memory and are normally 8 MiB so increasing --transfers will increase memory use.

Depending on the enterprise settings for your user, the item will either be actually deleted from Box or moved to the trash.

Emptying the trash is supported via the rclone however cleanup command however this deletes every trashed file and folder individually so it may take a very long time. Emptying the trash via the WebUI does not have this limitation so it is advised to empty the trash via the WebUI.

You can set the root_folder_id for rclone. This is the directory (identified by its Folder ID) that rclone considers to be the root of your Box drive.

Normally you will leave this blank and rclone will determine the correct root to use itself.

However you can set this to restrict rclone to a specific folder hierarchy.

In order to do this you will have to find the Folder ID of the directory you wish rclone to display. This will be the last segment of the URL when you open the relevant folder in the Box web interface.

So if the folder you want rclone to use has a URL which looks like https://app.box.com/folder/11xxxxxxxxx8 in the browser, then you use 11xxxxxxxxx8 as the root_folder_id in the config.

Here are the standard options specific to box (Box).

OAuth Client Id Leave blank normally.
Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

OAuth Client Secret Leave blank normally.
Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

Box App config.json location Leave blank normally.

Leading ~ will be expanded in the file name as will environment variables such as ${RCLONE_CONFIG_DIR}.

Config: box_config_file
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_BOX_CONFIG_FILE
Type: string
Default: ""

Box App Primary Access Token Leave blank normally.
Config: access_token
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_ACCESS_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

Config: box_sub_type
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_BOX_SUB_TYPE
Type: string
Default: "user"
Examples:
"user"
Rclone should act on behalf of a user
"enterprise"
Rclone should act on behalf of a service account

Here are the advanced options specific to box (Box).

OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob.
Config: token
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

Auth server URL. Leave blank to use the provider defaults.
Config: auth_url
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_AUTH_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

Token server url. Leave blank to use the provider defaults.
Config: token_url
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_TOKEN_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

Fill in for rclone to use a non root folder as its starting point.
Config: root_folder_id
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_ROOT_FOLDER_ID
Type: string
Default: "0"

Cutoff for switching to multipart upload (>= 50 MiB).
Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 50Mi

Max number of times to try committing a multipart file.
Config: commit_retries
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_COMMIT_RETRIES
Type: int
Default: 100

This sets the encoding for the backend.

See: the encoding section in the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#encoding) for more info.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot

Note that Box is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

Box file names can't have the \ character in. rclone maps this to and from an identical looking unicode equivalent \ (U+FF3C Fullwidth Reverse Solidus).

Box only supports filenames up to 255 characters in length.

rclone about is not supported by the Box backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

See List of backends that do not support rclone about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) See rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/)

The cache remote wraps another existing remote and stores file structure and its data for long running tasks like rclone mount.

The cache backend code is working but it currently doesn't have a maintainer so there are outstanding bugs (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues?q=is%3Aopen+is%3Aissue+label%3Abug+label%3A%22Remote%3A+Cache%22) which aren't getting fixed.

The cache backend is due to be phased out in favour of the VFS caching layer eventually which is more tightly integrated into rclone.

Until this happens we recommend only using the cache backend if you find you can't work without it. There are many docs online describing the use of the cache backend to minimize API hits and by-and-large these are out of date and the cache backend isn't needed in those scenarios any more.

To get started you just need to have an existing remote which can be configured with cache.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called test-cache. First run:

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/r/c/s/q> n
name> test-cache
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Cache a remote
   \ "cache"
[snip]
Storage> cache
Remote to cache.
Normally should contain a ':' and a path, e.g. "myremote:path/to/dir",
"myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
remote> local:/test
Optional: The URL of the Plex server
plex_url> http://127.0.0.1:32400
Optional: The username of the Plex user
plex_username> dummyusername
Optional: The password of the Plex user
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
n) No leave this optional password blank
y/g/n> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
The size of a chunk. Lower value good for slow connections but can affect seamless reading.
Default: 5M
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / 1 MiB
   \ "1M"
 2 / 5 MiB
   \ "5M"
 3 / 10 MiB
   \ "10M"
chunk_size> 2
How much time should object info (file size, file hashes, etc.) be stored in cache. Use a very high value if you don't plan on changing the source FS from outside the cache.
Accepted units are: "s", "m", "h".
Default: 5m
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / 1 hour
   \ "1h"
 2 / 24 hours
   \ "24h"
 3 / 24 hours
   \ "48h"
info_age> 2
The maximum size of stored chunks. When the storage grows beyond this size, the oldest chunks will be deleted.
Default: 10G
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / 500 MiB
   \ "500M"
 2 / 1 GiB
   \ "1G"
 3 / 10 GiB
   \ "10G"
chunk_total_size> 3
Remote config
--------------------
[test-cache]
remote = local:/test
plex_url = http://127.0.0.1:32400
plex_username = dummyusername
plex_password = *** ENCRYPTED ***
chunk_size = 5M
info_age = 48h
chunk_total_size = 10G

You can then use it like this,

List directories in top level of your drive

rclone lsd test-cache:

List all the files in your drive

rclone ls test-cache:

To start a cached mount

rclone mount --allow-other test-cache: /var/tmp/test-cache

In an effort to make writing through cache more reliable, the backend now supports this feature which can be activated by specifying a cache-tmp-upload-path.

A files goes through these states when using this feature:

1.
An upload is started (usually by copying a file on the cache remote)
2.
When the copy to the temporary location is complete the file is part of the cached remote and looks and behaves like any other file (reading included)
3.
After cache-tmp-wait-time passes and the file is next in line, rclone move is used to move the file to the cloud provider
4.
Reading the file still works during the upload but most modifications on it will be prohibited
5.
Once the move is complete the file is unlocked for modifications as it becomes as any other regular file
6.
If the file is being read through cache when it's actually deleted from the temporary path then cache will simply swap the source to the cloud provider without interrupting the reading (small blip can happen though)

Files are uploaded in sequence and only one file is uploaded at a time. Uploads will be stored in a queue and be processed based on the order they were added. The queue and the temporary storage is persistent across restarts but can be cleared on startup with the --cache-db-purge flag.

Writes are supported through cache. One caveat is that a mounted cache remote does not add any retry or fallback mechanism to the upload operation. This will depend on the implementation of the wrapped remote. Consider using Offline uploading for reliable writes.

One special case is covered with cache-writes which will cache the file data at the same time as the upload when it is enabled making it available from the cache store immediately once the upload is finished.

To counter the high latency between a local PC where rclone is running and cloud providers, the cache remote can split multiple requests to the cloud provider for smaller file chunks and combines them together locally where they can be available almost immediately before the reader usually needs them.

This is similar to buffering when media files are played online. Rclone will stay around the current marker but always try its best to stay ahead and prepare the data before.

There is a direct integration with Plex which allows cache to detect during reading if the file is in playback or not. This helps cache to adapt how it queries the cloud provider depending on what is needed for.

Scans will have a minimum amount of workers (1) while in a confirmed playback cache will deploy the configured number of workers.

This integration opens the doorway to additional performance improvements which will be explored in the near future.

Note: If Plex options are not configured, cache will function with its configured options without adapting any of its settings.

How to enable? Run rclone config and add all the Plex options (endpoint, username and password) in your remote and it will be automatically enabled.

Affected settings: - cache-workers: Configured value during confirmed playback or 1 all the other times

When the Plex server is configured to only accept secure connections, it is possible to use .plex.direct URLs to ensure certificate validation succeeds. These URLs are used by Plex internally to connect to the Plex server securely.

The format for these URLs is the following:

https://ip-with-dots-replaced.server-hash.plex.direct:32400/

The ip-with-dots-replaced part can be any IPv4 address, where the dots have been replaced with dashes, e.g. 127.0.0.1 becomes 127-0-0-1.

To get the server-hash part, the easiest way is to visit

https://plex.tv/api/resources?includeHttps=1&X-Plex-Token=your-plex-token

This page will list all the available Plex servers for your account with at least one .plex.direct link for each. Copy one URL and replace the IP address with the desired address. This can be used as the plex_url value.

--dir-cache-time controls the first layer of directory caching which works at the mount layer. Being an independent caching mechanism from the cache backend, it will manage its own entries based on the configured time.

To avoid getting in a scenario where dir cache has obsolete data and cache would have the correct one, try to set --dir-cache-time to a lower time than --cache-info-age. Default values are already configured in this way.

There are a couple of issues with Windows mount functionality that still require some investigations. It should be considered as experimental thus far as fixes come in for this OS.

Most of the issues seem to be related to the difference between filesystems on Linux flavors and Windows as cache is heavily dependent on them.

Any reports or feedback on how cache behaves on this OS is greatly appreciated.

https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1935
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1907
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1834

Future iterations of the cache backend will make use of the pooling functionality of the cloud provider to synchronize and at the same time make writing through it more tolerant to failures.

There are a couple of enhancements in track to add these but in the meantime there is a valid concern that the expiring cache listings can lead to cloud provider throttles or bans due to repeated queries on it for very large mounts.

Some recommendations: - don't use a very small interval for entry information (--cache-info-age) - while writes aren't yet optimised, you can still write through cache which gives you the advantage of adding the file in the cache at the same time if configured to do so.

Future enhancements:

https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1937
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1936

One common scenario is to keep your data encrypted in the cloud provider using the crypt remote. crypt uses a similar technique to wrap around an existing remote and handles this translation in a seamless way.

There is an issue with wrapping the remotes in this order: cloud remote -> crypt -> cache

During testing, I experienced a lot of bans with the remotes in this order. I suspect it might be related to how crypt opens files on the cloud provider which makes it think we're downloading the full file instead of small chunks. Organizing the remotes in this order yields better results: cloud remote -> cache -> crypt

cache can not differentiate between relative and absolute paths for the wrapped remote. Any path given in the remote config setting and on the command line will be passed to the wrapped remote as is, but for storing the chunks on disk the path will be made relative by removing any leading / character.

This behavior is irrelevant for most backend types, but there are backends where a leading / changes the effective directory, e.g. in the sftp backend paths starting with a / are relative to the root of the SSH server and paths without are relative to the user home directory. As a result sftp:bin and sftp:/bin will share the same cache folder, even if they represent a different directory on the SSH server.

Cache supports the new --rc mode in rclone and can be remote controlled through the following end points: By default, the listener is disabled if you do not add the flag.

Purge a remote from the cache backend. Supports either a directory or a file. It supports both encrypted and unencrypted file names if cache is wrapped by crypt.

Params: - remote = path to remote (required) - withData = true/false to delete cached data (chunks) as well (optional, false by default)

Here are the standard options specific to cache (Cache a remote).

Remote to cache. Normally should contain a ':' and a path, e.g. "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""

The URL of the Plex server
Config: plex_url
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

The username of the Plex user
Config: plex_username
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_USERNAME
Type: string
Default: ""

The password of the Plex user

NB Input to this must be obscured - see rclone obscure (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_obscure/).

Config: plex_password
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_PASSWORD
Type: string
Default: ""

The size of a chunk (partial file data).

Use lower numbers for slower connections. If the chunk size is changed, any downloaded chunks will be invalid and cache-chunk-path will need to be cleared or unexpected EOF errors will occur.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 5Mi
Examples:
"1M"
1 MiB
"5M"
5 MiB
"10M"
10 MiB

How long to cache file structure information (directory listings, file size, times, etc.). If all write operations are done through the cache then you can safely make this value very large as the cache store will also be updated in real time.
Config: info_age
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_INFO_AGE
Type: Duration
Default: 6h0m0s
Examples:
"1h"
1 hour
"24h"
24 hours
"48h"
48 hours

The total size that the chunks can take up on the local disk.

If the cache exceeds this value then it will start to delete the oldest chunks until it goes under this value.

Config: chunk_total_size
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_TOTAL_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 10Gi
Examples:
"500M"
500 MiB
"1G"
1 GiB
"10G"
10 GiB

Here are the advanced options specific to cache (Cache a remote).

The plex token for authentication - auto set normally
Config: plex_token
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

Skip all certificate verification when connecting to the Plex server
Config: plex_insecure
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_INSECURE
Type: string
Default: ""

Directory to store file structure metadata DB. The remote name is used as the DB file name.
Config: db_path
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_DB_PATH
Type: string
Default: "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend"

Directory to cache chunk files.

Path to where partial file data (chunks) are stored locally. The remote name is appended to the final path.

This config follows the "--cache-db-path". If you specify a custom location for "--cache-db-path" and don't specify one for "--cache-chunk-path" then "--cache-chunk-path" will use the same path as "--cache-db-path".

Config: chunk_path
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_PATH
Type: string
Default: "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend"

Clear all the cached data for this remote on start.
Config: db_purge
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_DB_PURGE
Type: bool
Default: false

How often should the cache perform cleanups of the chunk storage. The default value should be ok for most people. If you find that the cache goes over "cache-chunk-total-size" too often then try to lower this value to force it to perform cleanups more often.
Config: chunk_clean_interval
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_CLEAN_INTERVAL