NEWUSERS(8) System Management Commands NEWUSERS(8)

名称

newusers - 批量更新和创建新用户

大纲

newusers [options] [file]

描述

The newusers command reads a file (or the standard input by default) and uses this information to update a set of existing users or to create new users. Each line is in the same format as the standard password file (see passwd(5)) with the exceptions explained below:

pw_name:pw_passwd:pw_uid:pw_gid:pw_gecos:pw_dir:pw_shell

pw_name

这是用户的用户名。

It can be the name of a new user or the name of an existing user (or a user created before by newusers). In case of an existing user, the user's information will be changed, otherwise a new user will be created.

pw_passwd

此字段将被加密然后用于加密后密码的新值。

pw_uid

此字段用于定义用户的 UID。

If the field is empty, a new (unused) UID will be defined automatically by newusers.

如果此字段包含一个数字,此数字会用于 UID。

If this field contains the name of an existing user (or the name of a user created before by newusers), the UID of the specified user will be used.

如果一个现有用户更改了 UID,此用户的文件所有权需要手动修复。

pw_gid

此字段用于定义用户的主组 ID。

If this field contains the name of an existing group (or a group created before by newusers), the GID of this group will be used as the primary group ID for the user.

如果此字段是一个数字,此数字会被用作此用户的主组 ID。如果没有对应此 GID 的现有组,将会使用此 GID 创建一个新组,名称和用户名相同。

If this field is empty, a new group will be created with the name of the user and a GID will be automatically defined by newusers to be used as the primary group ID for the user and as the GID for the new group.

If this field contains the name of a group which does not exist (and was not created before by newusers), a new group will be created with the specified name and a GID will be automatically defined by newusers to be used as the primary group ID for the user and GID for the new group.

pw_gecos

此字段复制到用户的 GECOS 字段。

pw_dir

此字段用于定义用户的主目录。

If this field does not specify an existing directory, the specified directory is created, with ownership set to the user being created or updated and its primary group. Note that newusers does not create parent directories of the new user's home directory. The newusers command will fail to create the home directory if the parent directories do not exist, and will send a message to stderr informing the user of the failure. The newusers command will not halt or return a failure to the calling shell if it fails to create the home directory, it will continue to process the batch of new users specified.

If the home directory of an existing user is changed, newusers does not move or copy the content of the old directory to the new location. This should be done manually.

pw_shell

此字段定义了用户的 shell。对此字段不进行任何检查。

newusers first tries to create or change all the specified users, and then write these changes to the user or group databases. If an error occurs (except in the final writes to the databases), no changes are committed to the databases.

During this first pass, users are created with a locked password (and passwords are not changed for the users which are not created). A second pass is used to update the passwords using PAM. Failures to update a password are reported, but will not stop the other password updates.

此命令一般用于在大型的应用环境中,对大量账户进行一次性更新。

选项

The options which apply to the newusers command are:

--badname 

Allow names that do not conform to standards.

-h, --help

显示帮助信息并退出。

-r, --system

创建一个系统账户。

System users will be created with no aging information in /etc/shadow, and their numeric identifiers are chosen in the SYS_UID_MIN-SYS_UID_MAX range, defined in login.defs, instead of UID_MIN-UID_MAX (and their GID counterparts for the creation of groups).

-R, --root CHROOT_DIR

Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the configuration files from the CHROOT_DIR directory. Only absolute paths are supported.

输入文件必须受到保护,因为它包含未加密的密码。

配置文件

The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the behavior of this tool:

文件

/etc/passwd

用户账户信息。

/etc/shadow

安全用户账户信息。

/etc/group

组账户信息。

/etc/gshadow

安全组账户信息。

/etc/login.defs

Shadow 密码套件配置。

/etc/pam.d/newusers

PAM configuration for newusers.

/etc/subgid

Per user subordinate group IDs.

/etc/subuid

Per user subordinate user IDs.

参见

login.defs(5), passwd(1), subgid(5), subuid(5), useradd(8).

2023-09-24 shadow-utils 4.14.0