git bundle create [-q | --quiet | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied] [--version=<version>] <file> <git-rev-list-args> git bundle verify [-q | --quiet] <file> git bundle list-heads <file> [<refname>...] git bundle unbundle <file> [<refname>...]
The git bundle command packages objects and references in an archive at the originating machine, which can then be imported into another repository using git fetch, git pull, or git clone, after moving the archive by some means (e.g., by sneakernet).
As no direct connection between the repositories exists, the user must specify a basis for the bundle that is held by the destination repository: the bundle assumes that all objects in the basis are already in the destination repository.
It is very important that the basis used be held by the destination. It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file to contain objects already in the destination, as these are ignored when unpacking at the destination.
git clone can use any bundle created without negative refspecs (e.g., new, but not old..new). If you want to match git clone --mirror, which would include your refs such as refs/remotes/*, use --all. If you want to provide the same set of refs that a clone directly from the source repository would get, use --branches --tags for the <git-rev-list-args>.
To bootstrap the process, you can first create a bundle that does not have any basis. You can use a tag to remember up to what commit you last processed, in order to make it easy to later update the other repository with an incremental bundle:
machineA$ cd R1 machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle master machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. Because this bundle does not require any existing object to be extracted, you can create a new repository on machine B by cloning from it:
machineB$ git clone -b master /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2
This will define a remote called "origin" in the resulting repository that lets you fetch and pull from the bundle. The $GIT_DIR/config file in R2 will have an entry like this:
[remote "origin"] url = /home/me/tmp/file.bundle fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
To update the resulting mine.git repository, you can fetch or pull after replacing the bundle stored at /home/me/tmp/file.bundle with incremental updates.
After working some more in the original repository, you can create an incremental bundle to update the other repository:
machineA$ cd R1 machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle lastR2bundle..master machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
You then transfer the bundle to the other machine to replace /home/me/tmp/file.bundle, and pull from it.
machineB$ cd R2 machineB$ git pull
If you know up to what commit the intended recipient repository should have the necessary objects, you can use that knowledge to specify the basis, giving a cut-off point to limit the revisions and objects that go in the resulting bundle. The previous example used the lastR2bundle tag for this purpose, but you can use any other options that you would give to the git-log(1) command. Here are more examples:
You can use a tag that is present in both:
$ git bundle create mybundle v1.0.0..master
You can use a basis based on time:
$ git bundle create mybundle --since=10.days master
You can use the number of commits:
$ git bundle create mybundle -10 master
You can run git-bundle verify to see if you can extract from a bundle that was created with a basis:
$ git bundle verify mybundle
This will list what commits you must have in order to extract from the bundle and will error out if you do not have them.
A bundle from a recipient repository’s point of view is just like a regular repository which it fetches or pulls from. You can, for example, map references when fetching:
$ git fetch mybundle master:localRef
You can also see what references it offers:
$ git ls-remote mybundle