NAMED(8) BIND 9 NAMED(8)

named - Internet domain name server

named [ [-4] | [-6] ] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-D string] [-E engine-name] [-f] [-g] [-L logfile] [-M option] [-m flag] [-n #cpus] [-p port] [-s] [-S #max-socks] [-t directory] [-U #listeners] [-u user] [-v] [-V] [-X lock-file] [-x cache-file]

named is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9 distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFC 1033, RFC 1034, and RFC 1035.

When invoked without arguments, named reads the default configuration file /etc/named.conf, reads any initial data, and listens for queries.

-4
This option tells named to use only IPv4, even if the host machine is capable of IPv6. -4 and -6 are mutually exclusive.
-6
This option tells named to use only IPv6, even if the host machine is capable of IPv4. -4 and -6 are mutually exclusive.
-c config-file
This option tells named to use config-file as its configuration file instead of the default, /etc/named.conf. To ensure that the configuration file can be reloaded after the server has changed its working directory due to to a possible directory option in the configuration file, config-file should be an absolute pathname.
-d debug-level
This option sets the daemon's debug level to debug-level. Debugging traces from named become more verbose as the debug level increases.
-D string
This option specifies a string that is used to identify a instance of named in a process listing. The contents of string are not examined.
-E engine-name
When applicable, this option specifies the hardware to use for cryptographic operations, such as a secure key store used for signing.

When BIND 9 is built with OpenSSL, this needs to be set to the OpenSSL engine identifier that drives the cryptographic accelerator or hardware service module (usually pkcs11). When BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11 provider library specified via --with-pkcs11.

-f
This option runs the server in the foreground (i.e., do not daemonize).
-g
This option runs the server in the foreground and forces all logging to stderr.
-L logfile
This option sets the log to the file logfile by default, instead of the system log.
-M option
This option sets the default memory context options. If set to external, the internal memory manager is bypassed in favor of system-provided memory allocation functions. If set to fill, blocks of memory are filled with tag values when allocated or freed, to assist debugging of memory problems. nofill disables this behavior, and is the default unless named has been compiled with developer options.
-m flag
This option turns on memory usage debugging flags. Possible flags are usage, trace, record, size, and mctx. These correspond to the ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in <isc/mem.h>.
-n #cpus
This option creates #cpus worker threads to take advantage of multiple CPUs. If not specified, named tries to determine the number of CPUs present and creates one thread per CPU. If it is unable to determine the number of CPUs, a single worker thread is created.
-p port
This option listens for queries on port. If not specified, the default is port 53.
-s
This option writes memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.

NOTE:

This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future release.
-S #max-socks
This option allows named to use up to #max-socks sockets. The default value is 21000 on systems built with default configuration options, and 4096 on systems built with configure --with-tuning=small.

WARNING:

This option should be unnecessary for the vast majority of users. The use of this option could even be harmful, because the specified value may exceed the limitation of the underlying system API. It is therefore set only when the default configuration causes exhaustion of file descriptors and the operational environment is known to support the specified number of sockets. Note also that the actual maximum number is normally slightly fewer than the specified value, because named reserves some file descriptors for its internal use.
-t directory
This option tells named to chroot to directory after processing the command-line arguments, but before reading the configuration file.

WARNING:

This option should be used in conjunction with the -u option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn't enhance security on most systems; the way chroot is defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a chroot jail.
-U #listeners
This option tells named the number of #listeners worker threads to listen on, for incoming UDP packets on each address. If not specified, named calculates a default value based on the number of detected CPUs: 1 for 1 CPU, and the number of detected CPUs minus one for machines with more than 1 CPU. This cannot be increased to a value higher than the number of CPUs. If -n has been set to a higher value than the number of detected CPUs, then -U may be increased as high as that value, but no higher. On Windows, the number of UDP listeners is hardwired to 1 and this option has no effect.
-u user
This option sets the setuid to user after completing privileged operations, such as creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.

NOTE:

On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to drop all root privileges except the ability to bind to a privileged port and set process resource limits. Unfortunately, this means that the -u option only works when named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow privileges to be retained after setuid.
-v
This option reports the version number and exits.
-V
This option reports the version number and build options, and exits.
-X lock-file
This option acquires a lock on the specified file at runtime; this helps to prevent duplicate named instances from running simultaneously. Use of this option overrides the lock-file option in named.conf. If set to none, the lock file check is disabled.
-x cache-file
This option loads data from cache-file into the cache of the default view.

WARNING:

This option must not be used in normal operations. It is only of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future release.

In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the nameserver; rndc should be used instead.
SIGHUP
This signal forces a reload of the server.
SIGINT, SIGTERM
These signals shut down the server.

The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined.

The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here. A complete description is provided in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.

named inherits the umask (file creation mode mask) from the parent process. If files created by named, such as journal files, need to have custom permissions, the umask should be set explicitly in the script used to start the named process.

/etc/named.conf
The default configuration file.
/var/run/named/named.pid
The default process-id file.

RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, named-checkconf(8), named-checkzone(8), rndc(8), named.conf(5), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.

Internet Systems Consortium

2021, Internet Systems Consortium
2021-09-19 9.16.21