The pwunconv command creates passwd from passwd and shadow and then removes shadow.
The grpconv command creates gshadow from group and an optionally existing gshadow.
The grpunconv command creates group from group and gshadow and then removes gshadow.
These four programs all operate on the normal and shadow password and group files: /etc/passwd, /etc/group, /etc/shadow, and /etc/gshadow.
Each program acquires the necessary locks before conversion. pwconv and grpconv are similar. First, entries in the shadowed file which don't exist in the main file are removed. Then, shadowed entries which don't have `x' as the password in the main file are updated. Any missing shadowed entries are added. Finally, passwords in the main file are replaced with `x'. These programs can be used for initial conversion as well to update the shadowed file if the main file is edited by hand.
pwconv will use the values of PASS_MIN_DAYS, PASS_MAX_DAYS, and PASS_WARN_AGE from /etc/login.defs when adding new entries to /etc/shadow.
Likewise pwunconv and grpunconv are similar. Passwords in the main file are updated from the shadowed file. Entries which exist in the main file but not in the shadowed file are left alone. Finally, the shadowed file is removed. Some password aging information is lost by pwunconv. It will convert what it can.
-R, --root CHROOT_DIR
此功能(分割组)允许限制组文件中的行长度。这对于确保 NIS 组的行比长于 1024 字符。
注意：分割组可能不受所有工具的支持(甚至在 Shadow 工具集中)。您不应该使用这个变量，除非真的需要。
The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the behavior of pwconv: