Date::Manip::Lang::english(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Date::Manip::Lang::english(3)

Date::Manip::Lang::english - English language support.

This module contains a list of words and expressions supporting the language. It is not intended to be used directly (other Date::Manip modules will load it as needed).

The following is a list of all language words and expressions used to write times and/or dates.

All strings are case insensitive.

Month names and abbreviations
When writing out the name of the month, several different variations may exist including full names and abbreviations.

The following month names may be used:

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

The following abbreviations may be used:

Jan
Jan.

Feb
Feb.

Mar
Mar.

Apr
Apr.

May
May.

Jun
Jun.

Jul
Jul.

Aug
Aug.

Sep
Sept
Sep.
Sept.

Oct
Oct.

Nov
Nov.

Dec
Dec.
Day names and abbreviations
When writing out the name of the day, several different variations may exist including full names and abbreviations.

The following day names may be used:

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

The following abbreviations may be used:

Mon
Mon.

Tue
Tues
Tue.
Tues.

Wed
Wed.

Thu
Thur
Thu.
Thur.

Fri
Fri.

Sat
Sat.

Sun
Sun.

The following short (1-2 characters) abbreviations may be used:

M

T

W

Th

F

Sa

S
Delta field names
These are the names (and abbreviations) for the fields in a delta. There are 7 fields: years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds.

The names and abbreviations for these fields are:

years
y
yr
year
yrs

months
m
mon
month
mons

weeks
w
wk
wks
week

days
d
day

hours
h
hr
hrs
hour

minutes
mn
min
minute
mins

seconds
s
sec
second
secs
Morning/afternoon times
This is a list of expressions use to designate morning or afternoon time when a time is entered as a 12-hour time rather than a 24-hour time. For example, in English, the time "17:00" could be specified as "5:00 PM".

Morning and afternoon time may be designated by the following sets of words:

AM
A.M.

PM
P.M.
Each or every
There are a list of words that specify every occurrence of something. These are used in the following phrases:

EACH Monday
EVERY Monday
EVERY month

The following words may be used:

each
every
Next/Previous/Last occurrence
There are a list of words that may be used to specify the next, previous, or last occurrence of something. These words could be used in the following phrases:

NEXT week

LAST Tuesday
PREVIOUS Tuesday

LAST day of the month

The following words may be used:

Next occurrence:

next
following

Previous occurrence:

previous
last

Last occurrence:

last
final
Delta words for going forward/backward in time
When parsing deltas, there are words that may be used to specify the the delta will refer to a time in the future or to a time in the past (relative to some date). In English, for example, you might say:

IN 5 days
5 days AGO

The following words may be used to specify deltas that refer to dates in the past or future respectively:

ago
past
in the past
earlier
before now

in
later
future
in the future
from now
Business mode
This contains two lists of words which can be used to specify a standard (i.e. non-business) delta or a business delta.

Previously, it was used to tell whether the delta was approximate or exact, but now this list is not used except to force the delta to be standard.

The following words may be used:

exactly
approximately

The following words may be used to specify a business delta:

business
Numbers
Numbers may be spelled out in a variety of ways. The following sets correspond to the numbers from 1 to 53:

1st
first
one

2nd
second
two

3rd
third
three

4th
fourth
four

5th
fifth
five

6th
sixth
six

7th
seventh
seven

8th
eighth
eight

9th
ninth
nine

10th
tenth
ten


11th
eleventh
eleven

12th
twelfth
twelve

13th
thirteenth
thirteen

14th
fourteenth
fourteen

15th
fifteenth
fifteen

16th
sixteenth
sixteen

17th
seventeenth
seventeen

18th
eighteenth
eighteen

19th
nineteenth
nineteen

20th
twentieth
twenty


21st
twenty-first
twenty-one

22nd
twenty-second
twenty-two

23rd
twenty-third
twenty-three

24th
twenty-fourth
twenty-four

25th
twenty-fifth
twenty-five

26th
twenty-sixth
twenty-six

27th
twenty-seventh
twenty-seven

28th
twenty-eighth
twenty-eight

29th
twenty-ninth
twenty-nine

30th
thirtieth
thirty


31st
thirty-first
thirty-one

32nd
thirty-two
thirty-second

33rd
thirty-three
thirty-third

34th
thirty-four
thirty-fourth

35th
thirty-five
thirty-fifth

36th
thirty-six
thirty-sixth

37th
thirty-seven
thirty-seventh

38th
thirty-eight
thirty-eighth

39th
thirty-nine
thirty-ninth

40th
forty
fortieth


41st
forty-one
forty-first

42nd
forty-two
forty-second

43rd
forty-three
forty-third

44th
forty-four
forty-fourth

45th
forty-five
forty-fifth

46th
forty-six
forty-sixth

47th
forty-seven
forty-seventh

48th
forty-eight
forty-eighth

49th
forty-nine
forty-ninth

50th
fifty
fiftieth


51st
fifty-one
fifty-first

52nd
fifty-two
fifty-second

53rd
fifty-three
fifty-third
Ignored words
In writing out dates in common forms, there are a number of words that are typically not important.

There is frequently a word that appears in a phrase to designate that a time is going to be specified next. In English, you would use the word AT in the example:

December 3 at 12:00

The following words may be used:

at

Another word is used to designate one member of a set. In English, you would use the words IN or OF:

1st day OF December
1st day IN December

The following words may be used:

of
in

Another word is use to specify that something is on a certain date. In English, you would use ON:

ON July 5th

The following words may be used:

on
Words that set the date, time, or both
There are some words that can be used to specify a date, a time, or both relative to now.

Words that set the date are similar to the English words 'yesterday' or 'tomorrow'. These are specified as a delta which is added to the current time to get a date. The time is NOT set however, so the delta is only partially used (it should only include year, month, week, and day fields).

The following words may be used:

ereyesterday         -0:0:0:2:0:0:0
overmorrow           +0:0:0:2:0:0:0
today                0:0:0:0:0:0:0
tomorrow             +0:0:0:1:0:0:0
yesterday            -0:0:0:1:0:0:0

Words that set only the time of day are similar to the English words 'noon' or 'midnight'.

The following words may be used:

midnight             00:00:00
noon                 12:00:00

Words that set the entire time and date (relative to the current time and date) are also available.

In English, the word 'now' is one of these.

The following words may be used:

now                  0:0:0:0:0:0:0
Hour/Minute/Second separators
When specifying the time of day, the most common separator is a colon (:) which can be used for both separators.

Some languages use different pairs. For example, French allows you to specify the time as 13h30:20, so it would use the following pairs:

: :
h :

The first column is the hour-minute separator and the second column is the minute-second separator. Both are perl regular expressions. When creating a new translation, be aware that regular expressions with utf-8 characters may be tricky. For example, don't include the expression '[x]' where 'x' is a utf-8 character.

A pair of colons is ALWAYS allowed for all languages. If a language allows additional pairs, they are listed here:

Not defined in this language
Fractional second separator
When specifying fractional seconds, the most common way is to use a decimal point (.). Some languages may specify a different separator that might be used. If this is done, it is a regular expression.

The decimal point is ALWAYS allowed for all languages. If a language allows another separator, it is listed here:

Not defined in this language

None known.

Please refer to the Date::Manip::Problems documentation for information on submitting bug reports or questions to the author.

Date::Manip - main module documentation

This script is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

Sullivan Beck (sbeck@cpan.org)
2021-03-02 perl v5.32.1