rclone(1) rclone(1)

# Rclone syncs your files to cloud storage

What can rclone do for you?
What features does rclone have?
What providers does rclone support?
Install (https://rclone.org/install/)
Donate. (https://rclone.org/donate/)

Rclone is a command line program to manage files on cloud storage. It is a feature rich alternative to cloud vendors' web storage interfaces. Over 40 cloud storage products support rclone including S3 object stores, business & consumer file storage services, as well as standard transfer protocols.

Rclone has powerful cloud equivalents to the unix commands rsync, cp, mv, mount, ls, ncdu, tree, rm, and cat. Rclone's familiar syntax includes shell pipeline support, and --dry-run protection. It is used at the command line, in scripts or via its API.

Users call rclone "The Swiss army knife of cloud storage", and "Technology indistinguishable from magic".

Rclone really looks after your data. It preserves timestamps and verifies checksums at all times. Transfers over limited bandwidth; intermittent connections, or subject to quota can be restarted, from the last good file transferred. You can check (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_check/) the integrity of your files. Where possible, rclone employs server-side transfers to minimise local bandwidth use and transfers from one provider to another without using local disk.

Virtual backends wrap local and cloud file systems to apply encryption (https://rclone.org/crypt/), caching (https://rclone.org/cache/), compression (https://rclone.org/compress/) chunking (https://rclone.org/chunker/) and joining (https://rclone.org/union/).

Rclone mounts (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/) any local, cloud or virtual filesystem as a disk on Windows, macOS, linux and FreeBSD, and also serves these over SFTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_sftp/), HTTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_http/), WebDAV (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_webdav/), FTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_ftp/) and DLNA (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_dlna/).

Rclone is mature, open source software originally inspired by rsync and written in Go (https://golang.org). The friendly support community are familiar with varied use cases. Official Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, Brew and Chocolatey repos. include rclone. For the latest version downloading from rclone.org (https://rclone.org/downloads/) is recommended.

Rclone is widely used on Linux, Windows and Mac. Third party developers create innovative backup, restore, GUI and business process solutions using the rclone command line or API.

Rclone does the heavy lifting of communicating with cloud storage.

## What can rclone do for you?

Rclone helps you:
Backup (and encrypt) files to cloud storage
Restore (and decrypt) files from cloud storage
Mirror cloud data to other cloud services or locally
Migrate data to cloud, or between cloud storage vendors
Mount multiple, encrypted, cached or diverse cloud storage as a disk
Analyse and account for data held on cloud storage using lsf (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsf/), ljson (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsjson/), size (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_size/), ncdu (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_ncdu/)
Union (https://rclone.org/union/) file systems together to present multiple local and/or cloud file systems as one

## Features

Transfers
MD5, SHA1 hashes are checked at all times for file integrity
Timestamps are preserved on files
Operations can be restarted at any time
Can be to and from network, e.g. two different cloud providers
Copy (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) new or changed files to cloud storage
Sync (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_sync/) (one way) to make a directory identical
Move (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_move/) files to cloud storage deleting the local after verification
Check (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_check/) hashes and for missing/extra files
Mount (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/) your cloud storage as a network disk
Serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) local or remote files over HTTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_http/)/WebDav (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_webdav/)/FTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_ftp/)/SFTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_sftp/)/dlna (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_dlna/)
Experimental Web based GUI (https://rclone.org/gui/)

## Supported providers

(There are many others, built on standard protocols such as WebDAV or S3, that work out of the box.)
1Fichier
Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) Object Storage System (OSS)
Amazon Drive
Amazon S3
Backblaze B2
Box
Ceph
Citrix ShareFile
C14
DigitalOcean Spaces
Dreamhost
Dropbox
Enterprise File Fabric
FTP
HDFS
HTTP
Hubic
Jottacloud
IBM COS S3
Koofr
Mail.ru Cloud
Memset Memstore
Mega
Memory
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage
Microsoft OneDrive
Minio
Nextcloud
OVH
OpenDrive
OpenStack Swift
Oracle Cloud Storage
ownCloud
pCloud
put.io
QingStor
Rackspace Cloud Files
rsync.net
Scaleway
Seafile
SFTP
StackPath
SugarSync
Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS)
Wasabi
WebDAV
Yandex Disk
Zoho WorkDrive
The local filesystem

GitHub project page for source and bug tracker (https://github.com/rclone/rclone)
Rclone Forum (https://forum.rclone.org)

# Install

Rclone is a Go program and comes as a single binary file.

## Quickstart

Extract the rclone or rclone.exe binary from the archive
Run rclone config to setup. See rclone config docs (https://rclone.org/docs/) for more details.

See below for some expanded Linux / macOS instructions.

See the Usage section (https://rclone.org/docs/#usage) of the docs for how to use rclone, or run rclone -h.

## Script installation

To install rclone on Linux/macOS/BSD systems, run:
curl https://rclone.org/install.sh | sudo bash



For beta installation, run:

curl https://rclone.org/install.sh | sudo bash -s beta



Note that this script checks the version of rclone installed first and won't re-download if not needed.

## Linux installation from precompiled binary

Fetch and unpack
curl -O https://downloads.rclone.org/rclone-current-linux-amd64.zip
unzip rclone-current-linux-amd64.zip
cd rclone-*-linux-amd64



Copy binary file

sudo cp rclone /usr/bin/
sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/rclone
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/rclone



Install manpage

sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/share/man/man1
sudo cp rclone.1 /usr/local/share/man/man1/
sudo mandb



Run rclone config to setup. See rclone config docs (https://rclone.org/docs/) for more details.

rclone config



## macOS installation with brew

brew install rclone



## macOS installation from precompiled binary, using curl

To avoid problems with macOS gatekeeper enforcing the binary to be signed and notarized it is enough to download with curl.

cd && curl -O https://downloads.rclone.org/rclone-current-osx-amd64.zip



unzip -a rclone-current-osx-amd64.zip && cd rclone-*-osx-amd64



Move rclone to your $PATH. You will be prompted for your password. sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/bin sudo mv rclone /usr/local/bin/  (the mkdir command is safe to run, even if the directory already exists). Remove the leftover files. cd .. && rm -rf rclone-*-osx-amd64 rclone-current-osx-amd64.zip  Run rclone config to setup. See rclone config docs (https://rclone.org/docs/) for more details. rclone config  ## macOS installation from precompiled binary, using a web browser When downloading a binary with a web browser, the browser will set the macOS gatekeeper quarantine attribute. Starting from Catalina, when attempting to run rclone, a pop-up will appear saying: “rclone” cannot be opened because the developer cannot be verified. macOS cannot verify that this app is free from malware.  The simplest fix is to run xattr -d com.apple.quarantine rclone  ## Install with docker The rclone maintains a docker image for rclone (https://hub.docker.com/r/rclone/rclone). These images are autobuilt by docker hub from the rclone source based on a minimal Alpine linux image. The :latest tag will always point to the latest stable release. You can use the :beta tag to get the latest build from master. You can also use version tags, e.g. :1.49.1, :1.49 or :1. $ docker pull rclone/rclone:latest
latest: Pulling from rclone/rclone
Digest: sha256:0e0ced72671989bb837fea8e88578b3fc48371aa45d209663683e24cfdaa0e11
...

## Installation with Ansible

This can be done with Stefan Weichinger's ansible role (https://github.com/stefangweichinger/ansible-rclone).

Instructions

1.
git clone https://github.com/stefangweichinger/ansible-rclone.git into your local roles-directory
2.
add the role to the hosts you want rclone installed to:
- hosts: rclone-hosts
roles:
- rclone



## Configure

First, you'll need to configure rclone. As the object storage systems have quite complicated authentication these are kept in a config file. (See the --config entry for how to find the config file and choose its location.)

The easiest way to make the config is to run rclone with the config option:

rclone config



See the following for detailed instructions for

1Fichier (https://rclone.org/fichier/)
Alias (https://rclone.org/alias/)
Amazon Drive (https://rclone.org/amazonclouddrive/)
Amazon S3 (https://rclone.org/s3/)
Backblaze B2 (https://rclone.org/b2/)
Box (https://rclone.org/box/)
Cache (https://rclone.org/cache/)
Chunker (https://rclone.org/chunker/) - transparently splits large files for other remotes
Citrix ShareFile (https://rclone.org/sharefile/)
Compress (https://rclone.org/compress/)
Crypt (https://rclone.org/crypt/) - to encrypt other remotes
DigitalOcean Spaces (https://rclone.org/s3/#digitalocean-spaces)
Dropbox (https://rclone.org/dropbox/)
Enterprise File Fabric (https://rclone.org/filefabric/)
FTP (https://rclone.org/ftp/)
HDFS (https://rclone.org/hdfs/)
HTTP (https://rclone.org/http/)
Hubic (https://rclone.org/hubic/)
Jottacloud / GetSky.no (https://rclone.org/jottacloud/)
Koofr (https://rclone.org/koofr/)
Mail.ru Cloud (https://rclone.org/mailru/)
Mega (https://rclone.org/mega/)
Memory (https://rclone.org/memory/)
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage (https://rclone.org/azureblob/)
Microsoft OneDrive (https://rclone.org/onedrive/)
OpenStack Swift / Rackspace Cloudfiles / Memset Memstore (https://rclone.org/swift/)
OpenDrive (https://rclone.org/opendrive/)
Pcloud (https://rclone.org/pcloud/)
put.io (https://rclone.org/putio/)
QingStor (https://rclone.org/qingstor/)
Seafile (https://rclone.org/seafile/)
SFTP (https://rclone.org/sftp/)
SugarSync (https://rclone.org/sugarsync/)
Union (https://rclone.org/union/)
WebDAV (https://rclone.org/webdav/)
Yandex Disk (https://rclone.org/yandex/)
Zoho WorkDrive (https://rclone.org/zoho/)
The local filesystem (https://rclone.org/local/)

## Usage

Rclone syncs a directory tree from one storage system to another.

Its syntax is like this

Syntax: [options] subcommand <parameters> <parameters...>



Source and destination paths are specified by the name you gave the storage system in the config file then the sub path, e.g. "drive:myfolder" to look at "myfolder" in Google drive.

You can define as many storage paths as you like in the config file.

Please use the -i / --interactive flag while learning rclone to avoid accidental data loss.

## Subcommands

rclone uses a system of subcommands. For example
rclone ls remote:path # lists a remote
rclone copy /local/path remote:path # copies /local/path to the remote
rclone sync -i /local/path remote:path # syncs /local/path to the remote



# rclone config

Enter an interactive configuration session.

## Synopsis

Enter an interactive configuration session where you can setup new remotes and manage existing ones. You may also set or remove a password to protect your configuration.
rclone config [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for config



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone config create (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_create/) - Create a new remote with name, type and options.
rclone config delete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_delete/) - Delete an existing remote name.
rclone config disconnect (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_disconnect/) - Disconnects user from remote
rclone config dump (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) - Dump the config file as JSON.
rclone config edit (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_edit/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.
rclone config file (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_file/) - Show path of configuration file in use.
rclone config providers (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_providers/) - List in JSON format all the providers and options.
rclone config reconnect (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_reconnect/) - Re-authenticates user with remote.
rclone config show (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_show/) - Print (decrypted) config file, or the config for a single remote.
rclone config update (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_update/) - Update options in an existing remote.
rclone config userinfo (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_userinfo/) - Prints info about logged in user of remote.

# rclone copy

Copy files from source to dest, skipping already copied.

## Synopsis

Copy the source to the destination. Doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. Doesn't delete files from the destination.

Note that it is always the contents of the directory that is synced, not the directory so when source:path is a directory, it's the contents of source:path that are copied, not the directory name and contents.

If dest:path doesn't exist, it is created and the source:path contents go there.

For example

rclone copy source:sourcepath dest:destpath



Let's say there are two files in sourcepath

sourcepath/one.txt
sourcepath/two.txt



This copies them to

destpath/one.txt
destpath/two.txt



Not to

destpath/sourcepath/one.txt
destpath/sourcepath/two.txt



If you are familiar with rsync, rclone always works as if you had written a trailing / - meaning "copy the contents of this directory". This applies to all commands and whether you are talking about the source or destination.

See the --no-traverse (https://rclone.org/docs/#no-traverse) option for controlling whether rclone lists the destination directory or not. Supplying this option when copying a small number of files into a large destination can speed transfers up greatly.

For example, if you have many files in /path/to/src but only a few of them change every day, you can copy all the files which have changed recently very efficiently like this:

rclone copy --max-age 24h --no-traverse /path/to/src remote:



Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics.

Note: Use the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag to test without copying anything.

rclone copy source:path dest:path [flags]



## Options

    --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after copy
-h, --help                    help for copy



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone sync

Make source and dest identical, modifying destination only.

## Synopsis

Sync the source to the destination, changing the destination only. Doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. Destination is updated to match source, including deleting files if necessary.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

rclone sync -i SOURCE remote:DESTINATION



Note that files in the destination won't be deleted if there were any errors at any point.

It is always the contents of the directory that is synced, not the directory so when source:path is a directory, it's the contents of source:path that are copied, not the directory name and contents. See extended explanation in the copy command above if unsure.

If dest:path doesn't exist, it is created and the source:path contents go there.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics

rclone sync source:path dest:path [flags]



## Options

    --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after sync
-h, --help                    help for sync



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone move

Move files from source to dest.

## Synopsis

Moves the contents of the source directory to the destination directory. Rclone will error if the source and destination overlap and the remote does not support a server-side directory move operation.

If no filters are in use and if possible this will server-side move source:path into dest:path. After this source:path will no longer exist.

Otherwise for each file in source:path selected by the filters (if any) this will move it into dest:path. If possible a server-side move will be used, otherwise it will copy it (server-side if possible) into dest:path then delete the original (if no errors on copy) in source:path.

If you want to delete empty source directories after move, use the --delete-empty-src-dirs flag.

See the --no-traverse (https://rclone.org/docs/#no-traverse) option for controlling whether rclone lists the destination directory or not. Supplying this option when moving a small number of files into a large destination can speed transfers up greatly.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics.

rclone move source:path dest:path [flags]



## Options

    --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after move
--delete-empty-src-dirs   Delete empty source dirs after move
-h, --help                    help for move



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone delete

Remove the files in path.

## Synopsis

Remove the files in path. Unlike purge it obeys include/exclude filters so can be used to selectively delete files.

rclone delete only deletes files but leaves the directory structure alone. If you want to delete a directory and all of its contents use the purge command.

If you supply the --rmdirs flag, it will remove all empty directories along with it. You can also use the separate command rmdir or rmdirs to delete empty directories only.

For example, to delete all files bigger than 100MBytes, you may first want to check what would be deleted (use either):

rclone --min-size 100M lsl remote:path
rclone --dry-run --min-size 100M delete remote:path



Then proceed with the actual delete:

rclone --min-size 100M delete remote:path



That reads "delete everything with a minimum size of 100 MB", hence delete all files bigger than 100MBytes.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

rclone delete remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help     help for delete
--rmdirs   rmdirs removes empty directories but leaves root intact



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone purge

Remove the path and all of its contents.

## Synopsis

Remove the path and all of its contents. Note that this does not obey include/exclude filters - everything will be removed. Use the delete command if you want to selectively delete files. To delete empty directories only, use command rmdir or rmdirs.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

rclone purge remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for purge



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone mkdir

Make the path if it doesn't already exist.
rclone mkdir remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for mkdir



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone rmdir

Remove the empty directory at path.

## Synopsis

This removes empty directory given by path. Will not remove the path if it has any objects in it, not even empty subdirectories. Use command rmdirs (or delete with option --rmdirs) to do that.

To delete a path and any objects in it, use purge command.

rclone rmdir remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for rmdir



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone check

Checks the files in the source and destination match.

## Synopsis

Checks the files in the source and destination match. It compares sizes and hashes (MD5 or SHA1) and logs a report of files which don't match. It doesn't alter the source or destination.

If you supply the --size-only flag, it will only compare the sizes not the hashes as well. Use this for a quick check.

If you supply the --download flag, it will download the data from both remotes and check them against each other on the fly. This can be useful for remotes that don't support hashes or if you really want to check all the data.

If you supply the --one-way flag, it will only check that files in the source match the files in the destination, not the other way around. This means that extra files in the destination that are not in the source will not be detected.

The --differ, --missing-on-dst, --missing-on-src, --match and --error flags write paths, one per line, to the file name (or stdout if it is -) supplied. What they write is described in the help below. For example --differ will write all paths which are present on both the source and destination but different.

The --combined flag will write a file (or stdout) which contains all file paths with a symbol and then a space and then the path to tell you what happened to it. These are reminiscent of diff files.

= path means path was found in source and destination and was identical
- path means path was missing on the source, so only in the destination
+ path means path was missing on the destination, so only in the source
* path means path was present in source and destination but different.
! path means there was an error reading or hashing the source or dest.
rclone check source:path dest:path [flags]



## Options

    --combined string         Make a combined report of changes to this file
--differ string           Report all non-matching files to this file
--error string            Report all files with errors (hashing or reading) to this file
-h, --help                    help for check
--match string            Report all matching files to this file
--missing-on-dst string   Report all files missing from the destination to this file
--missing-on-src string   Report all files missing from the source to this file
--one-way                 Check one way only, source files must exist on remote



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone ls

List the objects in the path with size and path.

## Synopsis

Lists the objects in the source path to standard output in a human readable format with size and path. Recurses by default.

Eg

$rclone ls swift:bucket 60295 bevajer5jef 90613 canole 94467 diwogej7 37600 fubuwic  Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command. There are several related list commands ls to list size and path of objects only lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only lsd to list directories only lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable. Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion. The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse. Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes). rclone ls remote:path [flags]  ## Options -h, --help help for ls  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends. # rclone lsd List all directories/containers/buckets in the path. ## Synopsis Lists the directories in the source path to standard output. Does not recurse by default. Use the -R flag to recurse. This command lists the total size of the directory (if known, -1 if not), the modification time (if known, the current time if not), the number of objects in the directory (if known, -1 if not) and the name of the directory, Eg $ rclone lsd swift:
494000 2018-04-26 08:43:20     10000 10000files
65 2018-04-26 08:43:20         1 1File



Or

$rclone lsd drive:test -1 2016-10-17 17:41:53 -1 1000files -1 2017-01-03 14:40:54 -1 2500files -1 2017-07-08 14:39:28 -1 4000files  If you just want the directory names use "rclone lsf --dirs-only". Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command. There are several related list commands ls to list size and path of objects only lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only lsd to list directories only lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable. Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion. The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse. Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes). rclone lsd remote:path [flags]  ## Options -h, --help help for lsd -R, --recursive Recurse into the listing.  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends. # rclone lsl List the objects in path with modification time, size and path. ## Synopsis Lists the objects in the source path to standard output in a human readable format with modification time, size and path. Recurses by default. Eg $ rclone lsl swift:bucket
60295 2016-06-25 18:55:41.062626927 bevajer5jef
90613 2016-06-25 18:55:43.302607074 canole
94467 2016-06-25 18:55:43.046609333 diwogej7
37600 2016-06-25 18:55:40.814629136 fubuwic



Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsl remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for lsl



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone md5sum

Produces an md5sum file for all the objects in the path.

## Synopsis

Produces an md5sum file for all the objects in the path. This is in the same format as the standard md5sum tool produces.

By default, the hash is requested from the remote. If MD5 is not supported by the remote, no hash will be returned. With the download flag, the file will be downloaded from the remote and hashed locally enabling MD5 for any remote.

rclone md5sum remote:path [flags]



## Options

    --base64               Output base64 encoded hashsum
-h, --help                 help for md5sum
--output-file string   Output hashsums to a file rather than the terminal



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone sha1sum

Produces an sha1sum file for all the objects in the path.

## Synopsis

Produces an sha1sum file for all the objects in the path. This is in the same format as the standard sha1sum tool produces.

By default, the hash is requested from the remote. If SHA-1 is not supported by the remote, no hash will be returned. With the download flag, the file will be downloaded from the remote and hashed locally enabling SHA-1 for any remote.

rclone sha1sum remote:path [flags]



## Options

    --base64               Output base64 encoded hashsum
-h, --help                 help for sha1sum
--output-file string   Output hashsums to a file rather than the terminal



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone size

Prints the total size and number of objects in remote:path.
rclone size remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for size
--json   format output as JSON



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone version

Show the version number.

## Synopsis

Show the version number, the go version and the architecture.

Eg

$rclone version rclone v1.41 - os/arch: linux/amd64 - go version: go1.10  If you supply the --check flag, then it will do an online check to compare your version with the latest release and the latest beta. $ rclone version --check
yours:  1.42.0.6
latest: 1.42          (released 2018-06-16)
beta:   1.42.0.5      (released 2018-06-17)



Or

$rclone version --check yours: 1.41 latest: 1.42 (released 2018-06-16) upgrade: https://downloads.rclone.org/v1.42 beta: 1.42.0.5 (released 2018-06-17) upgrade: https://beta.rclone.org/v1.42-005-g56e1e820  rclone version [flags]  ## Options  --check Check for new version. -h, --help help for version  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends. # rclone cleanup Clean up the remote if possible. ## Synopsis Clean up the remote if possible. Empty the trash or delete old file versions. Not supported by all remotes. rclone cleanup remote:path [flags]  ## Options -h, --help help for cleanup  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends. # rclone dedupe Interactively find duplicate filenames and delete/rename them. ## Synopsis By default dedupe interactively finds files with duplicate names and offers to delete all but one or rename them to be different. This is known as deduping by name. Deduping by name is only useful with backends like Google Drive which can have duplicate file names. It can be run on wrapping backends (e.g. crypt) if they wrap a backend which supports duplicate file names. However if --by-hash is passed in then dedupe will find files with duplicate hashes instead which will work on any backend which supports at least one hash. This can be used to find files with duplicate content. This is known as deduping by hash. If deduping by name, first rclone will merge directories with the same name. It will do this iteratively until all the identically named directories have been merged. Next, if deduping by name, for every group of duplicate file names / hashes, it will delete all but one identical files it finds without confirmation. This means that for most duplicated files the dedupe command will not be interactive. dedupe considers files to be identical if they have the same file path and the same hash. If the backend does not support hashes (e.g. crypt wrapping Google Drive) then they will never be found to be identical. If you use the --size-only flag then files will be considered identical if they have the same size (any hash will be ignored). This can be useful on crypt backends which do not support hashes. Next rclone will resolve the remaining duplicates. Exactly which action is taken depends on the dedupe mode. By default rclone will interactively query the user for each one. Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag. Here is an example run. Before - with duplicates $ rclone lsl drive:dupes
6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000 one.txt
6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:11.775000000 one.txt
564374 2016-03-05 16:23:06.731000000 one.txt
6048320 2016-03-05 16:18:26.092000000 one.txt
6048320 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000 two.txt
1744073 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000 two.txt
564374 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000 two.txt



Now the dedupe session

$rclone dedupe drive:dupes 2016/03/05 16:24:37 Google drive root 'dupes': Looking for duplicates using interactive mode. one.txt: Found 4 files with duplicate names one.txt: Deleting 2/3 identical duplicates (MD5 "1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36") one.txt: 2 duplicates remain 1: 6048320 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000, MD5 1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36 2: 564374 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:23:06.731000000, MD5 7594e7dc9fc28f727c42ee3e0749de81 s) Skip and do nothing k) Keep just one (choose which in next step) r) Rename all to be different (by changing file.jpg to file-1.jpg) s/k/r> k Enter the number of the file to keep> 1 one.txt: Deleted 1 extra copies two.txt: Found 3 files with duplicate names two.txt: 3 duplicates remain 1: 564374 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000, MD5 7594e7dc9fc28f727c42ee3e0749de81 2: 6048320 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000, MD5 1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36 3: 1744073 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000, MD5 851957f7fb6f0bc4ce76be966d336802 s) Skip and do nothing k) Keep just one (choose which in next step) r) Rename all to be different (by changing file.jpg to file-1.jpg) s/k/r> r two-1.txt: renamed from: two.txt two-2.txt: renamed from: two.txt two-3.txt: renamed from: two.txt  The result being $ rclone lsl drive:dupes
6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000 one.txt
564374 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000 two-1.txt
6048320 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000 two-2.txt
1744073 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000 two-3.txt



Dedupe can be run non interactively using the --dedupe-mode flag or by using an extra parameter with the same value

--dedupe-mode interactive - interactive as above.
--dedupe-mode skip - removes identical files then skips anything left.
--dedupe-mode first - removes identical files then keeps the first one.
--dedupe-mode oldest - removes identical files then keeps the oldest one.
--dedupe-mode largest - removes identical files then keeps the largest one.
--dedupe-mode smallest - removes identical files then keeps the smallest one.
--dedupe-mode rename - removes identical files then renames the rest to be different.
--dedupe-mode list - lists duplicate dirs and files only and changes nothing.

For example to rename all the identically named photos in your Google Photos directory, do

rclone dedupe --dedupe-mode rename "drive:Google Photos"



Or

rclone dedupe rename "drive:Google Photos"


rclone dedupe [mode] remote:path [flags]



## Options

    --by-hash              Find indentical hashes rather than names
--dedupe-mode string   Dedupe mode interactive|skip|first|newest|oldest|largest|smallest|rename. (default "interactive")
-h, --help                 help for dedupe



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Get quota information from the remote.

## Synopsis

rclone aboutprints quota information about a remote to standard output. The output is typically used, free, quota and trash contents.

E.g. Typical output fromrclone about remote:is:

Total:   17G
Used:    7.444G
Free:    1.315G
Trashed: 100.000M
Other:   8.241G



Where the fields are:

Total: total size available.
Used: total size used
Free: total space available to this user.
Trashed: total space used by trash
Other: total amount in other storage (e.g. Gmail, Google Photos)
Objects: total number of objects in the storage

Not all backends print all fields. Information is not included if it is not provided by a backend. Where the value is unlimited it is omitted.

Applying a --full flag to the command prints the bytes in full, e.g.

Total:   18253611008
Used:    7993453766
Free:    1411001220
Trashed: 104857602
Other:   8849156022



A --jsonflag generates conveniently computer readable output, e.g.

{
"total": 18253611008,
"used": 7993453766,
"trashed": 104857602,
"other": 8849156022,
"free": 1411001220
}



Not all backends support the rclone about command.

See List of backends that do not support about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features)

rclone about remote: [flags]



## Options

    --full   Full numbers instead of SI units
--json   Format output as JSON



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone authorize

Remote authorization.

## Synopsis

Remote authorization. Used to authorize a remote or headless rclone from a machine with a browser - use as instructed by rclone config.

Use the --auth-no-open-browser to prevent rclone to open auth link in default browser automatically.

rclone authorize [flags]



## Options

    --auth-no-open-browser   Do not automatically open auth link in default browser
-h, --help                   help for authorize



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone backend

Run a backend specific command.

## Synopsis

This runs a backend specific command. The commands themselves (except for "help" and "features") are defined by the backends and you should see the backend docs for definitions.

You can discover what commands a backend implements by using

rclone backend help remote:
rclone backend help <backendname>



You can also discover information about the backend using (see operations/fsinfo (https://rclone.org/rc/#operations/fsinfo) in the remote control docs for more info).

rclone backend features remote:



Pass options to the backend command with -o. This should be key=value or key, e.g.:

rclone backend stats remote:path stats -o format=json -o long



Pass arguments to the backend by placing them on the end of the line

rclone backend cleanup remote:path file1 file2 file3



Note to run these commands on a running backend then see backend/command (https://rclone.org/rc/#backend/command) in the rc docs.

rclone backend <command> remote:path [opts] <args> [flags]



## Options

-h, --help                 help for backend
--json                 Always output in JSON format.
-o, --option stringArray   Option in the form name=value or name.



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone cat

Concatenates any files and sends them to stdout.

## Synopsis

rclone cat sends any files to standard output.

You can use it like this to output a single file

rclone cat remote:path/to/file



Or like this to output any file in dir or its subdirectories.

rclone cat remote:path/to/dir



Or like this to output any .txt files in dir or its subdirectories.

rclone --include "*.txt" cat remote:path/to/dir



Use the --head flag to print characters only at the start, --tail for the end and --offset and --count to print a section in the middle. Note that if offset is negative it will count from the end, so --offset -1 --count 1 is equivalent to --tail 1.

rclone cat remote:path [flags]



## Options

    --count int    Only print N characters. (default -1)
--head int     Only print the first N characters.
-h, --help         help for cat
--offset int   Start printing at offset N (or from end if -ve).
--tail int     Only print the last N characters.



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone config create

Create a new remote with name, type and options.

## Synopsis

Create a new remote of name with type and options. The options should be passed in pairs of key value.

For example to make a swift remote of name myremote using auto config you would do:

rclone config create myremote swift env_auth true



Note that if the config process would normally ask a question the default is taken. Each time that happens rclone will print a message saying how to affect the value taken.

If any of the parameters passed is a password field, then rclone will automatically obscure them if they aren't already obscured before putting them in the config file.

NB If the password parameter is 22 characters or longer and consists only of base64 characters then rclone can get confused about whether the password is already obscured or not and put unobscured passwords into the config file. If you want to be 100% certain that the passwords get obscured then use the "--obscure" flag, or if you are 100% certain you are already passing obscured passwords then use "--no-obscure". You can also set obscured passwords using the "rclone config password" command.

So for example if you wanted to configure a Google Drive remote but using remote authorization you would do this:

rclone config create mydrive drive config_is_local false


rclone config create name type [key value]* [flags]



## Options

-h, --help         help for create
--no-obscure   Force any passwords not to be obscured.
--obscure      Force any passwords to be obscured.



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config delete

Delete an existing remote name.
rclone config delete name [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for delete



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config disconnect

Disconnects user from remote

## Synopsis

This disconnects the remote: passed in to the cloud storage system.

This normally means revoking the oauth token.

To reconnect use "rclone config reconnect".

rclone config disconnect remote: [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for disconnect



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config dump

Dump the config file as JSON.
rclone config dump [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for dump



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config edit

Enter an interactive configuration session.

## Synopsis

Enter an interactive configuration session where you can setup new remotes and manage existing ones. You may also set or remove a password to protect your configuration.
rclone config edit [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for edit



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config file

Show path of configuration file in use.
rclone config file [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for file



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

Update password in an existing remote.

## Synopsis

Update an existing remote's password. The password should be passed in pairs of key value.

For example to set password of a remote of name myremote you would do:

rclone config password myremote fieldname mypassword



This command is obsolete now that "config update" and "config create" both support obscuring passwords directly.

rclone config password name [key value]+ [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for password



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config providers

List in JSON format all the providers and options.
rclone config providers [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for providers



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config reconnect

Re-authenticates user with remote.

## Synopsis

This reconnects remote: passed in to the cloud storage system.

To disconnect the remote use "rclone config disconnect".

This normally means going through the interactive oauth flow again.

rclone config reconnect remote: [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for reconnect



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config show

Print (decrypted) config file, or the config for a single remote.
rclone config show [<remote>] [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for show



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config update

Update options in an existing remote.

## Synopsis

Update an existing remote's options. The options should be passed in in pairs of key value.

For example to update the env_auth field of a remote of name myremote you would do:

rclone config update myremote swift env_auth true



If any of the parameters passed is a password field, then rclone will automatically obscure them if they aren't already obscured before putting them in the config file.

NB If the password parameter is 22 characters or longer and consists only of base64 characters then rclone can get confused about whether the password is already obscured or not and put unobscured passwords into the config file. If you want to be 100% certain that the passwords get obscured then use the "--obscure" flag, or if you are 100% certain you are already passing obscured passwords then use "--no-obscure". You can also set obscured passwords using the "rclone config password" command.

If the remote uses OAuth the token will be updated, if you don't require this add an extra parameter thus:

rclone config update myremote swift env_auth true config_refresh_token false


rclone config update name [key value]+ [flags]



## Options

-h, --help         help for update
--no-obscure   Force any passwords not to be obscured.
--obscure      Force any passwords to be obscured.



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone config userinfo

Prints info about logged in user of remote.

## Synopsis

This prints the details of the person logged in to the cloud storage system.
rclone config userinfo remote: [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for userinfo
--json   Format output as JSON



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

# rclone copyto

Copy files from source to dest, skipping already copied.

## Synopsis

If source:path is a file or directory then it copies it to a file or directory named dest:path.

This can be used to upload single files to other than their current name. If the source is a directory then it acts exactly like the copy command.

So

rclone copyto src dst



where src and dst are rclone paths, either remote:path or /path/to/local or C:.

This will:

if src is file
copy it to dst, overwriting an existing file if it exists
if src is directory
copy it to dst, overwriting existing files if they exist
see copy command for full details



This doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. It doesn't delete files from the destination.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics

rclone copyto source:path dest:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for copyto



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone copyurl

Copy url content to dest.

## Synopsis

Download a URL's content and copy it to the destination without saving it in temporary storage.

Setting --auto-filename will cause the file name to be retrieved from the from URL (after any redirections) and used in the destination path.

Setting --no-clobber will prevent overwriting file on the destination if there is one with the same name.

Setting --stdout or making the output file name "-" will cause the output to be written to standard output.

rclone copyurl https://example.com dest:path [flags]



## Options

-a, --auto-filename   Get the file name from the URL and use it for destination file path
-h, --help            help for copyurl
--no-clobber      Prevent overwriting file with same name
--stdout          Write the output to stdout rather than a file



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone cryptcheck

Cryptcheck checks the integrity of a crypted remote.

## Synopsis

rclone cryptcheck checks a remote against a crypted remote. This is the equivalent of running rclone check, but able to check the checksums of the crypted remote.

For it to work the underlying remote of the cryptedremote must support some kind of checksum.

It works by reading the nonce from each file on the cryptedremote: and using that to encrypt each file on the remote:. It then checks the checksum of the underlying file on the cryptedremote: against the checksum of the file it has just encrypted.

Use it like this

rclone cryptcheck /path/to/files encryptedremote:path



You can use it like this also, but that will involve downloading all the files in remote:path.

rclone cryptcheck remote:path encryptedremote:path



After it has run it will log the status of the encryptedremote:.

If you supply the --one-way flag, it will only check that files in the source match the files in the destination, not the other way around. This means that extra files in the destination that are not in the source will not be detected.

The --differ, --missing-on-dst, --missing-on-src, --match and --error flags write paths, one per line, to the file name (or stdout if it is -) supplied. What they write is described in the help below. For example --differ will write all paths which are present on both the source and destination but different.

The --combined flag will write a file (or stdout) which contains all file paths with a symbol and then a space and then the path to tell you what happened to it. These are reminiscent of diff files.

= path means path was found in source and destination and was identical
- path means path was missing on the source, so only in the destination
+ path means path was missing on the destination, so only in the source
* path means path was present in source and destination but different.
! path means there was an error reading or hashing the source or dest.
rclone cryptcheck remote:path cryptedremote:path [flags]



## Options

    --combined string         Make a combined report of changes to this file
--differ string           Report all non-matching files to this file
--error string            Report all files with errors (hashing or reading) to this file
-h, --help                    help for cryptcheck
--match string            Report all matching files to this file
--missing-on-dst string   Report all files missing from the destination to this file
--missing-on-src string   Report all files missing from the source to this file
--one-way                 Check one way only, source files must exist on remote



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone cryptdecode

Cryptdecode returns unencrypted file names.

## Synopsis

rclone cryptdecode returns unencrypted file names when provided with a list of encrypted file names. List limit is 10 items.

If you supply the --reverse flag, it will return encrypted file names.

use it like this

rclone cryptdecode encryptedremote: encryptedfilename1 encryptedfilename2
rclone cryptdecode --reverse encryptedremote: filename1 filename2



Another way to accomplish this is by using the rclone backend encode (or decode)command. See the documentation on the crypt overlay for more info.

rclone cryptdecode encryptedremote: encryptedfilename [flags]



## Options

-h, --help      help for cryptdecode
--reverse   Reverse cryptdecode, encrypts filenames



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone deletefile

Remove a single file from remote.

## Synopsis

Remove a single file from remote. Unlike delete it cannot be used to remove a directory and it doesn't obey include/exclude filters - if the specified file exists, it will always be removed.
rclone deletefile remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for deletefile



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone genautocomplete

Output completion script for a given shell.

## Synopsis

Generates a shell completion script for rclone. Run with --help to list the supported shells.

## Options

-h, --help   help for genautocomplete



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone genautocomplete bash (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete_bash/) - Output bash completion script for rclone.
rclone genautocomplete fish (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete_fish/) - Output fish completion script for rclone.
rclone genautocomplete zsh (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete_zsh/) - Output zsh completion script for rclone.

# rclone genautocomplete bash

Output bash completion script for rclone.

## Synopsis

Generates a bash shell autocompletion script for rclone.

This writes to /etc/bash_completion.d/rclone by default so will probably need to be run with sudo or as root, e.g.

sudo rclone genautocomplete bash



Logout and login again to use the autocompletion scripts, or source them directly

. /etc/bash_completion



If you supply a command line argument the script will be written there.

If output_file is "-", then the output will be written to stdout.

rclone genautocomplete bash [output_file] [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for bash



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone genautocomplete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete/) - Output completion script for a given shell.

# rclone genautocomplete fish

Output fish completion script for rclone.

## Synopsis

Generates a fish autocompletion script for rclone.

This writes to /etc/fish/completions/rclone.fish by default so will probably need to be run with sudo or as root, e.g.

sudo rclone genautocomplete fish



Logout and login again to use the autocompletion scripts, or source them directly

. /etc/fish/completions/rclone.fish



If you supply a command line argument the script will be written there.

If output_file is "-", then the output will be written to stdout.

rclone genautocomplete fish [output_file] [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for fish



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone genautocomplete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete/) - Output completion script for a given shell.

# rclone genautocomplete zsh

Output zsh completion script for rclone.

## Synopsis

Generates a zsh autocompletion script for rclone.

This writes to /usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_rclone by default so will probably need to be run with sudo or as root, e.g.

sudo rclone genautocomplete zsh



Logout and login again to use the autocompletion scripts, or source them directly

autoload -U compinit && compinit



If you supply a command line argument the script will be written there.

If output_file is "-", then the output will be written to stdout.

rclone genautocomplete zsh [output_file] [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for zsh



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone genautocomplete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete/) - Output completion script for a given shell.

# rclone gendocs

Output markdown docs for rclone to the directory supplied.

## Synopsis

This produces markdown docs for the rclone commands to the directory supplied. These are in a format suitable for hugo to render into the rclone.org website.
rclone gendocs output_directory [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for gendocs



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone hashsum

Produces a hashsum file for all the objects in the path.

## Synopsis

Produces a hash file for all the objects in the path using the hash named. The output is in the same format as the standard md5sum/sha1sum tool.

By default, the hash is requested from the remote. If the hash is not supported by the remote, no hash will be returned. With the download flag, the file will be downloaded from the remote and hashed locally enabling any hash for any remote.

Run without a hash to see the list of all supported hashes, e.g.

$rclone hashsum Supported hashes are: * MD5 * SHA-1 * DropboxHash * QuickXorHash  Then $ rclone hashsum MD5 remote:path


rclone hashsum <hash> remote:path [flags]



## Options

    --base64               Output base64 encoded hashsum
-h, --help                 help for hashsum
--output-file string   Output hashsums to a file rather than the terminal



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

## Synopsis

rclone link will create, retrieve or remove a public link to the given file or folder.
rclone link remote:path/to/file



If you supply the --expire flag, it will set the expiration time otherwise it will use the default (100 years). Note not all backends support the --expire flag - if the backend doesn't support it then the link returned won't expire.

Use the --unlink flag to remove existing public links to the file or folder. Note not all backends support "--unlink" flag - those that don't will just ignore it.

If successful, the last line of the output will contain the link. Exact capabilities depend on the remote, but the link will always by default be created with the least constraints – e.g. no expiry, no password protection, accessible without account.

rclone link remote:path [flags]



## Options

    --expire Duration   The amount of time that the link will be valid (default 100y)



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone listremotes

List all the remotes in the config file.

## Synopsis

rclone listremotes lists all the available remotes from the config file.

When uses with the -l flag it lists the types too.

rclone listremotes [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for listremotes
--long   Show the type as well as names.



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone lsf

List directories and objects in remote:path formatted for parsing.

## Synopsis

List the contents of the source path (directories and objects) to standard output in a form which is easy to parse by scripts. By default this will just be the names of the objects and directories, one per line. The directories will have a / suffix.

Eg

$rclone lsf swift:bucket bevajer5jef canole diwogej7 ferejej3gux/ fubuwic  Use the --format option to control what gets listed. By default this is just the path, but you can use these parameters to control the output: p - path s - size t - modification time h - hash i - ID of object o - Original ID of underlying object m - MimeType of object if known e - encrypted name T - tier of storage if known, e.g. "Hot" or "Cool"  So if you wanted the path, size and modification time, you would use --format "pst", or maybe --format "tsp" to put the path last. Eg $ rclone lsf  --format "tsp" swift:bucket
2016-06-25 18:55:41;60295;bevajer5jef
2016-06-25 18:55:43;90613;canole
2016-06-25 18:55:43;94467;diwogej7
2018-04-26 08:50:45;0;ferejej3gux/
2016-06-25 18:55:40;37600;fubuwic



If you specify "h" in the format you will get the MD5 hash by default, use the "--hash" flag to change which hash you want. Note that this can be returned as an empty string if it isn't available on the object (and for directories), "ERROR" if there was an error reading it from the object and "UNSUPPORTED" if that object does not support that hash type.

For example to emulate the md5sum command you can use

rclone lsf -R --hash MD5 --format hp --separator "  " --files-only .



Eg

$rclone lsf -R --hash MD5 --format hp --separator " " --files-only swift:bucket 7908e352297f0f530b84a756f188baa3 bevajer5jef cd65ac234e6fea5925974a51cdd865cc canole 03b5341b4f234b9d984d03ad076bae91 diwogej7 8fd37c3810dd660778137ac3a66cc06d fubuwic 99713e14a4c4ff553acaf1930fad985b gixacuh7ku  (Though "rclone md5sum ." is an easier way of typing this.) By default the separator is ";" this can be changed with the --separator flag. Note that separators aren't escaped in the path so putting it last is a good strategy. Eg $ rclone lsf  --separator "," --format "tshp" swift:bucket
2016-06-25 18:55:41,60295,7908e352297f0f530b84a756f188baa3,bevajer5jef
2016-06-25 18:55:43,90613,cd65ac234e6fea5925974a51cdd865cc,canole
2018-04-26 08:52:53,0,,ferejej3gux/
2016-06-25 18:55:40,37600,8fd37c3810dd660778137ac3a66cc06d,fubuwic



You can output in CSV standard format. This will escape things in " if they contain ,

Eg

$rclone lsf --csv --files-only --format ps remote:path test.log,22355 test.sh,449 "this file contains a comma, in the file name.txt",6  Note that the --absolute parameter is useful for making lists of files to pass to an rclone copy with the --files-from-raw flag. For example to find all the files modified within one day and copy those only (without traversing the whole directory structure): rclone lsf --absolute --files-only --max-age 1d /path/to/local > new_files rclone copy --files-from-raw new_files /path/to/local remote:path  Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command. There are several related list commands ls to list size and path of objects only lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only lsd to list directories only lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable. Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion. The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse. Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes). rclone lsf remote:path [flags]  ## Options  --absolute Put a leading / in front of path names. --csv Output in CSV format. -d, --dir-slash Append a slash to directory names. (default true) --dirs-only Only list directories. --files-only Only list files. -F, --format string Output format - see help for details (default "p") --hash h Use this hash when h is used in the format MD5|SHA-1|DropboxHash (default "MD5") -h, --help help for lsf -R, --recursive Recurse into the listing. -s, --separator string Separator for the items in the format. (default ";")  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends. # rclone lsjson List directories and objects in the path in JSON format. ## Synopsis List directories and objects in the path in JSON format. The output is an array of Items, where each Item looks like this { "Hashes" : { "SHA-1" : "f572d396fae9206628714fb2ce00f72e94f2258f", "MD5" : "b1946ac92492d2347c6235b4d2611184", "DropboxHash" : "ecb65bb98f9d905b70458986c39fcbad7715e5f2fcc3b1f07767d7c83e2438cc" }, "ID": "y2djkhiujf83u33", "OrigID": "UYOJVTUW00Q1RzTDA", "IsBucket" : false, "IsDir" : false, "MimeType" : "application/octet-stream", "ModTime" : "2017-05-31T16:15:57.034468261+01:00", "Name" : "file.txt", "Encrypted" : "v0qpsdq8anpci8n929v3uu9338", "EncryptedPath" : "kja9098349023498/v0qpsdq8anpci8n929v3uu9338", "Path" : "full/path/goes/here/file.txt", "Size" : 6, "Tier" : "hot", } If --hash is not specified the Hashes property won't be emitted. The types of hash can be specified with the --hash-type parameter (which may be repeated). If --hash-type is set then it implies --hash. If --no-modtime is specified then ModTime will be blank. This can speed things up on remotes where reading the ModTime takes an extra request (e.g. s3, swift). If --no-mimetype is specified then MimeType will be blank. This can speed things up on remotes where reading the MimeType takes an extra request (e.g. s3, swift). If --encrypted is not specified the Encrypted won't be emitted. If --dirs-only is not specified files in addition to directories are returned If --files-only is not specified directories in addition to the files will be returned. The Path field will only show folders below the remote path being listed. If "remote:path" contains the file "subfolder/file.txt", the Path for "file.txt" will be "subfolder/file.txt", not "remote:path/subfolder/file.txt". When used without --recursive the Path will always be the same as Name. If the directory is a bucket in a bucket based backend, then "IsBucket" will be set to true. This key won't be present unless it is "true". The time is in RFC3339 format with up to nanosecond precision. The number of decimal digits in the seconds will depend on the precision that the remote can hold the times, so if times are accurate to the nearest millisecond (e.g. Google Drive) then 3 digits will always be shown ("2017-05-31T16:15:57.034+01:00") whereas if the times are accurate to the nearest second (Dropbox, Box, WebDav, etc.) no digits will be shown ("2017-05-31T16:15:57+01:00"). The whole output can be processed as a JSON blob, or alternatively it can be processed line by line as each item is written one to a line. Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command. There are several related list commands ls to list size and path of objects only lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only lsd to list directories only lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable. Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use --max-depth 1 to stop the recursion. The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use -R to make them recurse. Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (e.g. s3, swift, or gcs - the bucket based remotes). rclone lsjson remote:path [flags]  ## Options  --dirs-only Show only directories in the listing. -M, --encrypted Show the encrypted names. --files-only Show only files in the listing. --hash Include hashes in the output (may take longer). --hash-type stringArray Show only this hash type (may be repeated). -h, --help help for lsjson --no-mimetype Don't read the mime type (can speed things up). --no-modtime Don't read the modification time (can speed things up). --original Show the ID of the underlying Object. -R, --recursive Recurse into the listing.  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends. # rclone mount Mount the remote as file system on a mountpoint. ## Synopsis rclone mount allows Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows to mount any of Rclone's cloud storage systems as a file system with FUSE. First set up your remote using rclone config. Check it works with rclone ls etc. On Linux and OSX, you can either run mount in foreground mode or background (daemon) mode. Mount runs in foreground mode by default, use the --daemon flag to specify background mode. You can only run mount in foreground mode on Windows. On Linux/macOS/FreeBSD start the mount like this, where /path/to/local/mount is an empty existing directory: rclone mount remote:path/to/files /path/to/local/mount  On Windows you can start a mount in different ways. See below for details. The following examples will mount to an automatically assigned drive, to specific drive letter X:, to path C:\path\to\nonexistent\directory (which must be non-existent subdirectory of an existing parent directory or drive, and is not supported when mounting as a network drive), and the last example will mount as network share \\cloud\remote and map it to an automatically assigned drive: rclone mount remote:path/to/files * rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: rclone mount remote:path/to/files C:\path\to\nonexistent\directory rclone mount remote:path/to/files \\cloud\remote  When the program ends while in foreground mode, either via Ctrl+C or receiving a SIGINT or SIGTERM signal, the mount should be automatically stopped. When running in background mode the user will have to stop the mount manually: # Linux fusermount -u /path/to/local/mount # OS X umount /path/to/local/mount  The umount operation can fail, for example when the mountpoint is busy. When that happens, it is the user's responsibility to stop the mount manually. The size of the mounted file system will be set according to information retrieved from the remote, the same as returned by the rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/) command. Remotes with unlimited storage may report the used size only, then an additional 1PB of free space is assumed. If the remote does not support (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) the about feature at all, then 1PB is set as both the total and the free size. Note: As of rclone 1.52.2, rclone mount now requires Go version 1.13 or newer on some platforms depending on the underlying FUSE library in use. ## Installing on Windows To run rclone mount on Windows, you will need to download and install WinFsp (http://www.secfs.net/winfsp/). WinFsp (https://github.com/billziss-gh/winfsp) is an open source Windows File System Proxy which makes it easy to write user space file systems for Windows. It provides a FUSE emulation layer which rclone uses combination with cgofuse (https://github.com/billziss-gh/cgofuse). Both of these packages are by Bill Zissimopoulos who was very helpful during the implementation of rclone mount for Windows. ## Mounting modes on windows Unlike other operating systems, Microsoft Windows provides a different filesystem type for network and fixed drives. It optimises access on the assumption fixed disk drives are fast and reliable, while network drives have relatively high latency and less reliability. Some settings can also be differentiated between the two types, for example that Windows Explorer should just display icons and not create preview thumbnails for image and video files on network drives. In most cases, rclone will mount the remote as a normal, fixed disk drive by default. However, you can also choose to mount it as a remote network drive, often described as a network share. If you mount an rclone remote using the default, fixed drive mode and experience unexpected program errors, freezes or other issues, consider mounting as a network drive instead. When mounting as a fixed disk drive you can either mount to an unused drive letter, or to a path - which must be non-existent subdirectory of an existing parent directory or drive. Using the special value * will tell rclone to automatically assign the next available drive letter, starting with Z: and moving backward. Examples: rclone mount remote:path/to/files * rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: rclone mount remote:path/to/files C:\path\to\nonexistent\directory rclone mount remote:path/to/files X:  Option --volname can be used to set a custom volume name for the mounted file system. The default is to use the remote name and path. To mount as network drive, you can add option --network-mode to your mount command. Mounting to a directory path is not supported in this mode, it is a limitation Windows imposes on junctions, so the remote must always be mounted to a drive letter. rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --network-mode  A volume name specified with --volname will be used to create the network share path. A complete UNC path, such as \\cloud\remote, optionally with path \\cloud\remote\madeup\path, will be used as is. Any other string will be used as the share part, after a default prefix \\server\. If no volume name is specified then \\server\share will be used. You must make sure the volume name is unique when you are mounting more than one drive, or else the mount command will fail. The share name will treated as the volume label for the mapped drive, shown in Windows Explorer etc, while the complete \\server\share will be reported as the remote UNC path by net use etc, just like a normal network drive mapping. If you specify a full network share UNC path with --volname, this will implicitely set the --network-mode option, so the following two examples have same result: rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --network-mode rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --volname \\server\share  You may also specify the network share UNC path as the mountpoint itself. Then rclone will automatically assign a drive letter, same as with * and use that as mountpoint, and instead use the UNC path specified as the volume name, as if it were specified with the --volname option. This will also implicitely set the --network-mode option. This means the following two examples have same result: rclone mount remote:path/to/files \\cloud\remote rclone mount remote:path/to/files * --volname \\cloud\remote  There is yet another way to enable network mode, and to set the share path, and that is to pass the "native" libfuse/WinFsp option directly: --fuse-flag --VolumePrefix=\server\share. Note that the path must be with just a single backslash prefix in this case. Note: In previous versions of rclone this was the only supported method. Read more about drive mapping (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drive_mapping) See also Limitations section below. ## Windows filesystem permissions The FUSE emulation layer on Windows must convert between the POSIX-based permission model used in FUSE, and the permission model used in Windows, based on access-control lists (ACL). The mounted filesystem will normally get three entries in its access-control list (ACL), representing permissions for the POSIX permission scopes: Owner, group and others. By default, the owner and group will be taken from the current user, and the built-in group "Everyone" will be used to represent others. The user/group can be customized with FUSE options "UserName" and "GroupName", e.g. -o UserName=user123 -o GroupName="Authenticated Users". The permissions on each entry will be set according to options --dir-perms and --file-perms, which takes a value in traditional numeric notation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File-system_permissions#Numeric_notation), where the default corresponds to --file-perms 0666 --dir-perms 0777. Note that the mapping of permissions is not always trivial, and the result you see in Windows Explorer may not be exactly like you expected. For example, when setting a value that includes write access, this will be mapped to individual permissions "write attributes", "write data" and "append data", but not "write extended attributes" (WinFsp does not support extended attributes, see this (https://github.com/billziss-gh/winfsp/wiki/NTFS-Compatibility)). Windows will then show this as basic permission "Special" instead of "Write", because "Write" includes the "write extended attributes" permission. ## Windows caveats Note that drives created as Administrator are not visible by other accounts (including the account that was elevated as Administrator). So if you start a Windows drive from an Administrative Command Prompt and then try to access the same drive from Explorer (which does not run as Administrator), you will not be able to see the new drive. The easiest way around this is to start the drive from a normal command prompt. It is also possible to start a drive from the SYSTEM account (using the WinFsp.Launcher infrastructure (https://github.com/billziss-gh/winfsp/wiki/WinFsp-Service-Architecture)) which creates drives accessible for everyone on the system or alternatively using the nssm service manager (https://nssm.cc/usage). ## Limitations Without the use of --vfs-cache-mode this can only write files sequentially, it can only seek when reading. This means that many applications won't work with their files on an rclone mount without --vfs-cache-mode writes or --vfs-cache-mode full. See the VFS File Caching section for more info. The bucket based remotes (e.g. Swift, S3, Google Compute Storage, B2, Hubic) do not support the concept of empty directories, so empty directories will have a tendency to disappear once they fall out of the directory cache. Only supported on Linux, FreeBSD, OS X and Windows at the moment. ## rclone mount vs rclone sync/copy File systems expect things to be 100% reliable, whereas cloud storage systems are a long way from 100% reliable. The rclone sync/copy commands cope with this with lots of retries. However rclone mount can't use retries in the same way without making local copies of the uploads. Look at the VFS File Caching for solutions to make mount more reliable. ## Attribute caching You can use the flag --attr-timeout to set the time the kernel caches the attributes (size, modification time, etc.) for directory entries. The default is 1s which caches files just long enough to avoid too many callbacks to rclone from the kernel. In theory 0s should be the correct value for filesystems which can change outside the control of the kernel. However this causes quite a few problems such as rclone using too much memory (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2157), rclone not serving files to samba (https://forum.rclone.org/t/rclone-1-39-vs-1-40-mount-issue/5112) and excessive time listing directories (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2095#issuecomment-371141147). The kernel can cache the info about a file for the time given by --attr-timeout. You may see corruption if the remote file changes length during this window. It will show up as either a truncated file or a file with garbage on the end. With --attr-timeout 1s this is very unlikely but not impossible. The higher you set --attr-timeout the more likely it is. The default setting of "1s" is the lowest setting which mitigates the problems above. If you set it higher (10s or 1m say) then the kernel will call back to rclone less often making it more efficient, however there is more chance of the corruption issue above. If files don't change on the remote outside of the control of rclone then there is no chance of corruption. This is the same as setting the attr_timeout option in mount.fuse. ## Filters Note that all the rclone filters can be used to select a subset of the files to be visible in the mount. ## systemd When running rclone mount as a systemd service, it is possible to use Type=notify. In this case the service will enter the started state after the mountpoint has been successfully set up. Units having the rclone mount service specified as a requirement will see all files and folders immediately in this mode. ## chunked reading --vfs-read-chunk-size will enable reading the source objects in parts. This can reduce the used download quota for some remotes by requesting only chunks from the remote that are actually read at the cost of an increased number of requests. When --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit is also specified and greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, the chunk size for each open file will get doubled for each chunk read, until the specified value is reached. A value of -1 will disable the limit and the chunk size will grow indefinitely. With --vfs-read-chunk-size 100M and --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit 0 the following parts will be downloaded: 0-100M, 100M-200M, 200M-300M, 300M-400M and so on. When --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit 500M is specified, the result would be 0-100M, 100M-300M, 300M-700M, 700M-1200M, 1200M-1700M and so on. ## VFS - Virtual File System This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system. Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below. The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory. ## VFS Directory Cache Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache. --dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s) --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes.  However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval. You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this: kill -SIGHUP$(pidof rclone)



If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget



Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir



## VFS File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

## VFS File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)



If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

## --vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

## --vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

## --vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

## --vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

## VFS Performance

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.



When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")



Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)



When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)



## VFS Case Sensitivity

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

rclone mount remote:path /path/to/mountpoint [flags]



## Options

    --allow-non-empty                        Allow mounting over a non-empty directory. Not supported on Windows.
--attr-timeout duration                  Time for which file/directory attributes are cached. (default 1s)
--daemon                                 Run mount as a daemon (background mode). Not supported on Windows.
--daemon-timeout duration                Time limit for rclone to respond to kernel. Not supported on Windows.
--debug-fuse                             Debug the FUSE internals - needs -v.
--default-permissions                    Makes kernel enforce access control based on the file mode. Not supported on Windows.
--dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
--file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
--fuse-flag stringArray                  Flags or arguments to be passed direct to libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required.
--gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001)
-h, --help                                   help for mount
--max-read-ahead SizeSuffix              The number of bytes that can be prefetched for sequential reads. Not supported on Windows. (default 128k)
--network-mode                           Mount as remote network drive, instead of fixed disk drive. Supported on Windows only
--no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
--noappledouble                          Ignore Apple Double (._) and .DS_Store files. Supported on OSX only. (default true)
--noapplexattr                           Ignore all "com.apple.*" extended attributes. Supported on OSX only.
-o, --option stringArray                     Option for libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required.
--poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
--uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001)
--umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows.
--vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
--vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
--vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)
--volname string                         Set the volume name. Supported on Windows and OSX only.
--write-back-cache                       Makes kernel buffer writes before sending them to rclone. Without this, writethrough caching is used. Not supported on Windows.



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone moveto

Move file or directory from source to dest.

## Synopsis

If source:path is a file or directory then it moves it to a file or directory named dest:path.

This can be used to rename files or upload single files to other than their existing name. If the source is a directory then it acts exactly like the move command.

So

rclone moveto src dst



where src and dst are rclone paths, either remote:path or /path/to/local or C:.

This will:

if src is file
move it to dst, overwriting an existing file if it exists
if src is directory
move it to dst, overwriting existing files if they exist
see move command for full details



This doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. src will be deleted on successful transfer.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run or the --interactive/-i flag.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics.

rclone moveto source:path dest:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for moveto



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone ncdu

Explore a remote with a text based user interface.

## Synopsis

This displays a text based user interface allowing the navigation of a remote. It is most useful for answering the question - "What is using all my disk space?".

To make the user interface it first scans the entire remote given and builds an in memory representation. rclone ncdu can be used during this scanning phase and you will see it building up the directory structure as it goes along.

Here are the keys - press '?' to toggle the help on and off

↑,↓ or k,j to Move
→,l to enter
←,h to return
c toggle counts
g toggle graph
a toggle average size in directory
n,s,C,A sort by name,size,count,average size
d delete file/directory
Y display current path
^L refresh screen
? to toggle help on and off
q/ESC/c-C to quit



This an homage to the ncdu tool (https://dev.yorhel.nl/ncdu) but for rclone remotes. It is missing lots of features at the moment but is useful as it stands.

Note that it might take some time to delete big files/folders. The UI won't respond in the meantime since the deletion is done synchronously.

rclone ncdu remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for ncdu



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone obscure

Obscure password for use in the rclone config file.

## Synopsis

In the rclone config file, human readable passwords are obscured. Obscuring them is done by encrypting them and writing them out in base64. This is not a secure way of encrypting these passwords as rclone can decrypt them - it is to prevent "eyedropping" - namely someone seeing a password in the rclone config file by accident.

Many equally important things (like access tokens) are not obscured in the config file. However it is very hard to shoulder surf a 64 character hex token.

This command can also accept a password through STDIN instead of an argument by passing a hyphen as an argument. This will use the first line of STDIN as the password not including the trailing newline.

echo "secretpassword" | rclone obscure -

If there is no data on STDIN to read, rclone obscure will default to obfuscating the hyphen itself.

If you want to encrypt the config file then please use config file encryption - see rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) for more info.

rclone obscure password [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for obscure



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone rc

Run a command against a running rclone.

## Synopsis

This runs a command against a running rclone. Use the --url flag to specify an non default URL to connect on. This can be either a ":port" which is taken to mean "http://localhost:port" or a "host:port" which is taken to mean "http://host:port"

A username and password can be passed in with --user and --pass.

Note that --rc-addr, --rc-user, --rc-pass will be read also for --url, --user, --pass.

Arguments should be passed in as parameter=value.

The result will be returned as a JSON object by default.

The --json parameter can be used to pass in a JSON blob as an input instead of key=value arguments. This is the only way of passing in more complicated values.

The -o/--opt option can be used to set a key "opt" with key, value options in the form "-o key=value" or "-o key". It can be repeated as many times as required. This is useful for rc commands which take the "opt" parameter which by convention is a dictionary of strings.

-o key=value -o key2



Will place this in the "opt" value

{"key":"value", "key2","")



The -a/--arg option can be used to set strings in the "arg" value. It can be repeated as many times as required. This is useful for rc commands which take the "arg" parameter which by convention is a list of strings.

-a value -a value2



Will place this in the "arg" value

["value", "value2"]



Use --loopback to connect to the rclone instance running "rclone rc". This is very useful for testing commands without having to run an rclone rc server, e.g.:

rclone rc --loopback operations/about fs=/



Use "rclone rc" to see a list of all possible commands.

rclone rc commands parameter [flags]



## Options

-a, --arg stringArray   Argument placed in the "arg" array.
-h, --help              help for rc
--json string       Input JSON - use instead of key=value args.
--loopback          If set connect to this rclone instance not via HTTP.
--no-output         If set, don't output the JSON result.
-o, --opt stringArray   Option in the form name=value or name placed in the "opt" array.
--pass string       Password to use to connect to rclone remote control.
--url string        URL to connect to rclone remote control. (default "http://localhost:5572/")
--user string       Username to use to rclone remote control.



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone rcat

Copies standard input to file on remote.

## Synopsis

rclone rcat reads from standard input (stdin) and copies it to a single remote file.
echo "hello world" | rclone rcat remote:path/to/file
ffmpeg - | rclone rcat remote:path/to/file



If the remote file already exists, it will be overwritten.

rcat will try to upload small files in a single request, which is usually more efficient than the streaming/chunked upload endpoints, which use multiple requests. Exact behaviour depends on the remote. What is considered a small file may be set through --streaming-upload-cutoff. Uploading only starts after the cutoff is reached or if the file ends before that. The data must fit into RAM. The cutoff needs to be small enough to adhere the limits of your remote, please see there. Generally speaking, setting this cutoff too high will decrease your performance.

Note that the upload can also not be retried because the data is not kept around until the upload succeeds. If you need to transfer a lot of data, you're better off caching locally and then rclone move it to the destination.

rclone rcat remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for rcat



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone rcd

Run rclone listening to remote control commands only.

## Synopsis

This runs rclone so that it only listens to remote control commands.

This is useful if you are controlling rclone via the rc API.

If you pass in a path to a directory, rclone will serve that directory for GET requests on the URL passed in. It will also open the URL in the browser when rclone is run.

See the rc documentation (https://rclone.org/rc/) for more info on the rc flags.

rclone rcd <path to files to serve>* [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for rcd



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone rmdirs

Remove empty directories under the path.

## Synopsis

This recursively removes any empty directories (including directories that only contain empty directories), that it finds under the path. The root path itself will also be removed if it is empty, unless you supply the --leave-root flag.

Use command rmdir to delete just the empty directory given by path, not recurse.

This is useful for tidying up remotes that rclone has left a lot of empty directories in. For example the delete command will delete files but leave the directory structure (unless used with option --rmdirs).

To delete a path and any objects in it, use purge command.

rclone rmdirs remote:path [flags]



## Options

-h, --help         help for rmdirs
--leave-root   Do not remove root directory if empty



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

# rclone serve

Serve a remote over a protocol.

## Synopsis

rclone serve is used to serve a remote over a given protocol. This command requires the use of a subcommand to specify the protocol, e.g.
rclone serve http remote:



Each subcommand has its own options which you can see in their help.

rclone serve <protocol> [opts] <remote> [flags]



## Options

-h, --help   help for serve



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone serve dlna (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_dlna/) - Serve remote:path over DLNA
rclone serve ftp (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_ftp/) - Serve remote:path over FTP.
rclone serve http (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_http/) - Serve the remote over HTTP.
rclone serve restic (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_restic/) - Serve the remote for restic's REST API.
rclone serve sftp (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_sftp/) - Serve the remote over SFTP.
rclone serve webdav (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_webdav/) - Serve remote:path over webdav.

# rclone serve dlna

Serve remote:path over DLNA

## Synopsis

rclone serve dlna is a DLNA media server for media stored in an rclone remote. Many devices, such as the Xbox and PlayStation, can automatically discover this server in the LAN and play audio/video from it. VLC is also supported. Service discovery uses UDP multicast packets (SSDP) and will thus only work on LANs.

Rclone will list all files present in the remote, without filtering based on media formats or file extensions. Additionally, there is no media transcoding support. This means that some players might show files that they are not able to play back correctly.

## Server options

Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs.

Use --name to choose the friendly server name, which is by default "rclone (hostname)".

Use --log-trace in conjunction with -vv to enable additional debug logging of all UPNP traffic.

## VFS - Virtual File System

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

## VFS Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes.



However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)  If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache: rclone rc vfs/forget  Or individual files or directories: rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir  ## VFS File Buffering The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance. Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared. This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files. ## VFS File Caching These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility. For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details. Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both. --cache-dir string Directory rclone will use for caching. --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s) --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)  If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable. The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space. Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags. If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache. You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap. ## --vfs-cache-mode off In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk. This will mean some operations are not possible Files can't be opened for both read AND write Files opened for write can't be seeked Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored If an upload fails it can't be retried ## --vfs-cache-mode minimal This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space. These operations are not possible Files opened for write only can't be seeked Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC If an upload fails it can't be retried ## --vfs-cache-mode writes In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first. This mode should support all normal file system operations. If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute. ## --vfs-cache-mode full In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well. In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded. So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them. This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes. When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk. When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required. IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected. ## VFS Performance These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons. In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction. --no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --read-only Mount read-only.  When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered. Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit. --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix Max chunk doubling size (default "off")  Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file. --vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)  When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount). --transfers int Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)  ## VFS Case Sensitivity Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file. File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case. Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below. The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system. Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target. If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true". rclone serve dlna remote:path [flags]  ## Options  --addr string ip:port or :port to bind the DLNA http server to. (default ":7879") --dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s) --dir-perms FileMode Directory permissions (default 0777) --file-perms FileMode File permissions (default 0666) --gid uint32 Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001) -h, --help help for dlna --log-trace enable trace logging of SOAP traffic --name string name of DLNA server --no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s) --read-only Mount read-only. --uid uint32 Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001) --umask int Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 18) --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off) --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s) --vfs-case-insensitive If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match. --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full. --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off) --vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms) --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol. # rclone serve ftp Serve remote:path over FTP. ## Synopsis rclone serve ftp implements a basic ftp server to serve the remote over FTP protocol. This can be viewed with a ftp client or you can make a remote of type ftp to read and write it. ## Server options Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port. If you set --addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info. ## Authentication By default this will serve files without needing a login. You can set a single username and password with the --user and --pass flags. ## VFS - Virtual File System This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system. Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below. The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory. ## VFS Directory Cache Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache. --dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s) --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes.  However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval. You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this: kill -SIGHUP$(pidof rclone)



If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget



Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir



## VFS File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

## VFS File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)



If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

## --vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

## --vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

## --vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

## --vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

## VFS Performance

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.



When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")



Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)



When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)



## VFS Case Sensitivity

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

## Auth Proxy

If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocol with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT.

PLEASE NOTE: --auth-proxy and --authorized-keys cannot be used together, if --auth-proxy is set the authorized keys option will be ignored.

There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code.

The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config.

This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend

And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure

If password authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
"user": "me",
}



If public-key authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
"user": "me",
}



And as an example return this on STDOUT

{
"type": "sftp",
"_root": "",
"_obscure": "pass",
"user": "me",
"host": "sftp.example.com"
}



This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass/public_key returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends).

The program can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user@example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list.

Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass or public_key. This also means that if a user's password or public-key is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect.

This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports.

rclone serve ftp remote:path [flags]



## Options

    --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:2121")
--auth-proxy string                      A program to use to create the backend from the auth.
--cert string                            TLS PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
--dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
--file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
--gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001)
-h, --help                                   help for ftp
--key string                             TLS PEM Private key
--no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
--passive-port string                    Passive port range to use. (default "30000-32000")
--poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
--uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001)
--umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 18)
--user string                            User name for authentication. (default "anonymous")
--vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
--vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
--vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

# rclone serve http

Serve the remote over HTTP.

## Synopsis

rclone serve http implements a basic web server to serve the remote over HTTP. This can be viewed in a web browser or you can make a remote of type http read from it.

You can use the filter flags (e.g. --include, --exclude) to control what is served.

The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs.

--bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use --stats to control the stats printing.

## Server options

Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set --addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

--server-read-timeout and --server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer.

--max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header.

--baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used --baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on --baseurl, so --baseurl "rclone", --baseurl "/rclone" and --baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically.

--template allows a user to specify a custom markup template for http and webdav serve functions. The server exports the following markup to be used within the template to server pages:

 Parameter Description .Name The full path of a file/directory. .Title Directory listing of .Name .Sort The current sort used. This is changeable via ?sort= parameter Sort Options: namedirfirst,name,size,time (default namedirfirst) .Order The current ordering used. This is changeable via ?order= parameter Order Options: asc,desc (default asc) .Query Currently unused. .Breadcrumb Allows for creating a relative navigation -- .Link The relative to the root link of the Text. -- .Text The Name of the directory. .Entries Information about a specific file/directory. -- .URL The 'url' of an entry. -- .Leaf Currently same as 'URL' but intended to be 'just' the name. -- .IsDir Boolean for if an entry is a directory or not. -- .Size Size in Bytes of the entry. -- .ModTime The UTC timestamp of an entry.

## Authentication

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the --user and --pass flags.

Use --htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended.

To create an htpasswd file:

touch htpasswd
htpasswd -B htpasswd user
htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser



The password file can be updated while rclone is running.

Use --realm to set the authentication realm.

## SSL/TLS

By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the --cert and --key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply --client-ca also.

--cert should be either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. --key should be the PEM encoded private key and --client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate.

## VFS - Virtual File System

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

## VFS Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes.



However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)  If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache: rclone rc vfs/forget  Or individual files or directories: rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir  ## VFS File Buffering The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance. Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared. This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files. ## VFS File Caching These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility. For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details. Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both. --cache-dir string Directory rclone will use for caching. --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s) --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)  If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable. The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space. Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags. If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache. You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap. ## --vfs-cache-mode off In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk. This will mean some operations are not possible Files can't be opened for both read AND write Files opened for write can't be seeked Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored If an upload fails it can't be retried ## --vfs-cache-mode minimal This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space. These operations are not possible Files opened for write only can't be seeked Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC If an upload fails it can't be retried ## --vfs-cache-mode writes In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first. This mode should support all normal file system operations. If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute. ## --vfs-cache-mode full In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well. In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded. So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them. This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes. When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk. When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required. IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected. ## VFS Performance These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons. In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction. --no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --read-only Mount read-only.  When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered. Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit. --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix Max chunk doubling size (default "off")  Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file. --vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)  When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount). --transfers int Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)  ## VFS Case Sensitivity Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file. File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case. Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below. The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system. Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target. If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true". rclone serve http remote:path [flags]  ## Options  --addr string IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:8080") --baseurl string Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root. --cert string SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate) --client-ca string Client certificate authority to verify clients with --dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s) --dir-perms FileMode Directory permissions (default 0777) --file-perms FileMode File permissions (default 0666) --gid uint32 Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001) -h, --help help for http --htpasswd string htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done --key string SSL PEM Private key --max-header-bytes int Maximum size of request header (default 4096) --no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --pass string Password for authentication. --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s) --read-only Mount read-only. --realm string realm for authentication (default "rclone") --server-read-timeout duration Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s) --server-write-timeout duration Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s) --template string User Specified Template. --uid uint32 Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001) --umask int Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 18) --user string User name for authentication. --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off) --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s) --vfs-case-insensitive If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match. --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full. --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off) --vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms) --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol. # rclone serve restic Serve the remote for restic's REST API. ## Synopsis rclone serve restic implements restic's REST backend API over HTTP. This allows restic to use rclone as a data storage mechanism for cloud providers that restic does not support directly. Restic (https://restic.net/) is a command line program for doing backups. The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs. --bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use --stats to control the stats printing. ## Setting up rclone for use by restic First set up a remote for your chosen cloud provider (https://rclone.org/docs/#configure). Once you have set up the remote, check it is working with, for example "rclone lsd remote:". You may have called the remote something other than "remote:" - just substitute whatever you called it in the following instructions. Now start the rclone restic server rclone serve restic -v remote:backup  Where you can replace "backup" in the above by whatever path in the remote you wish to use. By default this will serve on "localhost:8080" you can change this with use of the "--addr" flag. You might wish to start this server on boot. Adding --cache-objects=false will cause rclone to stop caching objects returned from the List call. Caching is normally desirable as it speeds up downloading objects, saves transactions and uses very little memory. ## Setting up restic to use rclone Now you can follow the restic instructions (http://restic.readthedocs.io/en/latest/030_preparing_a_new_repo.html#rest-server) on setting up restic. Note that you will need restic 0.8.2 or later to interoperate with rclone. For the example above you will want to use "http://localhost:8080/" as the URL for the REST server. For example: $ export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/
$export RESTIC_PASSWORD=yourpassword$ restic init
created restic backend 8b1a4b56ae at rest:http://localhost:8080/
irrecoverably lost.
$restic backup /path/to/files/to/backup scan [/path/to/files/to/backup] scanned 189 directories, 312 files in 0:00 [0:00] 100.00% 38.128 MiB / 38.128 MiB 501 / 501 items 0 errors ETA 0:00 duration: 0:00 snapshot 45c8fdd8 saved  ## Multiple repositories Note that you can use the endpoint to host multiple repositories. Do this by adding a directory name or path after the URL. Note that these must end with /. Eg $ export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/user1repo/
# backup user1 stuff
$export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/user2repo/ # backup user2 stuff  ## Private repositories The "--private-repos" flag can be used to limit users to repositories starting with a path of /<username>/. ## Server options Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port. If you set --addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info. --server-read-timeout and --server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer. --max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header. --baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used --baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on --baseurl, so --baseurl "rclone", --baseurl "/rclone" and --baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically. --template allows a user to specify a custom markup template for http and webdav serve functions. The server exports the following markup to be used within the template to server pages:  Parameter Description .Name The full path of a file/directory. .Title Directory listing of .Name .Sort The current sort used. This is changeable via ?sort= parameter Sort Options: namedirfirst,name,size,time (default namedirfirst) .Order The current ordering used. This is changeable via ?order= parameter Order Options: asc,desc (default asc) .Query Currently unused. .Breadcrumb Allows for creating a relative navigation -- .Link The relative to the root link of the Text. -- .Text The Name of the directory. .Entries Information about a specific file/directory. -- .URL The 'url' of an entry. -- .Leaf Currently same as 'URL' but intended to be 'just' the name. -- .IsDir Boolean for if an entry is a directory or not. -- .Size Size in Bytes of the entry. -- .ModTime The UTC timestamp of an entry. ## Authentication By default this will serve files without needing a login. You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the --user and --pass flags. Use --htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended. To create an htpasswd file: touch htpasswd htpasswd -B htpasswd user htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser  The password file can be updated while rclone is running. Use --realm to set the authentication realm. ## SSL/TLS By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the --cert and --key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply --client-ca also. --cert should be either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. --key should be the PEM encoded private key and --client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate. rclone serve restic remote:path [flags]  ## Options  --addr string IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:8080") --append-only disallow deletion of repository data --baseurl string Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root. --cache-objects cache listed objects (default true) --cert string SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate) --client-ca string Client certificate authority to verify clients with -h, --help help for restic --htpasswd string htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done --key string SSL PEM Private key --max-header-bytes int Maximum size of request header (default 4096) --pass string Password for authentication. --private-repos users can only access their private repo --realm string realm for authentication (default "rclone") --server-read-timeout duration Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s) --server-write-timeout duration Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s) --stdio run an HTTP2 server on stdin/stdout --template string User Specified Template. --user string User name for authentication.  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol. # rclone serve sftp Serve the remote over SFTP. ## Synopsis rclone serve sftp implements an SFTP server to serve the remote over SFTP. This can be used with an SFTP client or you can make a remote of type sftp to use with it. You can use the filter flags (e.g. --include, --exclude) to control what is served. The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs. --bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use --stats to control the stats printing. You must provide some means of authentication, either with --user/--pass, an authorized keys file (specify location with --authorized-keys - the default is the same as ssh), an --auth-proxy, or set the --no-auth flag for no authentication when logging in. Note that this also implements a small number of shell commands so that it can provide md5sum/sha1sum/df information for the rclone sftp backend. This means that is can support SHA1SUMs, MD5SUMs and the about command when paired with the rclone sftp backend. If you don't supply a --key then rclone will generate one and cache it for later use. By default the server binds to localhost:2022 - if you want it to be reachable externally then supply "--addr :2022" for example. Note that the default of "--vfs-cache-mode off" is fine for the rclone sftp backend, but it may not be with other SFTP clients. ## VFS - Virtual File System This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system. Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below. The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory. ## VFS Directory Cache Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache. --dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s) --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes.  However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval. You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this: kill -SIGHUP$(pidof rclone)



If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget



Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir



## VFS File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.

The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

## VFS File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.

For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode           Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix      Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-write-back duration            Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)



If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.

If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap.

## --vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

## --vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

## --vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.

## --vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.

In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.

So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.

This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.

When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.

IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.

## VFS Performance

These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.

In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.

--no-checksum     Don't compare checksums on up/download.
--no-modtime      Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek         Don't allow seeking in files.



When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.

Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.

--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix        Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix  Max chunk doubling size (default "off")



Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.

--vfs-read-wait duration   Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-wait duration  Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)



When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).

--transfers int  Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)



## VFS Case Sensitivity

Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.

File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.

Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default

The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.

The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.

Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.

If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".

## Auth Proxy

If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocol with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT.

PLEASE NOTE: --auth-proxy and --authorized-keys cannot be used together, if --auth-proxy is set the authorized keys option will be ignored.

There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code.

The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config.

This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend

And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure

If password authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
"user": "me",
}



If public-key authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this:

{
"user": "me",
}



And as an example return this on STDOUT

{
"type": "sftp",
"_root": "",
"_obscure": "pass",
"user": "me",
"host": "sftp.example.com"
}



This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass/public_key returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends).

The program can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user@example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list.

Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass or public_key. This also means that if a user's password or public-key is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect.

This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports.

rclone serve sftp remote:path [flags]



## Options

    --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:2022")
--auth-proxy string                      A program to use to create the backend from the auth.
--authorized-keys string                 Authorized keys file (default "~/.ssh/authorized_keys")
--dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
--file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
--gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001)
-h, --help                                   help for sftp
--key stringArray                        SSH private host key file (Can be multi-valued, leave blank to auto generate)
--no-auth                                Allow connections with no authentication if set.
--no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
--no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
--poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
--uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001)
--umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 18)
--user string                            User name for authentication.
--vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
--vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
--vfs-read-wait duration                 Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms)
--vfs-write-back duration                Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
--vfs-write-wait duration                Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

# rclone serve webdav

Serve remote:path over webdav.

## Synopsis

rclone serve webdav implements a basic webdav server to serve the remote over HTTP via the webdav protocol. This can be viewed with a webdav client, through a web browser, or you can make a remote of type webdav to read and write it.

## --etag-hash

This controls the ETag header. Without this flag the ETag will be based on the ModTime and Size of the object.

If this flag is set to "auto" then rclone will choose the first supported hash on the backend or you can use a named hash such as "MD5" or "SHA-1".

Use "rclone hashsum" to see the full list.

## Server options

Use --addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, e.g. --addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or --addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set --addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

--server-read-timeout and --server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer.

--max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header.

--baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used --baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on --baseurl, so --baseurl "rclone", --baseurl "/rclone" and --baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically.

--template allows a user to specify a custom markup template for http and webdav serve functions. The server exports the following markup to be used within the template to server pages:

 Parameter Description .Name The full path of a file/directory. .Title Directory listing of .Name .Sort The current sort used. This is changeable via ?sort= parameter Sort Options: namedirfirst,name,size,time (default namedirfirst) .Order The current ordering used. This is changeable via ?order= parameter Order Options: asc,desc (default asc) .Query Currently unused. .Breadcrumb Allows for creating a relative navigation -- .Link The relative to the root link of the Text. -- .Text The Name of the directory. .Entries Information about a specific file/directory. -- .URL The 'url' of an entry. -- .Leaf Currently same as 'URL' but intended to be 'just' the name. -- .IsDir Boolean for if an entry is a directory or not. -- .Size Size in Bytes of the entry. -- .ModTime The UTC timestamp of an entry.

## Authentication

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the --user and --pass flags.

Use --htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended.

To create an htpasswd file:

touch htpasswd
htpasswd -B htpasswd user
htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser



The password file can be updated while rclone is running.

Use --realm to set the authentication realm.

## SSL/TLS

By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the --cert and --key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply --client-ca also.

--cert should be either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. --key should be the PEM encoded private key and --client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate.

## VFS - Virtual File System

This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.

Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.

The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.

## VFS Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration   Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
--poll-interval duration    Time to wait between polling for changes.



However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.

You can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)  If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache: rclone rc vfs/forget  Or individual files or directories: rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir  ## VFS File Buffering The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance. Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared. This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files. ## VFS File Caching These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility. For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details. Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both. --cache-dir string Directory rclone will use for caching. --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s) --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)  If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable. The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space. Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags. If using --vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every --vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache. You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache with the same or overlapping remotes if using --vfs-cache-mode > off. This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with --cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in use don't overlap. ## --vfs-cache-mode off In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk. This will mean some operations are not possible Files can't be opened for both read AND write Files opened for write can't be seeked Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored If an upload fails it can't be retried ## --vfs-cache-mode minimal This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space. These operations are not possible Files opened for write only can't be seeked Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC If an upload fails it can't be retried ## --vfs-cache-mode writes In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first. This mode should support all normal file system operations. If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute. ## --vfs-cache-mode full In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well. In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded. So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them. This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes. When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk. When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required. IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected. ## VFS Performance These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons. In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction. --no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --read-only Mount read-only.  When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered. Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit. --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix Max chunk doubling size (default "off")  Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file. --vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)  When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount). --transfers int Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)  ## VFS Case Sensitivity Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file. File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case. Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default The --vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below. The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system. Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target. If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true". ## Auth Proxy If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocol with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT. PLEASE NOTE: --auth-proxy and --authorized-keys cannot be used together, if --auth-proxy is set the authorized keys option will be ignored. There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code. The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config. This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure If password authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this: { "user": "me", "pass": "mypassword" }  If public-key authentication was used by the client, input to the proxy process (on STDIN) would look similar to this: { "user": "me", "public_key": "AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDuwESFdAe14hVS6omeyX7edc...JQdf" }  And as an example return this on STDOUT { "type": "sftp", "_root": "", "_obscure": "pass", "user": "me", "pass": "mypassword", "host": "sftp.example.com" }  This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass/public_key returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends). The program can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user@example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list. Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass or public_key. This also means that if a user's password or public-key is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect. This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports. rclone serve webdav remote:path [flags]  ## Options  --addr string IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:8080") --auth-proxy string A program to use to create the backend from the auth. --baseurl string Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root. --cert string SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate) --client-ca string Client certificate authority to verify clients with --dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s) --dir-perms FileMode Directory permissions (default 0777) --disable-dir-list Disable HTML directory list on GET request for a directory --etag-hash string Which hash to use for the ETag, or auto or blank for off --file-perms FileMode File permissions (default 0666) --gid uint32 Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001) -h, --help help for webdav --htpasswd string htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done --key string SSL PEM Private key --max-header-bytes int Maximum size of request header (default 4096) --no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --pass string Password for authentication. --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s) --read-only Mount read-only. --realm string realm for authentication (default "rclone") --server-read-timeout duration Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s) --server-write-timeout duration Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s) --template string User Specified Template. --uid uint32 Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1001) --umask int Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 18) --user string User name for authentication. --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off) --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s) --vfs-case-insensitive If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match. --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full. --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off) --vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms) --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol. # rclone settier Changes storage class/tier of objects in remote. ## Synopsis rclone settier changes storage tier or class at remote if supported. Few cloud storage services provides different storage classes on objects, for example AWS S3 and Glacier, Azure Blob storage - Hot, Cool and Archive, Google Cloud Storage, Regional Storage, Nearline, Coldline etc. Note that, certain tier changes make objects not available to access immediately. For example tiering to archive in azure blob storage makes objects in frozen state, user can restore by setting tier to Hot/Cool, similarly S3 to Glacier makes object inaccessible.true You can use it to tier single object rclone settier Cool remote:path/file  Or use rclone filters to set tier on only specific files rclone --include "*.txt" settier Hot remote:path/dir  Or just provide remote directory and all files in directory will be tiered rclone settier tier remote:path/dir  rclone settier tier remote:path [flags]  ## Options -h, --help help for settier  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends. # rclone touch Create new file or change file modification time. ## Synopsis Set the modification time on object(s) as specified by remote:path to have the current time. If remote:path does not exist then a zero sized object will be created unless the --no-create flag is provided. If --timestamp is used then it will set the modification time to that time instead of the current time. Times may be specified as one of: 'YYMMDD' - e.g. 17.10.30 'YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS' - e.g. 2006-01-02T15:04:05 'YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS.SSS' - e.g. 2006-01-02T15:04:05.123456789 Note that --timestamp is in UTC if you want local time then add the --localtime flag. rclone touch remote:path [flags]  ## Options -h, --help help for touch --localtime Use localtime for timestamp, not UTC. -C, --no-create Do not create the file if it does not exist. -t, --timestamp string Use specified time instead of the current time of day.  See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here. ## SEE ALSO rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends. # rclone tree List the contents of the remote in a tree like fashion. ## Synopsis rclone tree lists the contents of a remote in a similar way to the unix tree command. For example $ rclone tree remote:path
/
├── file1
├── file2
├── file3
└── subdir
├── file4
└── file5
1 directories, 5 files



You can use any of the filtering options with the tree command (e.g. --include and --exclude). You can also use --fast-list.

The tree command has many options for controlling the listing which are compatible with the tree command. Note that not all of them have short options as they conflict with rclone's short options.

rclone tree remote:path [flags]



## Options

-a, --all             All files are listed (list . files too).
-C, --color           Turn colorization on always.
-d, --dirs-only       List directories only.
--dirsfirst       List directories before files (-U disables).
--full-path       Print the full path prefix for each file.
-h, --help            help for tree
--human           Print the size in a more human readable way.
--level int       Descend only level directories deep.
-D, --modtime         Print the date of last modification.
--noindent        Don't print indentation lines.
--noreport        Turn off file/directory count at end of tree listing.
-o, --output string   Output to file instead of stdout.
-p, --protections     Print the protections for each file.
-Q, --quote           Quote filenames with double quotes.
-s, --size            Print the size in bytes of each file.
--sort string     Select sort: name,version,size,mtime,ctime.
--sort-ctime      Sort files by last status change time.
-t, --sort-modtime    Sort files by last modification time.
-r, --sort-reverse    Reverse the order of the sort.
-U, --unsorted        Leave files unsorted.
--version         Sort files alphanumerically by version.



See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

## Copying single files

rclone normally syncs or copies directories. However, if the source remote points to a file, rclone will just copy that file. The destination remote must point to a directory - rclone will give the error Failed to create file system for "remote:file": is a file not a directory if it isn't.

For example, suppose you have a remote with a file in called test.jpg, then you could copy just that file like this

rclone copy remote:test.jpg /tmp/download



This is equivalent to specifying

rclone copy --files-from /tmp/files remote: /tmp/download



Where /tmp/files contains the single line

test.jpg



It is recommended to use copy when copying individual files, not sync. They have pretty much the same effect but copy will use a lot less memory.

## Syntax of remote paths

The syntax of the paths passed to the rclone command are as follows.

## /path/to/dir

This refers to the local file system.

On Windows only \ may be used instead of / in local paths only, non local paths must use /.

These paths needn't start with a leading / - if they don't then they will be relative to the current directory.

## remote:path/to/dir

This refers to a directory path/to/dir on remote: as defined in the config file (configured with rclone config).

## remote:/path/to/dir

On most backends this is refers to the same directory as remote:path/to/dir and that format should be preferred. On a very small number of remotes (FTP, SFTP, Dropbox for business) this will refer to a different directory. On these, paths without a leading / will refer to your "home" directory and paths with a leading / will refer to the root.

## :backend:path/to/dir

This is an advanced form for creating remotes on the fly. backend should be the name or prefix of a backend (the type in the config file) and all the configuration for the backend should be provided on the command line (or in environment variables).

Here are some examples:

rclone lsd --http-url https://pub.rclone.org :http:



To list all the directories in the root of https://pub.rclone.org/.

rclone lsf --http-url https://example.com :http:path/to/dir



To list files and directories in https://example.com/path/to/dir/

rclone copy --http-url https://example.com :http:path/to/dir /tmp/dir



To copy files and directories in https://example.com/path/to/dir to /tmp/dir.

rclone copy --sftp-host example.com :sftp:path/to/dir /tmp/dir



To copy files and directories from example.com in the relative directory path/to/dir to /tmp/dir using sftp.

## Valid remote names

Remote names may only contain 0-9, A-Z ,a-z ,_ , - and space.

## Quoting and the shell

When you are typing commands to your computer you are using something called the command line shell. This interprets various characters in an OS specific way.

Here are some gotchas which may help users unfamiliar with the shell rules

If your names have spaces or shell metacharacters (e.g. *, ?, $, ', ", etc.) then you must quote them. Use single quotes ' by default. rclone copy 'Important files?' remote:backup  If you want to send a ' you will need to use ", e.g. rclone copy "O'Reilly Reviews" remote:backup  The rules for quoting metacharacters are complicated and if you want the full details you'll have to consult the manual page for your shell. ## Windows If your names have spaces in you need to put them in ", e.g. rclone copy "E:\folder name\folder name\folder name" remote:backup  If you are using the root directory on its own then don't quote it (see #464 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/464) for why), e.g. rclone copy E:\ remote:backup  ## Copying files or directories with : in the names rclone uses : to mark a remote name. This is, however, a valid filename component in non-Windows OSes. The remote name parser will only search for a : up to the first / so if you need to act on a file or directory like this then use the full path starting with a /, or use ./ as a current directory prefix. So to sync a directory called sync:me to a remote called remote: use rclone sync -i ./sync:me remote:path  or rclone sync -i /full/path/to/sync:me remote:path  ## Server Side Copy Most remotes (but not all - see the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features)) support server-side copy. This means if you want to copy one folder to another then rclone won't download all the files and re-upload them; it will instruct the server to copy them in place. Eg rclone copy s3:oldbucket s3:newbucket  Will copy the contents of oldbucket to newbucket without downloading and re-uploading. Remotes which don't support server-side copy will download and re-upload in this case. Server side copies are used with sync and copy and will be identified in the log when using the -v flag. The move command may also use them if remote doesn't support server-side move directly. This is done by issuing a server-side copy then a delete which is much quicker than a download and re-upload. Server side copies will only be attempted if the remote names are the same. This can be used when scripting to make aged backups efficiently, e.g. rclone sync -i remote:current-backup remote:previous-backup rclone sync -i /path/to/files remote:current-backup  ## Options Rclone has a number of options to control its behaviour. Options that take parameters can have the values passed in two ways, --option=value or --option value. However boolean (true/false) options behave slightly differently to the other options in that --boolean sets the option to true and the absence of the flag sets it to false. It is also possible to specify --boolean=false or --boolean=true. Note that --boolean false is not valid - this is parsed as --boolean and the false is parsed as an extra command line argument for rclone. Options which use TIME use the go time parser. A duration string is a possibly signed sequence of decimal numbers, each with optional fraction and a unit suffix, such as "300ms", "-1.5h" or "2h45m". Valid time units are "ns", "us" (or "µs"), "ms", "s", "m", "h". Options which use SIZE use kByte by default. However, a suffix of b for bytes, k for kBytes, M for MBytes, G for GBytes, T for TBytes and P for PBytes may be used. These are the binary units, e.g. 1, 2**10, 2**20, 2**30 respectively. ## --backup-dir=DIR When using sync, copy or move any files which would have been overwritten or deleted are moved in their original hierarchy into this directory. If --suffix is set, then the moved files will have the suffix added to them. If there is a file with the same path (after the suffix has been added) in DIR, then it will be overwritten. The remote in use must support server-side move or copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The backup directory must not overlap the destination directory. For example rclone sync -i /path/to/local remote:current --backup-dir remote:old  will sync /path/to/local to remote:current, but for any files which would have been updated or deleted will be stored in remote:old. If running rclone from a script you might want to use today's date as the directory name passed to --backup-dir to store the old files, or you might want to pass --suffix with today's date. See --compare-dest and --copy-dest. ## --bind string Local address to bind to for outgoing connections. This can be an IPv4 address (1.2.3.4), an IPv6 address (1234::789A) or host name. If the host name doesn't resolve or resolves to more than one IP address it will give an error. ## --bwlimit=BANDWIDTH_SPEC This option controls the bandwidth limit. For example --bwlimit 10M  would mean limit the upload and download bandwidth to 10 Mbyte/s. NB this is bytes per second not bits per second. To use a single limit, specify the desired bandwidth in kBytes/s, or use a suffix b|k|M|G. The default is 0 which means to not limit bandwidth. The upload and download bandwidth can be specified seperately, as --bwlimit UP:DOWN, so --bwlimit 10M:100k  would mean limit the upload bandwidth to 10 Mbyte/s and the download bandwidth to 100 kByte/s. Either limit can be "off" meaning no limit, so to just limit the upload bandwidth you would use --bwlimit 10M:off  this would limit the upload bandwidth to 10MByte/s but the download bandwidth would be unlimited. When specified as above the bandwidth limits last for the duration of run of the rclone binary. It is also possible to specify a "timetable" of limits, which will cause certain limits to be applied at certain times. To specify a timetable, format your entries as WEEKDAY-HH:MM,BANDWIDTH WEEKDAY-HH:MM,BANDWIDTH... where: WEEKDAY is optional element. BANDWIDTH can be a single number, e.g.100k or a pair of numbers for upload:download, e.g.10M:1M. WEEKDAY can be written as the whole word or only using the first 3 characters. It is optional. HH:MM is an hour from 00:00 to 23:59. An example of a typical timetable to avoid link saturation during daytime working hours could be: --bwlimit "08:00,512k 12:00,10M 13:00,512k 18:00,30M 23:00,off" In this example, the transfer bandwidth will be set to 512kBytes/sec at 8am every day. At noon, it will rise to 10Mbytes/s, and drop back to 512kBytes/sec at 1pm. At 6pm, the bandwidth limit will be set to 30MBytes/s, and at 11pm it will be completely disabled (full speed). Anything between 11pm and 8am will remain unlimited. An example of timetable with WEEKDAY could be: --bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512 Fri-23:59,10M Sat-10:00,1M Sun-20:00,off" It means that, the transfer bandwidth will be set to 512kBytes/sec on Monday. It will rise to 10Mbytes/s before the end of Friday. At 10:00 on Saturday it will be set to 1Mbyte/s. From 20:00 on Sunday it will be unlimited. Timeslots without WEEKDAY are extended to the whole week. So this example: --bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512 12:00,1M Sun-20:00,off" Is equivalent to this: --bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512Mon-12:00,1M Tue-12:00,1M Wed-12:00,1M Thu-12:00,1M Fri-12:00,1M Sat-12:00,1M Sun-12:00,1M Sun-20:00,off" Bandwidth limit apply to the data transfer for all backends. For most backends the directory listing bandwidth is also included (exceptions being the non HTTP backends, ftp, sftp and tardigrade). Note that the units are Bytes/s, not Bits/s. Typically connections are measured in Bits/s - to convert divide by 8. For example, let's say you have a 10 Mbit/s connection and you wish rclone to use half of it - 5 Mbit/s. This is 5/8 = 0.625MByte/s so you would use a --bwlimit 0.625M parameter for rclone. On Unix systems (Linux, macOS, ...) the bandwidth limiter can be toggled by sending a SIGUSR2 signal to rclone. This allows to remove the limitations of a long running rclone transfer and to restore it back to the value specified with --bwlimit quickly when needed. Assuming there is only one rclone instance running, you can toggle the limiter like this: kill -SIGUSR2$(pidof rclone)



If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use change the bwlimit dynamically:

rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=1M



## --bwlimit-file=BANDWIDTH_SPEC

This option controls per file bandwidth limit. For the options see the --bwlimit flag.

For example use this to allow no transfers to be faster than 1MByte/s

--bwlimit-file 1M



This can be used in conjunction with --bwlimit.

Note that if a schedule is provided the file will use the schedule in effect at the start of the transfer.

## --buffer-size=SIZE

Use this sized buffer to speed up file transfers. Each --transfer will use this much memory for buffering.

When using mount or cmount each open file descriptor will use this much memory for buffering. See the mount (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/#file-buffering) documentation for more details.

Set to 0 to disable the buffering for the minimum memory usage.

Note that the memory allocation of the buffers is influenced by the --use-mmap flag.

## --check-first

If this flag is set then in a sync, copy or move, rclone will do all the checks to see whether files need to be transferred before doing any of the transfers. Normally rclone would start running transfers as soon as possible.

This flag can be useful on IO limited systems where transfers interfere with checking.

It can also be useful to ensure perfect ordering when using --order-by.

Using this flag can use more memory as it effectively sets --max-backlog to infinite. This means that all the info on the objects to transfer is held in memory before the transfers start.

## --checkers=N

The number of checkers to run in parallel. Checkers do the equality checking of files during a sync. For some storage systems (e.g. S3, Swift, Dropbox) this can take a significant amount of time so they are run in parallel.

The default is to run 8 checkers in parallel.

## -c, --checksum

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check the file hash and size to determine if files are equal.

This is useful when the remote doesn't support setting modified time and a more accurate sync is desired than just checking the file size.

This is very useful when transferring between remotes which store the same hash type on the object, e.g. Drive and Swift. For details of which remotes support which hash type see the table in the overview section (https://rclone.org/overview/).

Eg rclone --checksum sync s3:/bucket swift:/bucket would run much quicker than without the --checksum flag.

When using this flag, rclone won't update mtimes of remote files if they are incorrect as it would normally.

## --compare-dest=DIR

When using sync, copy or move DIR is checked in addition to the destination for files. If a file identical to the source is found that file is NOT copied from source. This is useful to copy just files that have changed since the last backup.

You must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The compare directory must not overlap the destination directory.

See --copy-dest and --backup-dir.

## --config=CONFIG_FILE

Specify the location of the rclone config file.

Normally the config file is in your home directory as a file called .config/rclone/rclone.conf (or .rclone.conf if created with an older version). If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is set it will be at$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/rclone/rclone.conf.

If there is a file rclone.conf in the same directory as the rclone executable it will be preferred. This file must be created manually for Rclone to use it, it will never be created automatically.

If you run rclone config file you will see where the default location is for you.

Use this flag to override the config location, e.g. rclone --config=".myconfig" .config.

## --contimeout=TIME

Set the connection timeout. This should be in go time format which looks like 5s for 5 seconds, 10m for 10 minutes, or 3h30m.

The connection timeout is the amount of time rclone will wait for a connection to go through to a remote object storage system. It is 1m by default.

## --copy-dest=DIR

When using sync, copy or move DIR is checked in addition to the destination for files. If a file identical to the source is found that file is server-side copied from DIR to the destination. This is useful for incremental backup.

The remote in use must support server-side copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The compare directory must not overlap the destination directory.

See --compare-dest and --backup-dir.

## --dedupe-mode MODE

Mode to run dedupe command in. One of interactive, skip, first, newest, oldest, rename. The default is interactive. See the dedupe command for more information as to what these options mean.

## --disable FEATURE,FEATURE,...

This disables a comma separated list of optional features. For example to disable server-side move and server-side copy use:
--disable move,copy



The features can be put in any case.

To see a list of which features can be disabled use:

--disable help



See the overview features (https://rclone.org/overview/#features) and optional features (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) to get an idea of which feature does what.

This flag can be useful for debugging and in exceptional circumstances (e.g. Google Drive limiting the total volume of Server Side Copies to 100GB/day).

## -n, --dry-run

Do a trial run with no permanent changes. Use this to see what rclone would do without actually doing it. Useful when setting up the sync command which deletes files in the destination.

## --expect-continue-timeout=TIME

This specifies the amount of time to wait for a server's first response headers after fully writing the request headers if the request has an "Expect: 100-continue" header. Not all backends support using this.

Zero means no timeout and causes the body to be sent immediately, without waiting for the server to approve. This time does not include the time to send the request header.

The default is 1s. Set to 0 to disable.

## --error-on-no-transfer

By default, rclone will exit with return code 0 if there were no errors.

This option allows rclone to return exit code 9 if no files were transferred between the source and destination. This allows using rclone in scripts, and triggering follow-on actions if data was copied, or skipping if not.

NB: Enabling this option turns a usually non-fatal error into a potentially fatal one - please check and adjust your scripts accordingly!

This flag is supported for all HTTP based backends even those not supported by --header-upload and --header-download so may be used as a workaround for those with care.

rclone ls remote:test --header "X-Rclone: Foo" --header "X-LetMeIn: Yes"



rclone sync -i s3:test/src ~/dst --header-download "X-Amz-Meta-Test: Foo" --header-download "X-Amz-Meta-Test2: Bar"



See the GitHub issue here (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/59) for currently supported backends.

rclone sync -i ~/src s3:test/dst --header-upload "Content-Disposition: attachment; filename='cool.html'" --header-upload "X-Amz-Meta-Test: FooBar"



See the GitHub issue here (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/59) for currently supported backends.

## --ignore-case-sync

Using this option will cause rclone to ignore the case of the files when synchronizing so files will not be copied/synced when the existing filenames are the same, even if the casing is different.

## --ignore-checksum

Normally rclone will check that the checksums of transferred files match, and give an error "corrupted on transfer" if they don't.

You can use this option to skip that check. You should only use it if you have had the "corrupted on transfer" error message and you are sure you might want to transfer potentially corrupted data.

## --ignore-existing

Using this option will make rclone unconditionally skip all files that exist on the destination, no matter the content of these files.

While this isn't a generally recommended option, it can be useful in cases where your files change due to encryption. However, it cannot correct partial transfers in case a transfer was interrupted.

## --ignore-size

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check only the modification time. If --checksum is set then it only checks the checksum.

It will also cause rclone to skip verifying the sizes are the same after transfer.

This can be useful for transferring files to and from OneDrive which occasionally misreports the size of image files (see #399 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/399) for more info).

## -I, --ignore-times

Using this option will cause rclone to unconditionally upload all files regardless of the state of files on the destination.

Normally rclone would skip any files that have the same modification time and are the same size (or have the same checksum if using --checksum).

## --immutable

Treat source and destination files as immutable and disallow modification.

With this option set, files will be created and deleted as requested, but existing files will never be updated. If an existing file does not match between the source and destination, rclone will give the error Source and destination exist but do not match: immutable file modified.

Note that only commands which transfer files (e.g. sync, copy, move) are affected by this behavior, and only modification is disallowed. Files may still be deleted explicitly (e.g. delete, purge) or implicitly (e.g. sync, move). Use copy --immutable if it is desired to avoid deletion as well as modification.

This can be useful as an additional layer of protection for immutable or append-only data sets (notably backup archives), where modification implies corruption and should not be propagated.

## -i / --interactive

This flag can be used to tell rclone that you wish a manual confirmation before destructive operations.

It is recommended that you use this flag while learning rclone especially with rclone sync.

For example

$rclone delete -i /tmp/dir rclone: delete "important-file.txt"? y) Yes, this is OK (default) n) No, skip this s) Skip all delete operations with no more questions !) Do all delete operations with no more questions q) Exit rclone now. y/n/s/!/q> n  The options mean y: Yes, this operation should go ahead. You can also press Return for this to happen. You'll be asked every time unless you choose s or !. n: No, do not do this operation. You'll be asked every time unless you choose s or !. s: Skip all the following operations of this type with no more questions. This takes effect until rclone exits. If there are any different kind of operations you'll be prompted for them. !: Do all the following operations with no more questions. Useful if you've decided that you don't mind rclone doing that kind of operation. This takes effect until rclone exits . If there are any different kind of operations you'll be prompted for them. q: Quit rclone now, just in case! ## --leave-root During rmdirs it will not remove root directory, even if it's empty. ## --log-file=FILE Log all of rclone's output to FILE. This is not active by default. This can be useful for tracking down problems with syncs in combination with the -v flag. See the Logging section for more info. If FILE exists then rclone will append to it. Note that if you are using the logrotate program to manage rclone's logs, then you should use the copytruncate option as rclone doesn't have a signal to rotate logs. ## --log-format LIST Comma separated list of log format options. date, time, microseconds, longfile, shortfile, UTC. The default is "date,time". ## --log-level LEVEL This sets the log level for rclone. The default log level is NOTICE. DEBUG is equivalent to -vv. It outputs lots of debug info - useful for bug reports and really finding out what rclone is doing. INFO is equivalent to -v. It outputs information about each transfer and prints stats once a minute by default. NOTICE is the default log level if no logging flags are supplied. It outputs very little when things are working normally. It outputs warnings and significant events. ERROR is equivalent to -q. It only outputs error messages. ## --use-json-log This switches the log format to JSON for rclone. The fields of json log are level, msg, source, time. ## --low-level-retries NUMBER This controls the number of low level retries rclone does. A low level retry is used to retry a failing operation - typically one HTTP request. This might be uploading a chunk of a big file for example. You will see low level retries in the log with the -v flag. This shouldn't need to be changed from the default in normal operations. However, if you get a lot of low level retries you may wish to reduce the value so rclone moves on to a high level retry (see the --retries flag) quicker. Disable low level retries with --low-level-retries 1. ## --max-backlog=N This is the maximum allowable backlog of files in a sync/copy/move queued for being checked or transferred. This can be set arbitrarily large. It will only use memory when the queue is in use. Note that it will use in the order of N kB of memory when the backlog is in use. Setting this large allows rclone to calculate how many files are pending more accurately, give a more accurate estimated finish time and make --order-by work more accurately. Setting this small will make rclone more synchronous to the listings of the remote which may be desirable. Setting this to a negative number will make the backlog as large as possible. ## --max-delete=N This tells rclone not to delete more than N files. If that limit is exceeded then a fatal error will be generated and rclone will stop the operation in progress. ## --max-depth=N This modifies the recursion depth for all the commands except purge. So if you do rclone --max-depth 1 ls remote:path you will see only the files in the top level directory. Using --max-depth 2 means you will see all the files in first two directory levels and so on. For historical reasons the lsd command defaults to using a --max-depth of 1 - you can override this with the command line flag. You can use this command to disable recursion (with --max-depth 1). Note that if you use this with sync and --delete-excluded the files not recursed through are considered excluded and will be deleted on the destination. Test first with --dry-run if you are not sure what will happen. ## --max-duration=TIME Rclone will stop scheduling new transfers when it has run for the duration specified. Defaults to off. When the limit is reached any existing transfers will complete. Rclone won't exit with an error if the transfer limit is reached. ## --max-transfer=SIZE Rclone will stop transferring when it has reached the size specified. Defaults to off. When the limit is reached all transfers will stop immediately. Rclone will exit with exit code 8 if the transfer limit is reached. ## --cutoff-mode=hard|soft|cautious This modifies the behavior of --max-transfer Defaults to --cutoff-mode=hard. Specifying --cutoff-mode=hard will stop transferring immediately when Rclone reaches the limit. Specifying --cutoff-mode=soft will stop starting new transfers when Rclone reaches the limit. Specifying --cutoff-mode=cautious will try to prevent Rclone from reaching the limit. ## --modify-window=TIME When checking whether a file has been modified, this is the maximum allowed time difference that a file can have and still be considered equivalent. The default is 1ns unless this is overridden by a remote. For example OS X only stores modification times to the nearest second so if you are reading and writing to an OS X filing system this will be 1s by default. This command line flag allows you to override that computed default. ## --multi-thread-cutoff=SIZE When downloading files to the local backend above this size, rclone will use multiple threads to download the file (default 250M). Rclone preallocates the file (using fallocate(FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE) on unix or NTSetInformationFile on Windows both of which takes no time) then each thread writes directly into the file at the correct place. This means that rclone won't create fragmented or sparse files and there won't be any assembly time at the end of the transfer. The number of threads used to download is controlled by --multi-thread-streams. Use -vv if you wish to see info about the threads. This will work with the sync/copy/move commands and friends copyto/moveto. Multi thread downloads will be used with rclone mount and rclone serve if --vfs-cache-mode is set to writes or above. NB that this only works for a local destination but will work with any source. NB that multi thread copies are disabled for local to local copies as they are faster without unless --multi-thread-streams is set explicitly. NB on Windows using multi-thread downloads will cause the resulting files to be sparse (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparse_file). Use --local-no-sparse to disable sparse files (which may cause long delays at the start of downloads) or disable multi-thread downloads with --multi-thread-streams 0 ## --multi-thread-streams=N When using multi thread downloads (see above --multi-thread-cutoff) this sets the maximum number of streams to use. Set to 0 to disable multi thread downloads (Default 4). Exactly how many streams rclone uses for the download depends on the size of the file. To calculate the number of download streams Rclone divides the size of the file by the --multi-thread-cutoff and rounds up, up to the maximum set with --multi-thread-streams. So if --multi-thread-cutoff 250MB and --multi-thread-streams 4 are in effect (the defaults): 0MB..250MB files will be downloaded with 1 stream 250MB..500MB files will be downloaded with 2 streams 500MB..750MB files will be downloaded with 3 streams 750MB+ files will be downloaded with 4 streams ## --no-check-dest The --no-check-dest can be used with move or copy and it causes rclone not to check the destination at all when copying files. This means that: the destination is not listed minimising the API calls files are always transferred this can cause duplicates on remotes which allow it (e.g. Google Drive) --retries 1 is recommended otherwise you'll transfer everything again on a retry This flag is useful to minimise the transactions if you know that none of the files are on the destination. This is a specialized flag which should be ignored by most users! ## --no-gzip-encoding Don't set Accept-Encoding: gzip. This means that rclone won't ask the server for compressed files automatically. Useful if you've set the server to return files with Content-Encoding: gzip but you uploaded compressed files. There is no need to set this in normal operation, and doing so will decrease the network transfer efficiency of rclone. ## --no-traverse The --no-traverse flag controls whether the destination file system is traversed when using the copy or move commands. --no-traverse is not compatible with sync and will be ignored if you supply it with sync. If you are only copying a small number of files (or are filtering most of the files) and/or have a large number of files on the destination then --no-traverse will stop rclone listing the destination and save time. However, if you are copying a large number of files, especially if you are doing a copy where lots of the files under consideration haven't changed and won't need copying then you shouldn't use --no-traverse. See rclone copy (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) for an example of how to use it. ## --no-unicode-normalization Don't normalize unicode characters in filenames during the sync routine. Sometimes, an operating system will store filenames containing unicode parts in their decomposed form (particularly macOS). Some cloud storage systems will then recompose the unicode, resulting in duplicate files if the data is ever copied back to a local filesystem. Using this flag will disable that functionality, treating each unicode character as unique. For example, by default é and é will be normalized into the same character. With --no-unicode-normalization they will be treated as unique characters. ## --no-update-modtime When using this flag, rclone won't update modification times of remote files if they are incorrect as it would normally. This can be used if the remote is being synced with another tool also (e.g. the Google Drive client). ## --order-by string The --order-by flag controls the order in which files in the backlog are processed in rclone sync, rclone copy and rclone move. The order by string is constructed like this. The first part describes what aspect is being measured: size - order by the size of the files name - order by the full path of the files modtime - order by the modification date of the files This can have a modifier appended with a comma: ascending or asc - order so that the smallest (or oldest) is processed first descending or desc - order so that the largest (or newest) is processed first mixed - order so that the smallest is processed first for some threads and the largest for others If the modifier is mixed then it can have an optional percentage (which defaults to 50), e.g. size,mixed,25 which means that 25% of the threads should be taking the smallest items and 75% the largest. The threads which take the smallest first will always take the smallest first and likewise the largest first threads. The mixed mode can be useful to minimise the transfer time when you are transferring a mixture of large and small files - the large files are guaranteed upload threads and bandwidth and the small files will be processed continuously. If no modifier is supplied then the order is ascending. For example --order-by size,desc - send the largest files first --order-by modtime,ascending - send the oldest files first --order-by name - send the files with alphabetically by path first If the --order-by flag is not supplied or it is supplied with an empty string then the default ordering will be used which is as scanned. With --checkers 1 this is mostly alphabetical, however with the default --checkers 8 it is somewhat random. ## Limitations The --order-by flag does not do a separate pass over the data. This means that it may transfer some files out of the order specified if there are no files in the backlog or the source has not been fully scanned yet there are more than --max-backlog files in the backlog Rclone will do its best to transfer the best file it has so in practice this should not cause a problem. Think of --order-by as being more of a best efforts flag rather than a perfect ordering. If you want perfect ordering then you will need to specify --check-first which will find all the files which need transferring first before transferring any. ## --password-command SpaceSepList This flag supplies a program which should supply the config password when run. This is an alternative to rclone prompting for the password or setting the RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS variable. The argument to this should be a command with a space separated list of arguments. If one of the arguments has a space in then enclose it in ", if you want a literal " in an argument then enclose the argument in " and double the ". See CSV encoding (https://godoc.org/encoding/csv) for more info. Eg --password-command echo hello --password-command echo "hello with space" --password-command echo "hello with ""quotes"" and space"  See the Configuration Encryption for more info. See a Windows PowerShell example on the Wiki (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/wiki/Windows-Powershell-use-rclone-password-command-for-Config-file-password). ## -P, --progress This flag makes rclone update the stats in a static block in the terminal providing a realtime overview of the transfer. Any log messages will scroll above the static block. Log messages will push the static block down to the bottom of the terminal where it will stay. Normally this is updated every 500mS but this period can be overridden with the --stats flag. This can be used with the --stats-one-line flag for a simpler display. Note: On Windows until this bug (https://github.com/Azure/go-ansiterm/issues/26) is fixed all non-ASCII characters will be replaced with . when --progress is in use. ## --progress-terminal-title This flag, when used with -P/--progress, will print the string ETA: %s to the terminal title. ## -q, --quiet This flag will limit rclone's output to error messages only. ## --refresh-times The --refresh-times flag can be used to update modification times of existing files when they are out of sync on backends which don't support hashes. This is useful if you uploaded files with the incorrect timestamps and you now wish to correct them. This flag is only useful for destinations which don't support hashes (e.g. crypt). This can be used any of the sync commands sync, copy or move. To use this flag you will need to be doing a modification time sync (so not using --size-only or --checksum). The flag will have no effect when using --size-only or --checksum. If this flag is used when rclone comes to upload a file it will check to see if there is an existing file on the destination. If this file matches the source with size (and checksum if available) but has a differing timestamp then instead of re-uploading it, rclone will update the timestamp on the destination file. If the checksum does not match rclone will upload the new file. If the checksum is absent (e.g. on a crypt backend) then rclone will update the timestamp. Note that some remotes can't set the modification time without re-uploading the file so this flag is less useful on them. Normally if you are doing a modification time sync rclone will update modification times without --refresh-times provided that the remote supports checksums and the checksums match on the file. However if the checksums are absent then rclone will upload the file rather than setting the timestamp as this is the safe behaviour. ## --retries int Retry the entire sync if it fails this many times it fails (default 3). Some remotes can be unreliable and a few retries help pick up the files which didn't get transferred because of errors. Disable retries with --retries 1. ## --retries-sleep=TIME This sets the interval between each retry specified by --retries The default is 0. Use 0 to disable. ## --size-only Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check only the size. This can be useful transferring files from Dropbox which have been modified by the desktop sync client which doesn't set checksums of modification times in the same way as rclone. ## --stats=TIME Commands which transfer data (sync, copy, copyto, move, moveto) will print data transfer stats at regular intervals to show their progress. This sets the interval. The default is 1m. Use 0 to disable. If you set the stats interval then all commands can show stats. This can be useful when running other commands, check or mount for example. Stats are logged at INFO level by default which means they won't show at default log level NOTICE. Use --stats-log-level NOTICE or -v to make them show. See the Logging section for more info on log levels. Note that on macOS you can send a SIGINFO (which is normally ctrl-T in the terminal) to make the stats print immediately. ## --stats-file-name-length integer By default, the --stats output will truncate file names and paths longer than 40 characters. This is equivalent to providing --stats-file-name-length 40. Use --stats-file-name-length 0 to disable any truncation of file names printed by stats. ## --stats-log-level string Log level to show --stats output at. This can be DEBUG, INFO, NOTICE, or ERROR. The default is INFO. This means at the default level of logging which is NOTICE the stats won't show - if you want them to then use --stats-log-level NOTICE. See the Logging section for more info on log levels. ## --stats-one-line When this is specified, rclone condenses the stats into a single line showing the most important stats only. ## --stats-one-line-date When this is specified, rclone enables the single-line stats and prepends the display with a date string. The default is 2006/01/02 15:04:05 - ## --stats-one-line-date-format When this is specified, rclone enables the single-line stats and prepends the display with a user-supplied date string. The date string MUST be enclosed in quotes. Follow golang specs (https://golang.org/pkg/time/#Time.Format) for date formatting syntax. ## --stats-unit=bits|bytes By default, data transfer rates will be printed in bytes/second. This option allows the data rate to be printed in bits/second. Data transfer volume will still be reported in bytes. The rate is reported as a binary unit, not SI unit. So 1 Mbit/s equals 1,048,576 bits/s and not 1,000,000 bits/s. The default is bytes. ## --suffix=SUFFIX When using sync, copy or move any files which would have been overwritten or deleted will have the suffix added to them. If there is a file with the same path (after the suffix has been added), then it will be overwritten. The remote in use must support server-side move or copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. This is for use with files to add the suffix in the current directory or with --backup-dir. See --backup-dir for more info. For example rclone copy -i /path/to/local/file remote:current --suffix .bak  will copy /path/to/local to remote:current, but for any files which would have been updated or deleted have .bak added. If using rclone sync with --suffix and without --backup-dir then it is recommended to put a filter rule in excluding the suffix otherwise the sync will delete the backup files. rclone sync -i /path/to/local/file remote:current --suffix .bak --exclude "*.bak"  ## --suffix-keep-extension When using --suffix, setting this causes rclone put the SUFFIX before the extension of the files that it backs up rather than after. So let's say we had --suffix -2019-01-01, without the flag file.txt would be backed up to file.txt-2019-01-01 and with the flag it would be backed up to file-2019-01-01.txt. This can be helpful to make sure the suffixed files can still be opened. ## --syslog On capable OSes (not Windows or Plan9) send all log output to syslog. This can be useful for running rclone in a script or rclone mount. ## --syslog-facility string If using --syslog this sets the syslog facility (e.g. KERN, USER). See man syslog for a list of possible facilities. The default facility is DAEMON. ## --tpslimit float Limit transactions per second to this number. Default is 0 which is used to mean unlimited transactions per second. A transaction is roughly defined as an API call; its exact meaning will depend on the backend. For HTTP based backends it is an HTTP PUT/GET/POST/etc and its response. For FTP/SFTP it is a round trip transaction over TCP. For example to limit rclone to 10 transactions per second use --tpslimit 10, or to 1 transaction every 2 seconds use --tpslimit 0.5. Use this when the number of transactions per second from rclone is causing a problem with the cloud storage provider (e.g. getting you banned or rate limited). This can be very useful for rclone mount to control the behaviour of applications using it. This limit applies to all HTTP based backends and to the FTP and SFTP backends. It does not apply to the local backend or the Tardigrade backend. See also --tpslimit-burst. ## --tpslimit-burst int Max burst of transactions for --tpslimit (default 1). Normally --tpslimit will do exactly the number of transaction per second specified. However if you supply --tps-burst then rclone can save up some transactions from when it was idle giving a burst of up to the parameter supplied. For example if you provide --tpslimit-burst 10 then if rclone has been idle for more than 10*--tpslimit then it can do 10 transactions very quickly before they are limited again. This may be used to increase performance of --tpslimit without changing the long term average number of transactions per second. ## --track-renames By default, rclone doesn't keep track of renamed files, so if you rename a file locally then sync it to a remote, rclone will delete the old file on the remote and upload a new copy. If you use this flag, and the remote supports server-side copy or server-side move, and the source and destination have a compatible hash, then this will track renames during sync operations and perform renaming server-side. Files will be matched by size and hash - if both match then a rename will be considered. If the destination does not support server-side copy or move, rclone will fall back to the default behaviour and log an error level message to the console. Encrypted destinations are not currently supported by --track-renames if --track-renames-strategy includes hash. Note that --track-renames is incompatible with --no-traverse and that it uses extra memory to keep track of all the rename candidates. Note also that --track-renames is incompatible with --delete-before and will select --delete-after instead of --delete-during. ## --track-renames-strategy (hash,modtime,leaf,size) This option changes the matching criteria for --track-renames. The matching is controlled by a comma separated selection of these tokens: modtime - the modification time of the file - not supported on all backends hash - the hash of the file contents - not supported on all backends leaf - the name of the file not including its directory name size - the size of the file (this is always enabled) So using --track-renames-strategy modtime,leaf would match files based on modification time, the leaf of the file name and the size only. Using --track-renames-strategy modtime or leaf can enable --track-renames support for encrypted destinations. If nothing is specified, the default option is matching by hashes. Note that the hash strategy is not supported with encrypted destinations. ## --delete-(before,during,after) This option allows you to specify when files on your destination are deleted when you sync folders. Specifying the value --delete-before will delete all files present on the destination, but not on the source before starting the transfer of any new or updated files. This uses two passes through the file systems, one for the deletions and one for the copies. Specifying --delete-during will delete files while checking and uploading files. This is the fastest option and uses the least memory. Specifying --delete-after (the default value) will delay deletion of files until all new/updated files have been successfully transferred. The files to be deleted are collected in the copy pass then deleted after the copy pass has completed successfully. The files to be deleted are held in memory so this mode may use more memory. This is the safest mode as it will only delete files if there have been no errors subsequent to that. If there have been errors before the deletions start then you will get the message not deleting files as there were IO errors. ## --fast-list When doing anything which involves a directory listing (e.g. sync, copy, ls - in fact nearly every command), rclone normally lists a directory and processes it before using more directory lists to process any subdirectories. This can be parallelised and works very quickly using the least amount of memory. However, some remotes have a way of listing all files beneath a directory in one (or a small number) of transactions. These tend to be the bucket based remotes (e.g. S3, B2, GCS, Swift, Hubic). If you use the --fast-list flag then rclone will use this method for listing directories. This will have the following consequences for the listing: It will use fewer transactions (important if you pay for them) It will use more memory. Rclone has to load the whole listing into memory. It may be faster because it uses fewer transactions It may be slower because it can't be parallelized rclone should always give identical results with and without --fast-list. If you pay for transactions and can fit your entire sync listing into memory then --fast-list is recommended. If you have a very big sync to do then don't use --fast-list otherwise you will run out of memory. If you use --fast-list on a remote which doesn't support it, then rclone will just ignore it. ## --timeout=TIME This sets the IO idle timeout. If a transfer has started but then becomes idle for this long it is considered broken and disconnected. The default is 5m. Set to 0 to disable. ## --transfers=N The number of file transfers to run in parallel. It can sometimes be useful to set this to a smaller number if the remote is giving a lot of timeouts or bigger if you have lots of bandwidth and a fast remote. The default is to run 4 file transfers in parallel. ## -u, --update This forces rclone to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source file. This can be useful when transferring to a remote which doesn't support mod times directly (or when using --use-server-modtime to avoid extra API calls) as it is more accurate than a --size-only check and faster than using --checksum. If an existing destination file has a modification time equal (within the computed modify window precision) to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different. If --checksum is set then rclone will update the destination if the checksums differ too. If an existing destination file is older than the source file then it will be updated if the size or checksum differs from the source file. On remotes which don't support mod time directly (or when using --use-server-modtime) the time checked will be the uploaded time. This means that if uploading to one of these remotes, rclone will skip any files which exist on the destination and have an uploaded time that is newer than the modification time of the source file. ## --use-mmap If this flag is set then rclone will use anonymous memory allocated by mmap on Unix based platforms and VirtualAlloc on Windows for its transfer buffers (size controlled by --buffer-size). Memory allocated like this does not go on the Go heap and can be returned to the OS immediately when it is finished with. If this flag is not set then rclone will allocate and free the buffers using the Go memory allocator which may use more memory as memory pages are returned less aggressively to the OS. It is possible this does not work well on all platforms so it is disabled by default; in the future it may be enabled by default. ## --use-server-modtime Some object-store backends (e.g, Swift, S3) do not preserve file modification times (modtime). On these backends, rclone stores the original modtime as additional metadata on the object. By default it will make an API call to retrieve the metadata when the modtime is needed by an operation. Use this flag to disable the extra API call and rely instead on the server's modified time. In cases such as a local to remote sync using --update, knowing the local file is newer than the time it was last uploaded to the remote is sufficient. In those cases, this flag can speed up the process and reduce the number of API calls necessary. Using this flag on a sync operation without also using --update would cause all files modified at any time other than the last upload time to be uploaded again, which is probably not what you want. ## -v, -vv, --verbose With -v rclone will tell you about each file that is transferred and a small number of significant events. With -vv rclone will become very verbose telling you about every file it considers and transfers. Please send bug reports with a log with this setting. ## -V, --version Prints the version number ## SSL/TLS options The outgoing SSL/TLS connections rclone makes can be controlled with these options. For example this can be very useful with the HTTP or WebDAV backends. Rclone HTTP servers have their own set of configuration for SSL/TLS which you can find in their documentation. ## --ca-cert string This loads the PEM encoded certificate authority certificate and uses it to verify the certificates of the servers rclone connects to. If you have generated certificates signed with a local CA then you will need this flag to connect to servers using those certificates. ## --client-cert string This loads the PEM encoded client side certificate. This is used for mutual TLS authentication (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutual_authentication). The --client-key flag is required too when using this. ## --client-key string This loads the PEM encoded client side private key used for mutual TLS authentication. Used in conjunction with --client-cert. ## --no-check-certificate=true/false --no-check-certificate controls whether a client verifies the server's certificate chain and host name. If --no-check-certificate is true, TLS accepts any certificate presented by the server and any host name in that certificate. In this mode, TLS is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks. This option defaults to false. This should be used only for testing. ## Configuration Encryption Your configuration file contains information for logging in to your cloud services. This means that you should keep your .rclone.conf file in a secure location. If you are in an environment where that isn't possible, you can add a password to your configuration. This means that you will have to supply the password every time you start rclone. To add a password to your rclone configuration, execute rclone config. >rclone config Current remotes: e) Edit existing remote n) New remote d) Delete remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config e/n/d/s/q>  Go into s, Set configuration password: e/n/d/s/q> s Your configuration is not encrypted. If you add a password, you will protect your login information to cloud services. a) Add Password q) Quit to main menu a/q> a Enter NEW configuration password: password: Confirm NEW password: password: Password set Your configuration is encrypted. c) Change Password u) Unencrypt configuration q) Quit to main menu c/u/q>  Your configuration is now encrypted, and every time you start rclone you will have to supply the password. See below for details. In the same menu, you can change the password or completely remove encryption from your configuration. There is no way to recover the configuration if you lose your password. rclone uses nacl secretbox (https://godoc.org/golang.org/x/crypto/nacl/secretbox) which in turn uses XSalsa20 and Poly1305 to encrypt and authenticate your configuration with secret-key cryptography. The password is SHA-256 hashed, which produces the key for secretbox. The hashed password is not stored. While this provides very good security, we do not recommend storing your encrypted rclone configuration in public if it contains sensitive information, maybe except if you use a very strong password. If it is safe in your environment, you can set the RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS environment variable to contain your password, in which case it will be used for decrypting the configuration. You can set this for a session from a script. For unix like systems save this to a file called set-rclone-password: #!/bin/echo Source this file don't run it read -s RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS export RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS  Then source the file when you want to use it. From the shell you would do source set-rclone-password. It will then ask you for the password and set it in the environment variable. An alternate means of supplying the password is to provide a script which will retrieve the password and print on standard output. This script should have a fully specified path name and not rely on any environment variables. The script is supplied either via --password-command="..." command line argument or via the RCLONE_PASSWORD_COMMAND environment variable. One useful example of this is using the passwordstore application to retrieve the password: export RCLONE_PASSWORD_COMMAND="pass rclone/config"  If the passwordstore password manager holds the password for the rclone configuration, using the script method means the password is primarily protected by the passwordstore system, and is never embedded in the clear in scripts, nor available for examination using the standard commands available. It is quite possible with long running rclone sessions for copies of passwords to be innocently captured in log files or terminal scroll buffers, etc. Using the script method of supplying the password enhances the security of the config password considerably. If you are running rclone inside a script, unless you are using the --password-command method, you might want to disable password prompts. To do that, pass the parameter --ask-password=false to rclone. This will make rclone fail instead of asking for a password if RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS doesn't contain a valid password, and --password-command has not been supplied. ## Developer options These options are useful when developing or debugging rclone. There are also some more remote specific options which aren't documented here which are used for testing. These start with remote name e.g. --drive-test-option - see the docs for the remote in question. ## --cpuprofile=FILE Write CPU profile to file. This can be analysed with go tool pprof. ## --dump flag,flag,flag The --dump flag takes a comma separated list of flags to dump info about. Note that some headers including Accept-Encoding as shown may not be correct in the request and the response may not show Content-Encoding if the go standard libraries auto gzip encoding was in effect. In this case the body of the request will be gunzipped before showing it. The available flags are: ## --dump headers Dump HTTP headers with Authorization: lines removed. May still contain sensitive info. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only. Use --dump auth if you do want the Authorization: headers. ## --dump bodies Dump HTTP headers and bodies - may contain sensitive info. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only. Note that the bodies are buffered in memory so don't use this for enormous files. ## --dump requests Like --dump bodies but dumps the request bodies and the response headers. Useful for debugging download problems. ## --dump responses Like --dump bodies but dumps the response bodies and the request headers. Useful for debugging upload problems. ## --dump auth Dump HTTP headers - will contain sensitive info such as Authorization: headers - use --dump headers to dump without Authorization: headers. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only. ## --dump filters Dump the filters to the output. Useful to see exactly what include and exclude options are filtering on. ## --dump goroutines This dumps a list of the running go-routines at the end of the command to standard output. ## --dump openfiles This dumps a list of the open files at the end of the command. It uses the lsof command to do that so you'll need that installed to use it. ## --memprofile=FILE Write memory profile to file. This can be analysed with go tool pprof. ## Filtering For the filtering options --delete-excluded --filter --filter-from --exclude --exclude-from --include --include-from --files-from --files-from-raw --min-size --max-size --min-age --max-age --dump filters See the filtering section (https://rclone.org/filtering/). ## Remote control For the remote control options and for instructions on how to remote control rclone --rc and anything starting with --rc- See the remote control section (https://rclone.org/rc/). ## Logging rclone has 4 levels of logging, ERROR, NOTICE, INFO and DEBUG. By default, rclone logs to standard error. This means you can redirect standard error and still see the normal output of rclone commands (e.g. rclone ls). By default, rclone will produce Error and Notice level messages. If you use the -q flag, rclone will only produce Error messages. If you use the -v flag, rclone will produce Error, Notice and Info messages. If you use the -vv flag, rclone will produce Error, Notice, Info and Debug messages. You can also control the log levels with the --log-level flag. If you use the --log-file=FILE option, rclone will redirect Error, Info and Debug messages along with standard error to FILE. If you use the --syslog flag then rclone will log to syslog and the --syslog-facility control which facility it uses. Rclone prefixes all log messages with their level in capitals, e.g. INFO which makes it easy to grep the log file for different kinds of information. ## Exit Code If any errors occur during the command execution, rclone will exit with a non-zero exit code. This allows scripts to detect when rclone operations have failed. During the startup phase, rclone will exit immediately if an error is detected in the configuration. There will always be a log message immediately before exiting. When rclone is running it will accumulate errors as it goes along, and only exit with a non-zero exit code if (after retries) there were still failed transfers. For every error counted there will be a high priority log message (visible with -q) showing the message and which file caused the problem. A high priority message is also shown when starting a retry so the user can see that any previous error messages may not be valid after the retry. If rclone has done a retry it will log a high priority message if the retry was successful. ## List of exit codes 0 - success 1 - Syntax or usage error 2 - Error not otherwise categorised 3 - Directory not found 4 - File not found 5 - Temporary error (one that more retries might fix) (Retry errors) 6 - Less serious errors (like 461 errors from dropbox) (NoRetry errors) 7 - Fatal error (one that more retries won't fix, like account suspended) (Fatal errors) 8 - Transfer exceeded - limit set by --max-transfer reached 9 - Operation successful, but no files transferred ## Environment Variables Rclone can be configured entirely using environment variables. These can be used to set defaults for options or config file entries. ## Options Every option in rclone can have its default set by environment variable. To find the name of the environment variable, first, take the long option name, strip the leading --, change - to _, make upper case and prepend RCLONE_. For example, to always set --stats 5s, set the environment variable RCLONE_STATS=5s. If you set stats on the command line this will override the environment variable setting. Or to always use the trash in drive --drive-use-trash, set RCLONE_DRIVE_USE_TRASH=true. The same parser is used for the options and the environment variables so they take exactly the same form. ## Config file You can set defaults for values in the config file on an individual remote basis. If you want to use this feature, you will need to discover the name of the config items that you want. The easiest way is to run through rclone config by hand, then look in the config file to see what the values are (the config file can be found by looking at the help for --config in rclone help). To find the name of the environment variable, you need to set, take RCLONE_CONFIG_ + name of remote + _ + name of config file option and make it all uppercase. For example, to configure an S3 remote named mys3: without a config file (using unix ways of setting environment variables): $ export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_TYPE=s3
$export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_ACCESS_KEY_ID=XXX$ export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=XXX
$rclone lsd MYS3: -1 2016-09-21 12:54:21 -1 my-bucket$ rclone listremotes | grep mys3
mys3:



Note that if you want to create a remote using environment variables you must create the ..._TYPE variable as above.

## Precedence

The various different methods of backend configuration are read in this order and the first one with a value is used.
Flag values as supplied on the command line, e.g. --drive-use-trash.
Remote specific environment vars, e.g. RCLONE_CONFIG_MYREMOTE_USE_TRASH (see above).
Backend specific environment vars, e.g. RCLONE_DRIVE_USE_TRASH.
Config file, e.g. use_trash = false.
Default values, e.g. true - these can't be changed.

So if both --drive-use-trash is supplied on the config line and an environment variable RCLONE_DRIVE_USE_TRASH is set, the command line flag will take preference.

For non backend configuration the order is as follows:

Flag values as supplied on the command line, e.g. --stats 5s.
Environment vars, e.g. RCLONE_STATS=5s.
Default values, e.g. 1m - these can't be changed.

## Other environment variables

RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS set to contain your config file password (see Configuration Encryption section)
HTTP_PROXY, HTTPS_PROXY and NO_PROXY (or the lowercase versions thereof).
HTTPS_PROXY takes precedence over HTTP_PROXY for https requests.
The environment values may be either a complete URL or a "host[:port]" for, in which case the "http" scheme is assumed.
RCLONE_CONFIG_DIR - rclone sets this variable for use in config files and sub processes to point to the directory holding the config file.

# Configuring rclone on a remote / headless machine

Some of the configurations (those involving oauth2) require an Internet connected web browser.

If you are trying to set rclone up on a remote or headless box with no browser available on it (e.g. a NAS or a server in a datacenter) then you will need to use an alternative means of configuration. There are two ways of doing it, described below.

## Configuring using rclone authorize

On the headless box run rclone config but answer N to the Use auto config? question.
...
Remote config
Use auto config?
* Say Y if not sure
* Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes (default)
n) No
y/n> n
For this to work, you will need rclone available on a machine that has
a web browser available.
For more help and alternate methods see: https://rclone.org/remote_setup/
Execute the following on the machine with the web browser (same rclone
version recommended):
rclone authorize "amazon cloud drive"
Then paste the result below:
result>



Then on your main desktop machine

rclone authorize "amazon cloud drive"
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Waiting for code...
Got code
Paste the following into your remote machine --->
SECRET_TOKEN
<---End paste



Then back to the headless box, paste in the code

result> SECRET_TOKEN
--------------------
[acd12]
client_id =
client_secret =
token = SECRET_TOKEN
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d>



## Configuring by copying the config file

Rclone stores all of its config in a single configuration file. This can easily be copied to configure a remote rclone.

So first configure rclone on your desktop machine with

rclone config



to set up the config file.

Find the config file by running rclone config file, for example

$rclone config file Configuration file is stored at: /home/user/.rclone.conf  Now transfer it to the remote box (scp, cut paste, ftp, sftp, etc.) and place it in the correct place (use rclone config file on the remote box to find out where). # Filtering, includes and excludes Filter flags determine which files rclone sync, move, ls, lsl, md5sum, sha1sum, size, delete, check and similar commands apply to. They are specified in terms of path/file name patterns; path/file lists; file age and size, or presence of a file in a directory. Bucket based remotes without the concept of directory apply filters to object key, age and size in an analogous way. Rclone purge does not obey filters. To test filters without risk of damage to data, apply them to rclone ls, or with the --dry-run and -vv flags. Rclone filter patterns can only be used in filter command line options, not in the specification of a remote. E.g. rclone copy "remote:dir*.jpg" /path/to/dir does not have a filter effect. rclone copy remote:dir /path/to/dir --include "*.jpg" does. Important Avoid mixing any two of --include..., --exclude... or --filter... flags in an rclone command. The results may not be what you expect. Instead use a --filter... flag. ## Patterns for matching path/file names ## Pattern syntax Rclone matching rules follow a glob style: * matches any sequence of non-separator (/) characters ** matches any sequence of characters including / separators ? matches any single non-separator (/) character [ [ ! ] { character-range } ] character class (must be non-empty) { pattern-list } pattern alternatives c matches character c (c != *, **, ?, \, [, {, }) \ c matches character c  character-range: c matches character c (c != \\, -, ]) \ c matches character c lo - hi matches character c for lo <= c <= hi  pattern-list: pattern { , pattern } comma-separated (without spaces) patterns  character classes (see Go regular expression reference (https://golang.org/pkg/regexp/syntax/)) include: Named character classes (e.g. [\d], [^\d], [\D], [^\D]) Perl character classes (e.g. \s, \S, \w, \W) ASCII character classes (e.g. [[:alnum:]], [[:alpha:]], [[:punct:]], [[:xdigit:]])  If the filter pattern starts with a / then it only matches at the top level of the directory tree, relative to the root of the remote (not necessarily the root of the drive). If it does not start with / then it is matched starting at the end of the path/file name but it only matches a complete path element - it must match from a / separator or the beginning of the path/file. file.jpg - matches "file.jpg" - matches "directory/file.jpg" - doesn't match "afile.jpg" - doesn't match "directory/afile.jpg" /file.jpg - matches "file.jpg" in the root directory of the remote - doesn't match "afile.jpg" - doesn't match "directory/file.jpg"  Important Use / in path/file name patterns and not \ even if running on Microsoft Windows. Simple patterns are case sensitive unless the --ignore-case flag is used. Without --ignore-case (default) potato - matches "potato" - doesn't match "POTATO"  With --ignore-case potato - matches "potato" - matches "POTATO"  ## How filter rules are applied to files Rclone path / file name filters are made up of one or more of the following flags: --include --include-from --exclude --exclude-from --filter --filter-from There can be more than one instance of individual flags. Rclone internally uses a combined list of all the include and exclude rules. The order in which rules are processed can influence the result of the filter. All flags of the same type are processed together in the order above, regardless of what order the different types of flags are included on the command line. Multiple instances of the same flag are processed from left to right according to their position in the command line. To mix up the order of processing includes and excludes use --filter... flags. Within --include-from, --exclude-from and --filter-from flags rules are processed from top to bottom of the referenced file.. If there is an --include or --include-from flag specified, rclone implies a - ** rule which it adds to the bottom of the internal rule list. Specifying a + rule with a --filter... flag does not imply that rule. Each path/file name passed through rclone is matched against the combined filter list. At first match to a rule the path/file name is included or excluded and no further filter rules are processed for that path/file. If rclone does not find a match, after testing against all rules (including the implied rule if appropriate), the path/file name is included. Any path/file included at that stage is processed by the rclone command. --files-from and --files-from-raw flags over-ride and cannot be combined with other filter options. To see the internal combined rule list, in regular expression form, for a command add the --dump filters flag. Running an rclone command with --dump filters and -vv flags lists the internal filter elements and shows how they are applied to each source path/file. There is not currently a means provided to pass regular expression filter options into rclone directly though character class filter rules contain character classes. Go regular expression reference (https://golang.org/pkg/regexp/syntax/) ## How filter rules are applied to directories Rclone commands filter, and are applied to, path/file names not directories. The entire contents of a directory can be matched to a filter by the pattern directory/* or recursively by directory/**. Directory filter rules are defined with a closing / separator. E.g. /directory/subdirectory/ is an rclone directory filter rule. Rclone commands can use directory filter rules to determine whether they recurse into subdirectories. This potentially optimises access to a remote by avoiding listing unnecessary directories. Whether optimisation is desirable depends on the specific filter rules and source remote content. Optimisation occurs if either: A source remote does not support the rclone ListR primitive. local, sftp, Microsoft OneDrive and WebDav do not support ListR. Google Drive and most bucket type storage do. Full list (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) On other remotes, if the rclone command is not naturally recursive, provided it is not run with the --fast-list flag. ls, lsf -R and size are recursive but sync, copy and move are not. Whenever the --disable ListR flag is applied to an rclone command. Rclone commands imply directory filter rules from path/file filter rules. To view the directory filter rules rclone has implied for a command specify the --dump filters flag. E.g. for an include rule /a/*.jpg  Rclone implies the directory include rule /a/  Directory filter rules specified in an rclone command can limit the scope of an rclone command but path/file filters still have to be specified. E.g. rclone ls remote: --include /directory/ will not match any files. Because it is an --include option the --exclude ** rule is implied, and the \directory\ pattern serves only to optimise access to the remote by ignoring everything outside of that directory. E.g. rclone ls remote: --filter-from filter-list.txt with a file filter-list.txt: - /dir1/ - /dir2/ + *.pdf - **  All files in directories dir1 or dir2 or their subdirectories are completely excluded from the listing. Only files of suffix 'pdf in the root of remote: or its subdirectories are listed. The - ** rule prevents listing of any path/files not previously matched by the rules above. Option exclude-if-present creates a directory exclude rule based on the presence of a file in a directory and takes precedence over other rclone directory filter rules. ## --exclude - Exclude files matching pattern Excludes path/file names from an rclone command based on a single exclude rule. This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in. --exclude should not be used with --include, --include-from, --filter or --filter-from flags. --exclude has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags. E.g. rclone ls remote: --exclude *.bak excludes all .bak files from listing. E.g. rclone size remote: "--exclude /dir/**" returns the total size of all files on remote: excluding those in root directory dir and sub directories. E.g. on Microsoft Windows rclone ls remote: --exclude "*${JP,KR,HK}$*" lists the files in remote: with [JP] or [KR] or [HK] in their name. The single quotes prevent the shell from interpreting the \ characters. The \ characters escape the [ and ] so ran clone filter treats them literally rather than as a character-range. The { and } define an rclone pattern list. For other operating systems single quotes are required ie rclone ls remote: --exclude '*${JP,KR,HK}$*' ## --exclude-from - Read exclude patterns from file Excludes path/file names from an rclone command based on rules in a named file. The file contains a list of remarks and pattern rules. For an example exclude-file.txt: # a sample exclude rule file *.bak file2.jpg  rclone ls remote: --exclude-from exclude-file.txt lists the files on remote: except those named file2.jpg or with a suffix .bak. That is equivalent to rclone ls remote: --exclude file2.jpg --exclude "*.bak". This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in. The --exclude-from flag is useful where multiple exclude filter rules are applied to an rclone command. --exclude-from should not be used with --include, --include-from, --filter or --filter-from flags. --exclude-from has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags. --exclude-from followed by - reads filter rules from standard input. ## --include - Include files matching pattern Adds a single include rule based on path/file names to an rclone command. This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in. --include has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags. --include implies --exclude ** at the end of an rclone internal filter list. Therefore if you mix --include and --include-from flags with --exclude, --exclude-from, --filter or --filter-from, you must use include rules for all the files you want in the include statement. For more flexibility use the --filter-from flag. E.g. rclone ls remote: --include "*.{png,jpg}" lists the files on remote: with suffix .png and .jpg. All other files are excluded. E.g. multiple rclone copy commands can be combined with --include and a pattern-list. rclone copy /vol1/A remote:A rclone copy /vol1/B remote:B  is equivalent to: rclone copy /vol1 remote: --include "{A,B}/**"  E.g. rclone ls remote:/wheat --include "??[^[:punct:]]*" lists the files remote: directory wheat (and subdirectories) whose third character is not punctuation. This example uses an ASCII character class (https://golang.org/pkg/regexp/syntax/). ## --include-from - Read include patterns from file Adds path/file names to an rclone command based on rules in a named file. The file contains a list of remarks and pattern rules. For an example include-file.txt: # a sample include rule file *.jpg file2.avi  rclone ls remote: --include-from include-file.txt lists the files on remote: with name file2.avi or suffix .jpg. That is equivalent to rclone ls remote: --include file2.avi --include "*.jpg". This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in. The --include-from flag is useful where multiple include filter rules are applied to an rclone command. --include-from implies --exclude ** at the end of an rclone internal filter list. Therefore if you mix --include and --include-from flags with --exclude, --exclude-from, --filter or --filter-from, you must use include rules for all the files you want in the include statement. For more flexibility use the --filter-from flag. --exclude-from has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags. --exclude-from followed by - reads filter rules from standard input. ## --filter - Add a file-filtering rule Specifies path/file names to an rclone command, based on a single include or exclude rule, in + or - format. This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in. --filter + differs from --include. In the case of --include rclone implies an --exclude * rule which it adds to the bottom of the internal rule list. --filter...+ does not imply that rule. --filter has no effect when combined with --files-from or --files-from-raw flags. --filter should not be used with --include, --include-from, --exclude or --exclude-from flags. E.g. rclone ls remote: --filter "- *.bak" excludes all .bak files from a list of remote:. ## --filter-from - Read filtering patterns from a file Adds path/file names to an rclone command based on rules in a named file. The file contains a list of remarks and pattern rules. Include rules start with + and exclude rules with -. ! clears existing rules. Rules are processed in the order they are defined. This flag can be repeated. See above for the order filter flags are processed in. Arrange the order of filter rules with the most restrictive first and work down. E.g. For filter-file.txt: # a sample filter rule file - secret*.jpg + *.jpg + *.png + file2.avi - /dir/Trash/** + /dir/** # exclude everything else - *  rclone ls remote: --filter-from filter-file.txt lists the path/files on remote: including all jpg and png files, excluding any matching secret*.jpg and including file2.avi. It also includes everything in the directory dir at the root of remote, except remote:dir/Trash which it excludes. Everything else is excluded. E.g. for an alternative filter-file.txt: - secret*.jpg + *.jpg + *.png + file2.avi - *  Files file1.jpg, file3.png and file2.avi are listed whilst secret17.jpg and files without the suffix .jpgor.png are excluded. E.g. for an alternative filter-file.txt: + *.jpg + *.gif ! + 42.doc - *  Only file 42.doc is listed. Prior rules are cleared by the !. ## --files-from - Read list of source-file names Adds path/files to an rclone command from a list in a named file. Rclone processes the path/file names in the order of the list, and no others. Other filter flags (--include, --include-from, --exclude, --exclude-from, --filter and --filter-from) are ignored when --files-from is used. --files-from expects a list of files as its input. Leading or trailing whitespace is stripped from the input lines. Lines starting with # or ; are ignored. Rclone commands with a --files-from flag traverse the remote, treating the names in --files-from as a set of filters. If the --no-traverse and --files-from flags are used together an rclone command does not traverse the remote. Instead it addresses each path/file named in the file individually. For each path/file name, that requires typically 1 API call. This can be efficient for a short --files-from list and a remote containing many files. Rclone commands do not error if any names in the --files-from file are missing from the source remote. The --files-from flag can be repeated in a single rclone command to read path/file names from more than one file. The files are read from left to right along the command line. Paths within the --files-from file are interpreted as starting with the root specified in the rclone command. Leading / separators are ignored. See --files-from-raw if you need the input to be processed in a raw manner. E.g. for a file files-from.txt: # comment file1.jpg subdir/file2.jpg  rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt /home/me/pics remote:pics copies the following, if they exist, and only those files. /home/me/pics/file1.jpg → remote:pics/file1.jpg /home/me/pics/subdir/file2.jpg → remote:pics/subdir/file2.jpg  E.g. to copy the following files referenced by their absolute paths: /home/user1/42 /home/user1/dir/ford /home/user2/prefect  First find a common subdirectory - in this case /home and put the remaining files in files-from.txt with or without leading /, e.g. user1/42 user1/dir/ford user2/prefect  Then copy these to a remote: rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt /home remote:backup  The three files are transferred as follows: /home/user1/42 → remote:backup/user1/important /home/user1/dir/ford → remote:backup/user1/dir/file /home/user2/prefect → remote:backup/user2/stuff  Alternatively if / is chosen as root files-from.txt would be: /home/user1/42 /home/user1/dir/ford /home/user2/prefect  The copy command would be: rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt / remote:backup  Then there will be an extra home directory on the remote: /home/user1/42 → remote:backup/home/user1/42 /home/user1/dir/ford → remote:backup/home/user1/dir/ford /home/user2/prefect → remote:backup/home/user2/prefect  ## --files-from-raw - Read list of source-file names without any processing This flag is the same as --files-from except that input is read in a raw manner. Lines with leading / trailing whitespace, and lines starting with ; or # are read without any processing. rclone lsf (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsf/) has a compatible format that can be used to export file lists from remotes for input to --files-from-raw. ## --ignore-case - make searches case insensitive By default rclone filter patterns are case sensitive. The --ignore-case flag makes all of the filters patterns on the command line case insensitive. E.g. --include "zaphod.txt" does not match a file Zaphod.txt. With --ignore-case a match is made. ## Quoting shell metacharacters Rclone commands with filter patterns containing shell metacharacters may not as work as expected in your shell and may require quoting. E.g. linux, OSX (* metacharacter) --include \*.jpg --include '*.jpg' --include='*.jpg' Microsoft Windows expansion is done by the command, not shell, so --include *.jpg does not require quoting. If the rclone error Command .... needs .... arguments maximum: you provided .... non flag arguments: is encountered, the cause is commonly spaces within the name of a remote or flag value. The fix then is to quote values containing spaces. ## Other filters ## --min-size - Don't transfer any file smaller than this Controls the minimum size file within the scope of an rclone command. Default units are kBytes but abbreviations k, M, or G are valid. E.g. rclone ls remote: --min-size 50k lists files on remote: of 50kByte size or larger. ## --max-size - Don't transfer any file larger than this Controls the maximum size file within the scope of an rclone command. Default units are kBytes but abbreviations k, M, or G are valid. E.g. rclone ls remote: --max-size 1G lists files on remote: of 1GByte size or smaller. ## --max-age - Don't transfer any file older than this Controls the maximum age of files within the scope of an rclone command. Default units are seconds or the following abbreviations are valid: ms - Milliseconds s - Seconds m - Minutes h - Hours d - Days w - Weeks M - Months y - Years --max-age can also be specified as an absolute time in the following formats: RFC3339 - e.g. "2006-01-02T15:04:05Z07:00" ISO8601 Date and time, local timezone - "2006-01-02T15:04:05" ISO8601 Date and time, local timezone - "2006-01-02 15:04:05" ISO8601 Date - "2006-01-02" (YYYY-MM-DD) --max-age applies only to files and not to directories. E.g. rclone ls remote: --max-age 2d lists files on remote: of 2 days old or less. ## --min-age - Don't transfer any file younger than this Controls the minimum age of files within the scope of an rclone command. (see --max-age for valid formats) --min-age applies only to files and not to directories. E.g. rclone ls remote: --min-age 2d lists files on remote: of 2 days old or more. ## Other flags ## --delete-excluded - Delete files on dest excluded from sync Important this flag is dangerous to your data - use with --dry-run and -v first. In conjunction with rclone sync the --delete-excluded deletes any files on the destination which are excluded from the command. E.g. the scope of rclone sync -i A: B: can be restricted: rclone --min-size 50k --delete-excluded sync A: B:  All files on B: which are less than 50 kBytes are deleted because they are excluded from the rclone sync command. ## --dump filters - dump the filters to the output Dumps the defined filters to standard output in regular expression format. Useful for debugging. ## Exclude directory based on a file The --exclude-if-present flag controls whether a directory is within the scope of an rclone command based on the presence of a named file within it. This flag has a priority over other filter flags. E.g. for the following directory structure: dir1/file1 dir1/dir2/file2 dir1/dir2/dir3/file3 dir1/dir2/dir3/.ignore  The command rclone ls --exclude-if-present .ignore dir1 does not list dir3, file3 or .ignore. --exclude-if-present can only be used once in an rclone command. ## Common pitfalls The most frequent filter support issues on the rclone forum (https://forum.rclone.org/) are: Not using paths relative to the root of the remote Not using / to match from the root of a remote Not using ** to match the contents of a directory # GUI (Experimental) Rclone can serve a web based GUI (graphical user interface). This is somewhat experimental at the moment so things may be subject to change. Run this command in a terminal and rclone will download and then display the GUI in a web browser. rclone rcd --rc-web-gui  This will produce logs like this and rclone needs to continue to run to serve the GUI: 2019/08/25 11:40:14 NOTICE: A new release for gui is present at https://github.com/rclone/rclone-webui-react/releases/download/v0.0.6/currentbuild.zip 2019/08/25 11:40:14 NOTICE: Downloading webgui binary. Please wait. [Size: 3813937, Path : /home/USER/.cache/rclone/webgui/v0.0.6.zip] 2019/08/25 11:40:16 NOTICE: Unzipping 2019/08/25 11:40:16 NOTICE: Serving remote control on http://127.0.0.1:5572/  This assumes you are running rclone locally on your machine. It is possible to separate the rclone and the GUI - see below for details. If you wish to check for updates then you can add --rc-web-gui-update to the command line. If you find your GUI broken, you may force it to update by add --rc-web-gui-force-update. By default, rclone will open your browser. Add --rc-web-gui-no-open-browser to disable this feature. ## Using the GUI Once the GUI opens, you will be looking at the dashboard which has an overall overview. On the left hand side you will see a series of view buttons you can click on: Dashboard - main overview Configs - examine and create new configurations Explorer - view, download and upload files to the cloud storage systems Backend - view or alter the backend config Log out (More docs and walkthrough video to come!) ## How it works When you run the rclone rcd --rc-web-gui this is what happens Rclone starts but only runs the remote control API ("rc"). The API is bound to localhost with an auto generated username and password. If the API bundle is missing then rclone will download it. rclone will start serving the files from the API bundle over the same port as the API rclone will open the browser with a login_token so it can log straight in. ## Advanced use The rclone rcd may use any of the flags documented on the rc page (https://rclone.org/rc/#supported-parameters). The flag --rc-web-gui is shorthand for Download the web GUI if necessary Check we are using some authentication --rc-user gui --rc-pass <random password> --rc-serve These flags can be overridden as desired. See also the rclone rcd documentation (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rcd/). ## Example: Running a public GUI For example the GUI could be served on a public port over SSL using an htpasswd file using the following flags: --rc-web-gui --rc-addr :443 --rc-htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd --rc-cert /path/to/ssl.crt --rc-key /path/to/ssl.key ## Example: Running a GUI behind a proxy If you want to run the GUI behind a proxy at /rclone you could use these flags: --rc-web-gui --rc-baseurl rclone --rc-htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd Or instead of htpasswd if you just want a single user and password: --rc-user me --rc-pass mypassword ## Project The GUI is being developed in the: rclone/rclone-webui-react repository (https://github.com/rclone/rclone-webui-react). Bug reports and contributions are very welcome :-) If you have questions then please ask them on the rclone forum (https://forum.rclone.org/). # Remote controlling rclone with its API If rclone is run with the --rc flag then it starts an HTTP server which can be used to remote control rclone using its API. You can either use the rclone rc command to access the API or use HTTP directly. If you just want to run a remote control then see the rcd command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rcd/). ## Supported parameters ## --rc Flag to start the http server listen on remote requests ## --rc-addr=IP IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:5572") ## --rc-cert=KEY SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate) ## --rc-client-ca=PATH Client certificate authority to verify clients with ## --rc-htpasswd=PATH htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done ## --rc-key=PATH SSL PEM Private key ## --rc-max-header-bytes=VALUE Maximum size of request header (default 4096) ## --rc-user=VALUE User name for authentication. ## --rc-pass=VALUE Password for authentication. ## --rc-realm=VALUE Realm for authentication (default "rclone") ## --rc-server-read-timeout=DURATION Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s) ## --rc-server-write-timeout=DURATION Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s) ## --rc-serve Enable the serving of remote objects via the HTTP interface. This means objects will be accessible at http://127.0.0.1:5572/ by default, so you can browse to http://127.0.0.1:5572/ or http://127.0.0.1:5572/* to see a listing of the remotes. Objects may be requested from remotes using this syntax http://127.0.0.1:5572/[remote:path]/path/to/object Default Off. ## --rc-files /path/to/directory Path to local files to serve on the HTTP server. If this is set then rclone will serve the files in that directory. It will also open the root in the web browser if specified. This is for implementing browser based GUIs for rclone functions. If --rc-user or --rc-pass is set then the URL that is opened will have the authorization in the URL in the http://user:pass@localhost/ style. Default Off. ## --rc-enable-metrics Enable OpenMetrics/Prometheus compatible endpoint at /metrics. Default Off. ## --rc-web-gui Set this flag to serve the default web gui on the same port as rclone. Default Off. ## --rc-allow-origin Set the allowed Access-Control-Allow-Origin for rc requests. Can be used with --rc-web-gui if the rclone is running on different IP than the web-gui. Default is IP address on which rc is running. ## --rc-web-fetch-url Set the URL to fetch the rclone-web-gui files from. ## --rc-web-gui-update Set this flag to check and update rclone-webui-react from the rc-web-fetch-url. Default Off. ## --rc-web-gui-force-update Set this flag to force update rclone-webui-react from the rc-web-fetch-url. Default Off. ## --rc-web-gui-no-open-browser Set this flag to disable opening browser automatically when using web-gui. Default Off. ## --rc-job-expire-duration=DURATION Expire finished async jobs older than DURATION (default 60s). ## --rc-job-expire-interval=DURATION Interval duration to check for expired async jobs (default 10s). ## --rc-no-auth By default rclone will require authorisation to have been set up on the rc interface in order to use any methods which access any rclone remotes. Eg operations/list is denied as it involved creating a remote as is sync/copy. If this is set then no authorisation will be required on the server to use these methods. The alternative is to use --rc-user and --rc-pass and use these credentials in the request. Default Off. ## Accessing the remote control via the rclone rc command Rclone itself implements the remote control protocol in its rclone rc command. You can use it like this $ rclone rc rc/noop param1=one param2=two
{
"param1": "one",
"param2": "two"
}



Run rclone rc on its own to see the help for the installed remote control commands.

## JSON input

rclone rc also supports a --json flag which can be used to send more complicated input parameters.
$rclone rc --json '{ "p1": [1,"2",null,4], "p2": { "a":1, "b":2 } }' rc/noop { "p1": [ 1, "2", null, 4 ], "p2": { "a": 1, "b": 2 } }  If the parameter being passed is an object then it can be passed as a JSON string rather than using the --json flag which simplifies the command line. rclone rc operations/list fs=/tmp remote=test opt='{"showHash": true}'  Rather than rclone rc operations/list --json '{"fs": "/tmp", "remote": "test", "opt": {"showHash": true}}'  ## Special parameters The rc interface supports some special parameters which apply to all commands. These start with _ to show they are different. ## Running asynchronous jobs with _async = true Each rc call is classified as a job and it is assigned its own id. By default jobs are executed immediately as they are created or synchronously. If _async has a true value when supplied to an rc call then it will return immediately with a job id and the task will be run in the background. The job/status call can be used to get information of the background job. The job can be queried for up to 1 minute after it has finished. It is recommended that potentially long running jobs, e.g. sync/sync, sync/copy, sync/move, operations/purge are run with the _async flag to avoid any potential problems with the HTTP request and response timing out. Starting a job with the _async flag: $ rclone rc --json '{ "p1": [1,"2",null,4], "p2": { "a":1, "b":2 }, "_async": true }' rc/noop
{
"jobid": 2
}



Query the status to see if the job has finished. For more information on the meaning of these return parameters see the job/status call.

$rclone rc --json '{ "jobid":2 }' job/status { "duration": 0.000124163, "endTime": "2018-10-27T11:38:07.911245881+01:00", "error": "", "finished": true, "id": 2, "output": { "_async": true, "p1": [ 1, "2", null, 4 ], "p2": { "a": 1, "b": 2 } }, "startTime": "2018-10-27T11:38:07.911121728+01:00", "success": true }  job/list can be used to show the running or recently completed jobs $ rclone rc job/list
{
"jobids": [
2
]
}



## Assigning operations to groups with _group = value

Each rc call has its own stats group for tracking its metrics. By default grouping is done by the composite group name from prefix job/ and id of the job like so job/1.

If _group has a value then stats for that request will be grouped under that value. This allows caller to group stats under their own name.

Stats for specific group can be accessed by passing group to core/stats:

$rclone rc --json '{ "group": "job/1" }' core/stats { "speed": 12345 ... }  ## Supported commands ## backend/command: Runs a backend command. This takes the following parameters command - a string with the command name fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" arg - a list of arguments for the backend command opt - a map of string to string of options Returns result - result from the backend command For example rclone rc backend/command command=noop fs=. -o echo=yes -o blue -a path1 -a path2  Returns { "result": { "arg": [ "path1", "path2" ], "name": "noop", "opt": { "blue": "", "echo": "yes" } } }  Note that this is the direct equivalent of using this "backend" command: rclone backend noop . -o echo=yes -o blue path1 path2  Note that arguments must be preceded by the "-a" flag See the backend (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_backend/) command for more information. Authentication is required for this call. ## cache/expire: Purge a remote from cache Purge a remote from the cache backend. Supports either a directory or a file. Params: - remote = path to remote (required) - withData = true/false to delete cached data (chunks) as well (optional) Eg rclone rc cache/expire remote=path/to/sub/folder/ rclone rc cache/expire remote=/ withData=true  ## cache/fetch: Fetch file chunks Ensure the specified file chunks are cached on disk. The chunks= parameter specifies the file chunks to check. It takes a comma separated list of array slice indices. The slice indices are similar to Python slices: start[:end] start is the 0 based chunk number from the beginning of the file to fetch inclusive. end is 0 based chunk number from the beginning of the file to fetch exclusive. Both values can be negative, in which case they count from the back of the file. The value "-5:" represents the last 5 chunks of a file. Some valid examples are: ":5,-5:" -> the first and last five chunks "0,-2" -> the first and the second last chunk "0:10" -> the first ten chunks Any parameter with a key that starts with "file" can be used to specify files to fetch, e.g. rclone rc cache/fetch chunks=0 file=hello file2=home/goodbye  File names will automatically be encrypted when the a crypt remote is used on top of the cache. ## cache/stats: Get cache stats Show statistics for the cache remote. ## config/create: create the config for a remote. This takes the following parameters name - name of remote parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs type - type of the new remote obscure - optional bool - forces obscuring of passwords noObscure - optional bool - forces passwords not to be obscured See the config create command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_create/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## config/delete: Delete a remote in the config file. Parameters: name - name of remote to delete See the config delete command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_delete/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## config/dump: Dumps the config file. Returns a JSON object: - key: value Where keys are remote names and values are the config parameters. See the config dump command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## config/get: Get a remote in the config file. Parameters: name - name of remote to get See the config dump command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## config/listremotes: Lists the remotes in the config file. Returns - remotes - array of remote names See the listremotes command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_listremotes/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## config/password: password the config for a remote. This takes the following parameters name - name of remote parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs See the config password command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_password/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## config/providers: Shows how providers are configured in the config file. Returns a JSON object: - providers - array of objects See the config providers command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_providers/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## config/update: update the config for a remote. This takes the following parameters name - name of remote parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs obscure - optional bool - forces obscuring of passwords noObscure - optional bool - forces passwords not to be obscured See the config update command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_update/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## core/bwlimit: Set the bandwidth limit. This sets the bandwidth limit to the string passed in. This should be a single bandwidth limit entry or a pair of upload:download bandwidth. Eg rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=off { "bytesPerSecond": -1, "bytesPerSecondTx": -1, "bytesPerSecondRx": -1, "rate": "off" } rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=1M { "bytesPerSecond": 1048576, "bytesPerSecondTx": 1048576, "bytesPerSecondRx": 1048576, "rate": "1M" } rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=1M:100k { "bytesPerSecond": 1048576, "bytesPerSecondTx": 1048576, "bytesPerSecondRx": 131072, "rate": "1M" }  If the rate parameter is not supplied then the bandwidth is queried rclone rc core/bwlimit { "bytesPerSecond": 1048576, "bytesPerSecondTx": 1048576, "bytesPerSecondRx": 1048576, "rate": "1M" }  The format of the parameter is exactly the same as passed to --bwlimit except only one bandwidth may be specified. In either case "rate" is returned as a human readable string, and "bytesPerSecond" is returned as a number. ## core/command: Run a rclone terminal command over rc. This takes the following parameters command - a string with the command name arg - a list of arguments for the backend command opt - a map of string to string of options returnType - one of ("COMBINED_OUTPUT", "STREAM", "STREAM_ONLY_STDOUT", "STREAM_ONLY_STDERR") defaults to "COMBINED_OUTPUT" if not set the STREAM returnTypes will write the output to the body of the HTTP message the COMBINED_OUTPUT will write the output to the "result" parameter Returns result - result from the backend command only set when using returnType "COMBINED_OUTPUT" error - set if rclone exits with an error code returnType - one of ("COMBINED_OUTPUT", "STREAM", "STREAM_ONLY_STDOUT", "STREAM_ONLY_STDERR") For example rclone rc core/command command=ls -a mydrive:/ -o max-depth=1 rclone rc core/command -a ls -a mydrive:/ -o max-depth=1  Returns { "error": false, "result": "<Raw command line output>" } OR { "error": true, "result": "<Raw command line output>" }  Authentication is required for this call. ## core/gc: Runs a garbage collection. This tells the go runtime to do a garbage collection run. It isn't necessary to call this normally, but it can be useful for debugging memory problems. ## core/group-list: Returns list of stats. This returns list of stats groups currently in memory. Returns the following values: { "groups": an array of group names: [ "group1", "group2", ... ] }  ## core/memstats: Returns the memory statistics This returns the memory statistics of the running program. What the values mean are explained in the go docs: https://golang.org/pkg/runtime/#MemStats The most interesting values for most people are: HeapAlloc: This is the amount of memory rclone is actually using HeapSys: This is the amount of memory rclone has obtained from the OS Sys: this is the total amount of memory requested from the OS It is virtual memory so may include unused memory ## core/obscure: Obscures a string passed in. Pass a clear string and rclone will obscure it for the config file: - clear - string Returns - obscured - string ## core/pid: Return PID of current process This returns PID of current process. Useful for stopping rclone process. ## core/quit: Terminates the app. (optional) Pass an exit code to be used for terminating the app: - exitCode - int ## core/stats: Returns stats about current transfers. This returns all available stats: rclone rc core/stats  If group is not provided then summed up stats for all groups will be returned. Parameters group - name of the stats group (string) Returns the following values: { "speed": average speed in bytes/sec since start of the process, "bytes": total transferred bytes since the start of the process, "errors": number of errors, "fatalError": whether there has been at least one FatalError, "retryError": whether there has been at least one non-NoRetryError, "checks": number of checked files, "transfers": number of transferred files, "deletes" : number of deleted files, "renames" : number of renamed files, "transferTime" : total time spent on running jobs, "elapsedTime": time in seconds since the start of the process, "lastError": last occurred error, "transferring": an array of currently active file transfers: [ { "bytes": total transferred bytes for this file, "eta": estimated time in seconds until file transfer completion "name": name of the file, "percentage": progress of the file transfer in percent, "speed": average speed over the whole transfer in bytes/sec, "speedAvg": current speed in bytes/sec as an exponentially weighted moving average, "size": size of the file in bytes } ], "checking": an array of names of currently active file checks [] }  Values for "transferring", "checking" and "lastError" are only assigned if data is available. The value for "eta" is null if an eta cannot be determined. ## core/stats-delete: Delete stats group. This deletes entire stats group Parameters group - name of the stats group (string) ## core/stats-reset: Reset stats. This clears counters, errors and finished transfers for all stats or specific stats group if group is provided. Parameters group - name of the stats group (string) ## core/transferred: Returns stats about completed transfers. This returns stats about completed transfers: rclone rc core/transferred  If group is not provided then completed transfers for all groups will be returned. Note only the last 100 completed transfers are returned. Parameters group - name of the stats group (string) Returns the following values: { "transferred": an array of completed transfers (including failed ones): [ { "name": name of the file, "size": size of the file in bytes, "bytes": total transferred bytes for this file, "checked": if the transfer is only checked (skipped, deleted), "timestamp": integer representing millisecond unix epoch, "error": string description of the error (empty if successful), "jobid": id of the job that this transfer belongs to } ] }  ## core/version: Shows the current version of rclone and the go runtime. This shows the current version of go and the go runtime version - rclone version, e.g. "v1.53.0" decomposed - version number as [major, minor, patch] isGit - boolean - true if this was compiled from the git version isBeta - boolean - true if this is a beta version os - OS in use as according to Go arch - cpu architecture in use according to Go goVersion - version of Go runtime in use ## debug/set-block-profile-rate: Set runtime.SetBlockProfileRate for blocking profiling. SetBlockProfileRate controls the fraction of goroutine blocking events that are reported in the blocking profile. The profiler aims to sample an average of one blocking event per rate nanoseconds spent blocked. To include every blocking event in the profile, pass rate = 1. To turn off profiling entirely, pass rate <= 0. After calling this you can use this to see the blocking profile: go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/block  Parameters rate - int ## debug/set-mutex-profile-fraction: Set runtime.SetMutexProfileFraction for mutex profiling. SetMutexProfileFraction controls the fraction of mutex contention events that are reported in the mutex profile. On average 1/rate events are reported. The previous rate is returned. To turn off profiling entirely, pass rate 0. To just read the current rate, pass rate < 0. (For n>1 the details of sampling may change.) Once this is set you can look use this to profile the mutex contention: go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/mutex  Parameters rate - int Results previousRate - int ## job/list: Lists the IDs of the running jobs Parameters - None Results jobids - array of integer job ids ## job/status: Reads the status of the job ID Parameters jobid - id of the job (integer) Results finished - boolean duration - time in seconds that the job ran for endTime - time the job finished (e.g. "2018-10-26T18:50:20.528746884+01:00") error - error from the job or empty string for no error finished - boolean whether the job has finished or not id - as passed in above startTime - time the job started (e.g. "2018-10-26T18:50:20.528336039+01:00") success - boolean - true for success false otherwise output - output of the job as would have been returned if called synchronously progress - output of the progress related to the underlying job ## job/stop: Stop the running job Parameters jobid - id of the job (integer) ## mount/listmounts: Show current mount points This shows currently mounted points, which can be used for performing an unmount This takes no parameters and returns mountPoints: list of current mount points Eg rclone rc mount/listmounts  Authentication is required for this call. ## mount/mount: Create a new mount point rclone allows Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows to mount any of Rclone's cloud storage systems as a file system with FUSE. If no mountType is provided, the priority is given as follows: 1. mount 2.cmount 3.mount2 This takes the following parameters fs - a remote path to be mounted (required) mountPoint: valid path on the local machine (required) mountType: One of the values (mount, cmount, mount2) specifies the mount implementation to use mountOpt: a JSON object with Mount options in. vfsOpt: a JSON object with VFS options in. Eg rclone rc mount/mount fs=mydrive: mountPoint=/home/<user>/mountPoint rclone rc mount/mount fs=mydrive: mountPoint=/home/<user>/mountPoint mountType=mount rclone rc mount/mount fs=TestDrive: mountPoint=/mnt/tmp vfsOpt='{"CacheMode": 2}' mountOpt='{"AllowOther": true}'  The vfsOpt are as described in options/get and can be seen in the the "vfs" section when running and the mountOpt can be seen in the "mount" section. rclone rc options/get  Authentication is required for this call. ## mount/types: Show all possible mount types This shows all possible mount types and returns them as a list. This takes no parameters and returns mountTypes: list of mount types The mount types are strings like "mount", "mount2", "cmount" and can be passed to mount/mount as the mountType parameter. Eg rclone rc mount/types  Authentication is required for this call. ## mount/unmount: Unmount selected active mount rclone allows Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows to mount any of Rclone's cloud storage systems as a file system with FUSE. This takes the following parameters mountPoint: valid path on the local machine where the mount was created (required) Eg rclone rc mount/unmount mountPoint=/home/<user>/mountPoint  Authentication is required for this call. ## mount/unmountall: Show current mount points This shows currently mounted points, which can be used for performing an unmount This takes no parameters and returns error if unmount does not succeed. Eg rclone rc mount/unmountall  Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/about: Return the space used on the remote This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" The result is as returned from rclone about --json See the about command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_size/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/cleanup: Remove trashed files in the remote or path This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" See the cleanup command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_cleanup/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/copyfile: Copy a file from source remote to destination remote This takes the following parameters srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" for the source srcRemote - a path within that remote e.g. "file.txt" for the source dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive2:" for the destination dstRemote - a path within that remote e.g. "file2.txt" for the destination Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/copyurl: Copy the URL to the object This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" url - string, URL to read from autoFilename - boolean, set to true to retrieve destination file name from url See the copyurl command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copyurl/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/delete: Remove files in the path This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" See the delete command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_delete/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/deletefile: Remove the single file pointed to This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" See the deletefile command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_deletefile/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/fsinfo: Return information about the remote This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" This returns info about the remote passed in; { // optional features and whether they are available or not "Features": { "About": true, "BucketBased": false, "CanHaveEmptyDirectories": true, "CaseInsensitive": false, "ChangeNotify": false, "CleanUp": false, "Copy": false, "DirCacheFlush": false, "DirMove": true, "DuplicateFiles": false, "GetTier": false, "ListR": false, "MergeDirs": false, "Move": true, "OpenWriterAt": true, "PublicLink": false, "Purge": true, "PutStream": true, "PutUnchecked": false, "ReadMimeType": false, "ServerSideAcrossConfigs": false, "SetTier": false, "SetWrapper": false, "UnWrap": false, "WrapFs": false, "WriteMimeType": false }, // Names of hashes available "Hashes": [ "MD5", "SHA-1", "DropboxHash", "QuickXorHash" ], "Name": "local", // Name as created "Precision": 1, // Precision of timestamps in ns "Root": "/", // Path as created "String": "Local file system at /" // how the remote will appear in logs }  This command does not have a command line equivalent so use this instead: rclone rc --loopback operations/fsinfo fs=remote:  ## operations/list: List the given remote and path in JSON format This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" opt - a dictionary of options to control the listing (optional) recurse - If set recurse directories noModTime - If set return modification time showEncrypted - If set show decrypted names showOrigIDs - If set show the IDs for each item if known showHash - If set return a dictionary of hashes The result is list This is an array of objects as described in the lsjson command See the lsjson command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsjson/) for more information on the above and examples. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/mkdir: Make a destination directory or container This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" See the mkdir command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mkdir/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/movefile: Move a file from source remote to destination remote This takes the following parameters srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" for the source srcRemote - a path within that remote e.g. "file.txt" for the source dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive2:" for the destination dstRemote - a path within that remote e.g. "file2.txt" for the destination Authentication is required for this call. This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" unlink - boolean - if set removes the link rather than adding it (optional) expire - string - the expiry time of the link e.g. "1d" (optional) Returns url - URL of the resource See the link command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_link/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/purge: Remove a directory or container and all of its contents This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" See the purge command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_purge/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/rmdir: Remove an empty directory or container This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" See the rmdir command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rmdir/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/rmdirs: Remove all the empty directories in the path This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" leaveRoot - boolean, set to true not to delete the root See the rmdirs command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rmdirs/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/size: Count the number of bytes and files in remote This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:path/to/dir" Returns count - number of files bytes - number of bytes in those files See the size command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_size/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## operations/uploadfile: Upload file using multiform/form-data This takes the following parameters fs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:" remote - a path within that remote e.g. "dir" each part in body represents a file to be uploaded See the uploadfile command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_uploadfile/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## options/blocks: List all the option blocks Returns - options - a list of the options block names ## options/get: Get all the options Returns an object where keys are option block names and values are an object with the current option values in. This shows the internal names of the option within rclone which should map to the external options very easily with a few exceptions. ## options/set: Set an option Parameters option block name containing an object with key: value Repeated as often as required. Only supply the options you wish to change. If an option is unknown it will be silently ignored. Not all options will have an effect when changed like this. For example: This sets DEBUG level logs (-vv) rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": 8}}'  And this sets INFO level logs (-v) rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": 7}}'  And this sets NOTICE level logs (normal without -v) rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": 6}}'  ## pluginsctl/addPlugin: Add a plugin using url used for adding a plugin to the webgui This takes the following parameters url: http url of the github repo where the plugin is hosted (http://github.com/rclone/rclone-webui-react) Eg rclone rc pluginsctl/addPlugin Authentication is required for this call. ## pluginsctl/getPluginsForType: Get plugins with type criteria This shows all possible plugins by a mime type This takes the following parameters type: supported mime type by a loaded plugin e.g. (video/mp4, audio/mp3) pluginType: filter plugins based on their type e.g. (DASHBOARD, FILE_HANDLER, TERMINAL) and returns loadedPlugins: list of current production plugins testPlugins: list of temporarily loaded development plugins, usually running on a different server. Eg rclone rc pluginsctl/getPluginsForType type=video/mp4 Authentication is required for this call. ## pluginsctl/listPlugins: Get the list of currently loaded plugins This allows you to get the currently enabled plugins and their details. This takes no parameters and returns loadedPlugins: list of current production plugins testPlugins: list of temporarily loaded development plugins, usually running on a different server. Eg rclone rc pluginsctl/listPlugins Authentication is required for this call. ## pluginsctl/listTestPlugins: Show currently loaded test plugins allows listing of test plugins with the rclone.test set to true in package.json of the plugin This takes no parameters and returns loadedTestPlugins: list of currently available test plugins Eg rclone rc pluginsctl/listTestPlugins  Authentication is required for this call. ## pluginsctl/removePlugin: Remove a loaded plugin This allows you to remove a plugin using it's name This takes parameters name: name of the plugin in the format author/plugin_name Eg rclone rc pluginsctl/removePlugin name=rclone/video-plugin Authentication is required for this call. ## pluginsctl/removeTestPlugin: Remove a test plugin This allows you to remove a plugin using it's name This takes the following parameters name: name of the plugin in the format author/plugin_name Eg rclone rc pluginsctl/removeTestPlugin name=rclone/rclone-webui-react  Authentication is required for this call. ## rc/error: This returns an error This returns an error with the input as part of its error string. Useful for testing error handling. ## rc/list: List all the registered remote control commands This lists all the registered remote control commands as a JSON map in the commands response. ## rc/noop: Echo the input to the output parameters This echoes the input parameters to the output parameters for testing purposes. It can be used to check that rclone is still alive and to check that parameter passing is working properly. ## rc/noopauth: Echo the input to the output parameters requiring auth This echoes the input parameters to the output parameters for testing purposes. It can be used to check that rclone is still alive and to check that parameter passing is working properly. Authentication is required for this call. ## sync/copy: copy a directory from source remote to destination remote This takes the following parameters srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:src" for the source dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:dst" for the destination createEmptySrcDirs - create empty src directories on destination if set See the copy command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## sync/move: move a directory from source remote to destination remote This takes the following parameters srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:src" for the source dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:dst" for the destination createEmptySrcDirs - create empty src directories on destination if set deleteEmptySrcDirs - delete empty src directories if set See the move command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_move/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## sync/sync: sync a directory from source remote to destination remote This takes the following parameters srcFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:src" for the source dstFs - a remote name string e.g. "drive:dst" for the destination createEmptySrcDirs - create empty src directories on destination if set See the sync command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_sync/) command for more information on the above. Authentication is required for this call. ## vfs/forget: Forget files or directories in the directory cache. This forgets the paths in the directory cache causing them to be re-read from the remote when needed. If no paths are passed in then it will forget all the paths in the directory cache. rclone rc vfs/forget  Otherwise pass files or dirs in as file=path or dir=path. Any parameter key starting with file will forget that file and any starting with dir will forget that dir, e.g. rclone rc vfs/forget file=hello file2=goodbye dir=home/junk  This command takes an "fs" parameter. If this parameter is not supplied and if there is only one VFS in use then that VFS will be used. If there is more than one VFS in use then the "fs" parameter must be supplied. ## vfs/list: List active VFSes. This lists the active VFSes. It returns a list under the key "vfses" where the values are the VFS names that could be passed to the other VFS commands in the "fs" parameter. ## vfs/poll-interval: Get the status or update the value of the poll-interval option. Without any parameter given this returns the current status of the poll-interval setting. When the interval=duration parameter is set, the poll-interval value is updated and the polling function is notified. Setting interval=0 disables poll-interval. rclone rc vfs/poll-interval interval=5m  The timeout=duration parameter can be used to specify a time to wait for the current poll function to apply the new value. If timeout is less or equal 0, which is the default, wait indefinitely. The new poll-interval value will only be active when the timeout is not reached. If poll-interval is updated or disabled temporarily, some changes might not get picked up by the polling function, depending on the used remote. This command takes an "fs" parameter. If this parameter is not supplied and if there is only one VFS in use then that VFS will be used. If there is more than one VFS in use then the "fs" parameter must be supplied. ## vfs/refresh: Refresh the directory cache. This reads the directories for the specified paths and freshens the directory cache. If no paths are passed in then it will refresh the root directory. rclone rc vfs/refresh  Otherwise pass directories in as dir=path. Any parameter key starting with dir will refresh that directory, e.g. rclone rc vfs/refresh dir=home/junk dir2=data/misc  If the parameter recursive=true is given the whole directory tree will get refreshed. This refresh will use --fast-list if enabled. This command takes an "fs" parameter. If this parameter is not supplied and if there is only one VFS in use then that VFS will be used. If there is more than one VFS in use then the "fs" parameter must be supplied. ## Accessing the remote control via HTTP Rclone implements a simple HTTP based protocol. Each endpoint takes an JSON object and returns a JSON object or an error. The JSON objects are essentially a map of string names to values. All calls must made using POST. The input objects can be supplied using URL parameters, POST parameters or by supplying "Content-Type: application/json" and a JSON blob in the body. There are examples of these below using curl. The response will be a JSON blob in the body of the response. This is formatted to be reasonably human readable. ## Error returns If an error occurs then there will be an HTTP error status (e.g. 500) and the body of the response will contain a JSON encoded error object, e.g. { "error": "Expecting string value for key \"remote\" (was float64)", "input": { "fs": "/tmp", "remote": 3 }, "status": 400 "path": "operations/rmdir", }  The keys in the error response are - error - error string - input - the input parameters to the call - status - the HTTP status code - path - the path of the call ## CORS The sever implements basic CORS support and allows all origins for that. The response to a preflight OPTIONS request will echo the requested "Access-Control-Request-Headers" back. ## Using POST with URL parameters only curl -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?potato=1&sausage=2'  Response { "potato": "1", "sausage": "2" }  Here is what an error response looks like: curl -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/error?potato=1&sausage=2'  { "error": "arbitrary error on input map[potato:1 sausage:2]", "input": { "potato": "1", "sausage": "2" } }  Note that curl doesn't return errors to the shell unless you use the -f option $ curl -f -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/error?potato=1&sausage=2'
curl: (22) The requested URL returned error: 400 Bad Request
$echo$?
22



## Using POST with a form

curl --data "potato=1" --data "sausage=2" http://localhost:5572/rc/noop



Response

{
"potato": "1",
"sausage": "2"
}



Note that you can combine these with URL parameters too with the POST parameters taking precedence.

curl --data "potato=1" --data "sausage=2" "http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?rutabaga=3&sausage=4"



Response

{
"potato": "1",
"rutabaga": "3",
"sausage": "4"
}



## Using POST with a JSON blob

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"potato":2,"sausage":1}' http://localhost:5572/rc/noop



response

{
}



This can be combined with URL parameters too if required. The JSON blob takes precedence.

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"potato":2,"sausage":1}' 'http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?rutabaga=3&potato=4'


{
"potato": 2,
"rutabaga": "3",
"sausage": 1
}



## Debugging rclone with pprof

If you use the --rc flag this will also enable the use of the go profiling tools on the same port.

To use these, first install go (https://golang.org/doc/install).

## Debugging memory use

To profile rclone's memory use you can run:
go tool pprof -web http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap



This should open a page in your browser showing what is using what memory.

You can also use the -text flag to produce a textual summary

$go tool pprof -text http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap Showing nodes accounting for 1537.03kB, 100% of 1537.03kB total flat flat% sum% cum cum% 1024.03kB 66.62% 66.62% 1024.03kB 66.62% github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.addDecoderNode 513kB 33.38% 100% 513kB 33.38% net/http.newBufioWriterSize 0 0% 100% 1024.03kB 66.62% github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/all.init 0 0% 100% 1024.03kB 66.62% github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/serve.init 0 0% 100% 1024.03kB 66.62% github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/serve/restic.init 0 0% 100% 1024.03kB 66.62% github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2.init 0 0% 100% 1024.03kB 66.62% github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.init 0 0% 100% 1024.03kB 66.62% github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.init.0 0 0% 100% 1024.03kB 66.62% main.init 0 0% 100% 513kB 33.38% net/http.(*conn).readRequest 0 0% 100% 513kB 33.38% net/http.(*conn).serve 0 0% 100% 1024.03kB 66.62% runtime.main  ## Debugging go routine leaks Memory leaks are most often caused by go routine leaks keeping memory alive which should have been garbage collected. See all active go routines using curl http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1  Or go to http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1 in your browser. ## Other profiles to look at You can see a summary of profiles available at http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/ Here is how to use some of them: Memory: go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap Go routines: curl http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1 30-second CPU profile: go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/profile 5-second execution trace: wget http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/trace?seconds=5 Goroutine blocking profile Enable first with: rclone rc debug/set-block-profile-rate rate=1 (docs) go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/block Contended mutexes: Enable first with: rclone rc debug/set-mutex-profile-fraction rate=1 (docs) go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/mutex See the net/http/pprof docs (https://golang.org/pkg/net/http/pprof/) for more info on how to use the profiling and for a general overview see the Go team's blog post on profiling go programs (https://blog.golang.org/profiling-go-programs). The profiling hook is zero overhead unless it is used (https://stackoverflow.com/q/26545159/164234). # Overview of cloud storage systems Each cloud storage system is slightly different. Rclone attempts to provide a unified interface to them, but some underlying differences show through. ## Features Here is an overview of the major features of each cloud storage system.  Name Hash ModTime Case Insensitive Duplicate Files MIME Type 1Fichier Whirlpool No No Yes R Amazon Drive MD5 No Yes No R Amazon S3 MD5 Yes No No R/W Backblaze B2 SHA1 Yes No No R/W Box SHA1 Yes Yes No - Citrix ShareFile MD5 Yes Yes No - Dropbox DBHASH ¹ Yes Yes No - Enterprise File Fabric - Yes Yes No R/W FTP - No No No - Google Cloud Storage MD5 Yes No No R/W Google Drive MD5 Yes No Yes R/W Google Photos - No No Yes R HDFS - Yes No No - HTTP - No No No R Hubic MD5 Yes No No R/W Jottacloud MD5 Yes Yes No R Koofr MD5 No Yes No - Mail.ru Cloud Mailru ⁶ Yes Yes No - Mega - No No Yes - Memory MD5 Yes No No - Microsoft Azure Blob Storage MD5 Yes No No R/W Microsoft OneDrive SHA1 ⁵ Yes Yes No R OpenDrive MD5 Yes Yes Partial ⁸ - OpenStack Swift MD5 Yes No No R/W pCloud MD5, SHA1 ⁷ Yes No No W premiumize.me - No Yes No R put.io CRC-32 Yes No Yes R QingStor MD5 No No No R/W Seafile - No No No - SFTP MD5, SHA1 ² Yes Depends No - SugarSync - No No No - Tardigrade - Yes No No - WebDAV MD5, SHA1 ³ Yes ⁴ Depends No - Yandex Disk MD5 Yes No No R Zoho WorkDrive - No No No - The local filesystem All Yes Depends No - ## Notes ¹ Dropbox supports its own custom hash (https://www.dropbox.com/developers/reference/content-hash). This is an SHA256 sum of all the 4MB block SHA256s. ² SFTP supports checksums if the same login has shell access and md5sum or sha1sum as well as echo are in the remote's PATH. ³ WebDAV supports hashes when used with Owncloud and Nextcloud only. ⁴ WebDAV supports modtimes when used with Owncloud and Nextcloud only. ⁵ Microsoft OneDrive Personal supports SHA1 hashes, whereas OneDrive for business and SharePoint server support Microsoft's own QuickXorHash (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/onedrive/developer/code-snippets/quickxorhash). ⁶ Mail.ru uses its own modified SHA1 hash ⁷ pCloud only supports SHA1 (not MD5) in its EU region ⁸ Opendrive does not support creation of duplicate files using their web client interface or other stock clients, but the underlying storage platform has been determined to allow duplicate files, and it is possible to create them with rclone. It may be that this is a mistake or an unsupported feature. ## Hash The cloud storage system supports various hash types of the objects. The hashes are used when transferring data as an integrity check and can be specifically used with the --checksum flag in syncs and in the check command. To use the verify checksums when transferring between cloud storage systems they must support a common hash type. ## ModTime The cloud storage system supports setting modification times on objects. If it does then this enables a using the modification times as part of the sync. If not then only the size will be checked by default, though the MD5SUM can be checked with the --checksum flag. All cloud storage systems support some kind of date on the object and these will be set when transferring from the cloud storage system. ## Case Insensitive If a cloud storage systems is case sensitive then it is possible to have two files which differ only in case, e.g. file.txt and FILE.txt. If a cloud storage system is case insensitive then that isn't possible. This can cause problems when syncing between a case insensitive system and a case sensitive system. The symptom of this is that no matter how many times you run the sync it never completes fully. The local filesystem and SFTP may or may not be case sensitive depending on OS. Windows - usually case insensitive, though case is preserved OSX - usually case insensitive, though it is possible to format case sensitive Linux - usually case sensitive, but there are case insensitive file systems (e.g. FAT formatted USB keys) Most of the time this doesn't cause any problems as people tend to avoid files whose name differs only by case even on case sensitive systems. ## Duplicate files If a cloud storage system allows duplicate files then it can have two objects with the same name. This confuses rclone greatly when syncing - use the rclone dedupe command to rename or remove duplicates. ## Restricted filenames Some cloud storage systems might have restrictions on the characters that are usable in file or directory names. When rclone detects such a name during a file upload, it will transparently replace the restricted characters with similar looking Unicode characters. This process is designed to avoid ambiguous file names as much as possible and allow to move files between many cloud storage systems transparently. The name shown by rclone to the user or during log output will only contain a minimal set of replaced characters to ensure correct formatting and not necessarily the actual name used on the cloud storage. This transformation is reversed when downloading a file or parsing rclone arguments. For example, when uploading a file named my file?.txt to Onedrive will be displayed as my file?.txt on the console, but stored as my file？.txt (the ? gets replaced by the similar looking ？ character) to Onedrive. The reverse transformation allows to read a fileunusual/name.txt from Google Drive, by passing the name unusual／name.txt (the / needs to be replaced by the similar looking ／ character) on the command line. ## Default restricted characters The table below shows the characters that are replaced by default. When a replacement character is found in a filename, this character will be escaped with the ‛ character to avoid ambiguous file names. (e.g. a file named ␀.txt would shown as ‛␀.txt) Each cloud storage backend can use a different set of characters, which will be specified in the documentation for each backend.  Character Value Replacement NUL 0x00 ␀ SOH 0x01 ␁ STX 0x02 ␂ ETX 0x03 ␃ EOT 0x04 ␄ ENQ 0x05 ␅ ACK 0x06 ␆ BEL 0x07 ␇ BS 0x08 ␈ HT 0x09 ␉ LF 0x0A ␊ VT 0x0B ␋ FF 0x0C ␌ CR 0x0D ␍ SO 0x0E ␎ SI 0x0F ␏ DLE 0x10 ␐ DC1 0x11 ␑ DC2 0x12 ␒ DC3 0x13 ␓ DC4 0x14 ␔ NAK 0x15 ␕ SYN 0x16 ␖ ETB 0x17 ␗ CAN 0x18 ␘ EM 0x19 ␙ SUB 0x1A ␚ ESC 0x1B ␛ FS 0x1C ␜ GS 0x1D ␝ RS 0x1E ␞ US 0x1F ␟ / 0x2F ／ DEL 0x7F ␡ The default encoding will also encode these file names as they are problematic with many cloud storage systems.  File name Replacement . ． .. ．． ## Invalid UTF-8 bytes Some backends only support a sequence of well formed UTF-8 bytes as file or directory names. In this case all invalid UTF-8 bytes will be replaced with a quoted representation of the byte value to allow uploading a file to such a backend. For example, the invalid byte 0xFE will be encoded as ‛FE. A common source of invalid UTF-8 bytes are local filesystems, that store names in a different encoding than UTF-8 or UTF-16, like latin1. See the local filenames (https://rclone.org/local/#filenames) section for details. ## Encoding option Most backends have an encoding options, specified as a flag --backend-encoding where backend is the name of the backend, or as a config parameter encoding (you'll need to select the Advanced config in rclone config to see it). This will have default value which encodes and decodes characters in such a way as to preserve the maximum number of characters (see above). However this can be incorrect in some scenarios, for example if you have a Windows file system with characters such as ＊ and ？ that you want to remain as those characters on the remote rather than being translated to * and ?. The --backend-encoding flags allow you to change that. You can disable the encoding completely with --backend-encoding None or set encoding = None in the config file. Encoding takes a comma separated list of encodings. You can see the list of all available characters by passing an invalid value to this flag, e.g. --local-encoding "help" and rclone help flags encoding will show you the defaults for the backends.  Encoding Characters Asterisk * BackQuote  BackSlash \ Colon : CrLf CR 0x0D, LF 0x0A Ctl All control characters 0x00-0x1F Del DEL 0x7F Dollar$ Dot . DoubleQuote " Hash # InvalidUtf8 An invalid UTF-8 character (e.g. latin1) LeftCrLfHtVt CR 0x0D, LF 0x0A,HT 0x09, VT 0x0B on the left of a string LeftPeriod . on the left of a string LeftSpace SPACE on the left of a string LeftTilde ~ on the left of a string LtGt <, > None No characters are encoded Percent % Pipe | Question ? RightCrLfHtVt CR 0x0D, LF 0x0A, HT 0x09, VT 0x0B on the right of a string RightPeriod . on the right of a string RightSpace SPACE on the right of a string SingleQuote ' Slash /

To take a specific example, the FTP backend's default encoding is

--ftp-encoding "Slash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,Dot"



However, let's say the FTP server is running on Windows and can't have any of the invalid Windows characters in file names. You are backing up Linux servers to this FTP server which do have those characters in file names. So you would add the Windows set which are

Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot



to the existing ones, giving:

Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot,Del,RightSpace



This can be specified using the --ftp-encoding flag or using an encoding parameter in the config file.

Or let's say you have a Windows server but you want to preserve ＊ and ？, you would then have this as the encoding (the Windows encoding minus Asterisk and Question).

Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot



This can be specified using the --local-encoding flag or using an encoding parameter in the config file.

## MIME Type

MIME types (also known as media types) classify types of documents using a simple text classification, e.g. text/html or application/pdf.

Some cloud storage systems support reading (R) the MIME type of objects and some support writing (W) the MIME type of objects.

The MIME type can be important if you are serving files directly to HTTP from the storage system.

If you are copying from a remote which supports reading (R) to a remote which supports writing (W) then rclone will preserve the MIME types. Otherwise they will be guessed from the extension, or the remote itself may assign the MIME type.

## Optional Features

All rclone remotes support a base command set. Other features depend upon backend specific capabilities.
 Name Purge Copy Move DirMove CleanUp ListR StreamUpload LinkSharing About EmptyDir 1Fichier No No No No No No No No No Yes Amazon Drive Yes No Yes Yes No #575 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/575) No No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No Yes Amazon S3 No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No No Backblaze B2 No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Box Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ‡‡ No Yes Yes No Yes Citrix ShareFile Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Dropbox Yes Yes Yes Yes No #575 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/575) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Enterprise File Fabric Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes FTP No No Yes Yes No No Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No Yes Google Cloud Storage Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No No Google Drive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Google Photos No No No No No No No No No No HDFS Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes HTTP No No No No No No No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No Yes Hubic Yes † Yes No No No Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes No Jottacloud Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Mail.ru Cloud Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Mega Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes Memory No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No Microsoft Azure Blob Storage Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No No Microsoft OneDrive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes OpenDrive Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes OpenStack Swift Yes † Yes No No No Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes No pCloud Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes premiumize.me Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes put.io Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes QingStor No Yes No No Yes Yes No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No No Seafile Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes SFTP No No Yes Yes No No Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes SugarSync Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Tardigrade Yes † No No No No Yes Yes No No No WebDAV Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes ‡ No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes Yandex Disk Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Zoho WorkDrive Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes The local filesystem Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes

## Purge

This deletes a directory quicker than just deleting all the files in the directory.

† Note Swift, Hubic, and Tardigrade implement this in order to delete directory markers but they don't actually have a quicker way of deleting files other than deleting them individually.

‡ StreamUpload is not supported with Nextcloud

## Copy

Used when copying an object to and from the same remote. This known as a server-side copy so you can copy a file without downloading it and uploading it again. It is used if you use rclone copy or rclone move if the remote doesn't support Move directly.

If the server doesn't support Copy directly then for copy operations the file is downloaded then re-uploaded.

## Move

Used when moving/renaming an object on the same remote. This is known as a server-side move of a file. This is used in rclone move if the server doesn't support DirMove.

If the server isn't capable of Move then rclone simulates it with Copy then delete. If the server doesn't support Copy then rclone will download the file and re-upload it.

## DirMove

This is used to implement rclone move to move a directory if possible. If it isn't then it will use Move on each file (which falls back to Copy then download and upload - see Move section).

## CleanUp

This is used for emptying the trash for a remote by rclone cleanup.

If the server can't do CleanUp then rclone cleanup will return an error.

‡‡ Note that while Box implements this it has to delete every file individually so it will be slower than emptying the trash via the WebUI

## ListR

The remote supports a recursive list to list all the contents beneath a directory quickly. This enables the --fast-list flag to work. See the rclone docs (https://rclone.org/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

Some remotes allow files to be uploaded without knowing the file size in advance. This allows certain operations to work without spooling the file to local disk first, e.g. rclone rcat.

Sets the necessary permissions on a file or folder and prints a link that allows others to access them, even if they don't have an account on the particular cloud provider.

Rclone about prints quota information for a remote. Typical output includes bytes used, free, quota and in trash.

Backends without about capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount, or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

## EmptyDir

The remote supports empty directories. See Limitations (https://rclone.org/bugs/#limitations) for details. Most Object/Bucket based remotes do not support this.

# Global Flags

This describes the global flags available to every rclone command split into two groups, non backend and backend flags.

## Non Backend Flags

These flags are available for every command.
    --ask-password                         Allow prompt for password for encrypted configuration. (default true)
--auto-confirm                         If enabled, do not request console confirmation.
--backup-dir string                    Make backups into hierarchy based in DIR.
--bind string                          Local address to bind to for outgoing connections, IPv4, IPv6 or name.
--buffer-size SizeSuffix               In memory buffer size when reading files for each --transfer. (default 16M)
--bwlimit BwTimetable                  Bandwidth limit in kBytes/s, or use suffix b|k|M|G or a full timetable.
--bwlimit-file BwTimetable             Bandwidth limit per file in kBytes/s, or use suffix b|k|M|G or a full timetable.
--ca-cert string                       CA certificate used to verify servers
--cache-dir string                     Directory rclone will use for caching. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone") --check-first Do all the checks before starting transfers. --checkers int Number of checkers to run in parallel. (default 8) -c, --checksum Skip based on checksum (if available) & size, not mod-time & size --client-cert string Client SSL certificate (PEM) for mutual TLS auth --client-key string Client SSL private key (PEM) for mutual TLS auth --compare-dest string Include additional server-side path during comparison. --config string Config file. (default "$HOME/.config/rclone/rclone.conf")
--contimeout duration                  Connect timeout (default 1m0s)
--copy-dest string                     Implies --compare-dest but also copies files from path into destination.
--cpuprofile string                    Write cpu profile to file
--cutoff-mode string                   Mode to stop transfers when reaching the max transfer limit HARD|SOFT|CAUTIOUS (default "HARD")
--delete-after                         When synchronizing, delete files on destination after transferring (default)
--delete-before                        When synchronizing, delete files on destination before transferring
--delete-during                        When synchronizing, delete files during transfer
--delete-excluded                      Delete files on dest excluded from sync
--disable string                       Disable a comma separated list of features.  Use help to see a list.
-n, --dry-run                              Do a trial run with no permanent changes
--dump DumpFlags                       List of items to dump from: headers,bodies,requests,responses,auth,filters,goroutines,openfiles
--dump-bodies                          Dump HTTP headers and bodies - may contain sensitive info
--error-on-no-transfer                 Sets exit code 9 if no files are transferred, useful in scripts
--exclude stringArray                  Exclude files matching pattern
--exclude-from stringArray             Read exclude patterns from file (use - to read from stdin)
--exclude-if-present string            Exclude directories if filename is present
--expect-continue-timeout duration     Timeout when using expect / 100-continue in HTTP (default 1s)
--fast-list                            Use recursive list if available. Uses more memory but fewer transactions.
--files-from stringArray               Read list of source-file names from file (use - to read from stdin)
--files-from-raw stringArray           Read list of source-file names from file without any processing of lines (use - to read from stdin)
-f, --filter stringArray                   Add a file-filtering rule
--filter-from stringArray              Read filtering patterns from a file (use - to read from stdin)
--ignore-case                          Ignore case in filters (case insensitive)
--ignore-case-sync                     Ignore case when synchronizing
--ignore-checksum                      Skip post copy check of checksums.
--ignore-errors                        delete even if there are I/O errors
--ignore-existing                      Skip all files that exist on destination
--ignore-size                          Ignore size when skipping use mod-time or checksum.
-I, --ignore-times                         Don't skip files that match size and time - transfer all files
--immutable                            Do not modify files. Fail if existing files have been modified.
--include stringArray                  Include files matching pattern
--include-from stringArray             Read include patterns from file (use - to read from stdin)
-i, --interactive                          Enable interactive mode
--log-file string                      Log everything to this file
--log-format string                    Comma separated list of log format options (default "date,time")
--log-level string                     Log level DEBUG|INFO|NOTICE|ERROR (default "NOTICE")
--log-systemd                          Activate systemd integration for the logger.
--low-level-retries int                Number of low level retries to do. (default 10)
--max-age Duration                     Only transfer files younger than this in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d|w|M|y (default off)
--max-backlog int                      Maximum number of objects in sync or check backlog. (default 10000)
--max-delete int                       When synchronizing, limit the number of deletes (default -1)
--max-depth int                        If set limits the recursion depth to this. (default -1)
--max-duration duration                Maximum duration rclone will transfer data for.
--max-size SizeSuffix                  Only transfer files smaller than this in k or suffix b|k|M|G (default off)
--max-stats-groups int                 Maximum number of stats groups to keep in memory. On max oldest is discarded. (default 1000)
--max-transfer SizeSuffix              Maximum size of data to transfer. (default off)
--memprofile string                    Write memory profile to file
--min-age Duration                     Only transfer files older than this in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d|w|M|y (default off)
--min-size SizeSuffix                  Only transfer files bigger than this in k or suffix b|k|M|G (default off)
--modify-window duration               Max time diff to be considered the same (default 1ns)
--no-check-certificate                 Do not verify the server SSL certificate. Insecure.
--no-check-dest                        Don't check the destination, copy regardless.
--no-console                           Hide console window. Supported on Windows only.
--no-gzip-encoding                     Don't set Accept-Encoding: gzip.
--no-traverse                          Don't traverse destination file system on copy.
--no-unicode-normalization             Don't normalize unicode characters in filenames.
--no-update-modtime                    Don't update destination mod-time if files identical.
--order-by string                      Instructions on how to order the transfers, e.g. 'size,descending'
-P, --progress                             Show progress during transfer.
--progress-terminal-title              Show progress on the terminal title. Requires -P/--progress.
-q, --quiet                                Print as little stuff as possible
--rc                                   Enable the remote control server.
--rc-allow-origin string               Set the allowed origin for CORS.
--rc-baseurl string                    Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
--rc-cert string                       SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
--rc-client-ca string                  Client certificate authority to verify clients with
--rc-enable-metrics                    Enable prometheus metrics on /metrics
--rc-files string                      Path to local files to serve on the HTTP server.
--rc-htpasswd string                   htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
--rc-job-expire-duration duration      expire finished async jobs older than this value (default 1m0s)
--rc-job-expire-interval duration      interval to check for expired async jobs (default 10s)
--rc-key string                        SSL PEM Private key
--rc-no-auth                           Don't require auth for certain methods.
--rc-realm string                      realm for authentication (default "rclone")
--rc-serve                             Enable the serving of remote objects.
--rc-server-write-timeout duration     Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
--rc-template string                   User Specified Template.
--rc-user string                       User name for authentication.
--rc-web-fetch-url string              URL to fetch the releases for webgui. (default "https://api.github.com/repos/rclone/rclone-webui-react/releases/latest")
--rc-web-gui                           Launch WebGUI on localhost
--rc-web-gui-no-open-browser           Don't open the browser automatically
--refresh-times                        Refresh the modtime of remote files.
--retries int                          Retry operations this many times if they fail (default 3)
--retries-sleep duration               Interval between retrying operations if they fail, e.g 500ms, 60s, 5m. (0 to disable)
--size-only                            Skip based on size only, not mod-time or checksum
--stats duration                       Interval between printing stats, e.g 500ms, 60s, 5m. (0 to disable) (default 1m0s)
--stats-file-name-length int           Max file name length in stats. 0 for no limit (default 45)
--stats-log-level string               Log level to show --stats output DEBUG|INFO|NOTICE|ERROR (default "INFO")
--stats-one-line                       Make the stats fit on one line.
--stats-one-line-date                  Enables --stats-one-line and add current date/time prefix.
--stats-one-line-date-format string    Enables --stats-one-line-date and uses custom formatted date. Enclose date string in double quotes ("). See https://golang.org/pkg/time/#Time.Format
--stats-unit string                    Show data rate in stats as either 'bits' or 'bytes'/s (default "bytes")
--streaming-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix   Cutoff for switching to chunked upload if file size is unknown. Upload starts after reaching cutoff or when file ends. (default 100k)
--suffix string                        Suffix to add to changed files.
--suffix-keep-extension                Preserve the extension when using --suffix.
--syslog                               Use Syslog for logging
--syslog-facility string               Facility for syslog, e.g. KERN,USER,... (default "DAEMON")
--timeout duration                     IO idle timeout (default 5m0s)
--tpslimit float                       Limit HTTP transactions per second to this.
--tpslimit-burst int                   Max burst of transactions for --tpslimit. (default 1)
--track-renames                        When synchronizing, track file renames and do a server-side move if possible
--track-renames-strategy string        Strategies to use when synchronizing using track-renames hash|modtime|leaf (default "hash")
--transfers int                        Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)
-u, --update                               Skip files that are newer on the destination.
--use-json-log                         Use json log format.
--use-mmap                             Use mmap allocator (see docs).
--user-agent string                    Set the user-agent to a specified string. The default is rclone/ version (default "rclone/v1.54.1")
-v, --verbose count                        Print lots more stuff (repeat for more)



## Backend Flags

These flags are available for every command. They control the backends and may be set in the config file.
    --acd-auth-url string                                      Auth server URL.
--acd-client-id string                                     OAuth Client Id
--acd-client-secret string                                 OAuth Client Secret
--acd-encoding MultiEncoder                                This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--acd-token-url string                                     Token server url.
--acd-upload-wait-per-gb Duration                          Additional time per GB to wait after a failed complete upload to see if it appears. (default 3m0s)
--alias-remote string                                      Remote or path to alias.
--azureblob-access-tier string                             Access tier of blob: hot, cool or archive.
--azureblob-account string                                 Storage Account Name (leave blank to use SAS URL or Emulator)
--azureblob-archive-tier-delete                            Delete archive tier blobs before overwriting.
--azureblob-chunk-size SizeSuffix                          Upload chunk size (<= 100MB). (default 4M)
--azureblob-disable-checksum                               Don't store MD5 checksum with object metadata.
--azureblob-encoding MultiEncoder                          This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8)
--azureblob-endpoint string                                Endpoint for the service
--azureblob-key string                                     Storage Account Key (leave blank to use SAS URL or Emulator)
--azureblob-list-chunk int                                 Size of blob list. (default 5000)
--azureblob-memory-pool-flush-time Duration                How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. (default 1m0s)
--azureblob-memory-pool-use-mmap                           Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
--azureblob-msi-client-id string                           Object ID of the user-assigned MSI to use, if any. Leave blank if msi_object_id or msi_mi_res_id specified.
--azureblob-msi-mi-res-id string                           Azure resource ID of the user-assigned MSI to use, if any. Leave blank if msi_client_id or msi_object_id specified.
--azureblob-msi-object-id string                           Object ID of the user-assigned MSI to use, if any. Leave blank if msi_client_id or msi_mi_res_id specified.
--azureblob-sas-url string                                 SAS URL for container level access only
--azureblob-service-principal-file string                  Path to file containing credentials for use with a service principal.
--azureblob-use-emulator                                   Uses local storage emulator if provided as 'true' (leave blank if using real azure storage endpoint)
--azureblob-use-msi                                        Use a managed service identity to authenticate (only works in Azure)
--b2-account string                                        Account ID or Application Key ID
--b2-chunk-size SizeSuffix                                 Upload chunk size. Must fit in memory. (default 96M)
--b2-copy-cutoff SizeSuffix                                Cutoff for switching to multipart copy (default 4G)
--b2-disable-checksum                                      Disable checksums for large (> upload cutoff) files
--b2-download-auth-duration Duration                       Time before the authorization token will expire in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d. (default 1w)
--b2-encoding MultiEncoder                                 This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--b2-endpoint string                                       Endpoint for the service.
--b2-hard-delete                                           Permanently delete files on remote removal, otherwise hide files.
--b2-key string                                            Application Key
--b2-memory-pool-flush-time Duration                       How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. (default 1m0s)
--b2-memory-pool-use-mmap                                  Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
--b2-test-mode string                                      A flag string for X-Bz-Test-Mode header for debugging.
--b2-versions                                              Include old versions in directory listings.
--box-auth-url string                                      Auth server URL.
--box-box-config-file string                               Box App config.json location
--box-box-sub-type string                                   (default "user")
--box-client-id string                                     OAuth Client Id
--box-client-secret string                                 OAuth Client Secret
--box-commit-retries int                                   Max number of times to try committing a multipart file. (default 100)
--box-encoding MultiEncoder                                This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--box-root-folder-id string                                Fill in for rclone to use a non root folder as its starting point.
--box-token-url string                                     Token server url.
--box-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                             Cutoff for switching to multipart upload (>= 50MB). (default 50M)
--cache-chunk-clean-interval Duration                      How often should the cache perform cleanups of the chunk storage. (default 1m0s)
--cache-chunk-no-memory                                    Disable the in-memory cache for storing chunks during streaming.
--cache-chunk-path string                                  Directory to cache chunk files. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend") --cache-chunk-size SizeSuffix The size of a chunk (partial file data). (default 5M) --cache-chunk-total-size SizeSuffix The total size that the chunks can take up on the local disk. (default 10G) --cache-db-path string Directory to store file structure metadata DB. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend")
--cache-db-purge                                           Clear all the cached data for this remote on start.
--cache-db-wait-time Duration                              How long to wait for the DB to be available - 0 is unlimited (default 1s)
--cache-info-age Duration                                  How long to cache file structure information (directory listings, file size, times, etc.). (default 6h0m0s)
--cache-plex-insecure string                               Skip all certificate verification when connecting to the Plex server
--cache-plex-url string                                    The URL of the Plex server
--cache-read-retries int                                   How many times to retry a read from a cache storage. (default 10)
--cache-remote string                                      Remote to cache.
--cache-rps int                                            Limits the number of requests per second to the source FS (-1 to disable) (default -1)
--cache-tmp-wait-time Duration                             How long should files be stored in local cache before being uploaded (default 15s)
--cache-workers int                                        How many workers should run in parallel to download chunks. (default 4)
--cache-writes                                             Cache file data on writes through the FS
--chunker-chunk-size SizeSuffix                            Files larger than chunk size will be split in chunks. (default 2G)
--chunker-fail-hard                                        Choose how chunker should handle files with missing or invalid chunks.
--chunker-hash-type string                                 Choose how chunker handles hash sums. All modes but "none" require metadata. (default "md5")
--chunker-remote string                                    Remote to chunk/unchunk.
--compress-level int                                       GZIP compression level (-2 to 9). (default -1)
--compress-mode string                                     Compression mode. (default "gzip")
--compress-ram-cache-limit SizeSuffix                      Some remotes don't allow the upload of files with unknown size. (default 20M)
--compress-remote string                                   Remote to compress.
--crypt-directory-name-encryption                          Option to either encrypt directory names or leave them intact. (default true)
--crypt-filename-encryption string                         How to encrypt the filenames. (default "standard")
--crypt-password2 string                                   Password or pass phrase for salt. Optional but recommended. (obscured)
--crypt-remote string                                      Remote to encrypt/decrypt.
--crypt-server-side-across-configs                         Allow server-side operations (e.g. copy) to work across different crypt configs.
--crypt-show-mapping                                       For all files listed show how the names encrypt.
--drive-auth-owner-only                                    Only consider files owned by the authenticated user.
--drive-auth-url string                                    Auth server URL.
--drive-chunk-size SizeSuffix                              Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k. (default 8M)
--drive-client-id string                                   Google Application Client Id
--drive-client-secret string                               OAuth Client Secret
--drive-disable-http2                                      Disable drive using http2 (default true)
--drive-encoding MultiEncoder                              This sets the encoding for the backend. (default InvalidUtf8)
--drive-formats string                                     Deprecated: see export_formats
--drive-impersonate string                                 Impersonate this user when using a service account.
--drive-keep-revision-forever                              Keep new head revision of each file forever.
--drive-list-chunk int                                     Size of listing chunk 100-1000. 0 to disable. (default 1000)
--drive-pacer-burst int                                    Number of API calls to allow without sleeping. (default 100)
--drive-pacer-min-sleep Duration                           Minimum time to sleep between API calls. (default 100ms)
--drive-root-folder-id string                              ID of the root folder
--drive-scope string                                       Scope that rclone should use when requesting access from drive.
--drive-server-side-across-configs                         Allow server-side operations (e.g. copy) to work across different drive configs.
--drive-service-account-credentials string                 Service Account Credentials JSON blob
--drive-service-account-file string                        Service Account Credentials JSON file path
--drive-shared-with-me                                     Only show files that are shared with me.
--drive-size-as-quota                                      Show sizes as storage quota usage, not actual size.
--drive-skip-checksum-gphotos                              Skip MD5 checksum on Google photos and videos only.
--drive-skip-gdocs                                         Skip google documents in all listings.
--drive-skip-shortcuts                                     If set skip shortcut files
--drive-starred-only                                       Only show files that are starred.
--drive-team-drive string                                  ID of the Shared Drive (Team Drive)
--drive-token-url string                                   Token server url.
--drive-trashed-only                                       Only show files that are in the trash.
--drive-use-created-date                                   Use file created date instead of modified date.,
--drive-use-shared-date                                    Use date file was shared instead of modified date.
--drive-use-trash                                          Send files to the trash instead of deleting permanently. (default true)
--dropbox-auth-url string                                  Auth server URL.
--dropbox-chunk-size SizeSuffix                            Upload chunk size. (< 150M). (default 48M)
--dropbox-client-id string                                 OAuth Client Id
--dropbox-client-secret string                             OAuth Client Secret
--dropbox-encoding MultiEncoder                            This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--dropbox-impersonate string                               Impersonate this user when using a business account.
--dropbox-shared-files                                     Instructs rclone to work on individual shared files.
--dropbox-shared-folders                                   Instructs rclone to work on shared folders.
--dropbox-token-url string                                 Token server url.
--fichier-api-key string                                   Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl
--fichier-encoding MultiEncoder                            This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,SingleQuote,BackQuote,Dollar,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,LeftSpace,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--filefabric-encoding MultiEncoder                         This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--filefabric-permanent-token string                        Permanent Authentication Token
--filefabric-root-folder-id string                         ID of the root folder
--filefabric-token string                                  Session Token
--filefabric-token-expiry string                           Token expiry time
--filefabric-url string                                    URL of the Enterprise File Fabric to connect to
--filefabric-version string                                Version read from the file fabric
--ftp-concurrency int                                      Maximum number of FTP simultaneous connections, 0 for unlimited
--ftp-disable-epsv                                         Disable using EPSV even if server advertises support
--ftp-disable-mlsd                                         Disable using MLSD even if server advertises support
--ftp-encoding MultiEncoder                                This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,Dot)
--ftp-explicit-tls                                         Use Explicit FTPS (FTP over TLS)
--ftp-host string                                          FTP host to connect to
--ftp-no-check-certificate                                 Do not verify the TLS certificate of the server
--ftp-port string                                          FTP port, leave blank to use default (21)
--ftp-tls                                                  Use Implicit FTPS (FTP over TLS)
--ftp-user string                                          FTP username, leave blank for current username, $USER --gcs-anonymous Access public buckets and objects without credentials --gcs-auth-url string Auth server URL. --gcs-bucket-acl string Access Control List for new buckets. --gcs-bucket-policy-only Access checks should use bucket-level IAM policies. --gcs-client-id string OAuth Client Id --gcs-client-secret string OAuth Client Secret --gcs-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,CrLf,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --gcs-location string Location for the newly created buckets. --gcs-object-acl string Access Control List for new objects. --gcs-project-number string Project number. --gcs-service-account-file string Service Account Credentials JSON file path --gcs-storage-class string The storage class to use when storing objects in Google Cloud Storage. --gcs-token string OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob. --gcs-token-url string Token server url. --gphotos-auth-url string Auth server URL. --gphotos-client-id string OAuth Client Id --gphotos-client-secret string OAuth Client Secret --gphotos-include-archived Also view and download archived media. --gphotos-read-only Set to make the Google Photos backend read only. --gphotos-read-size Set to read the size of media items. --gphotos-start-year int Year limits the photos to be downloaded to those which are uploaded after the given year (default 2000) --gphotos-token string OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob. --gphotos-token-url string Token server url. --hdfs-data-transfer-protection string Kerberos data transfer protection: authentication|integrity|privacy --hdfs-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Colon,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --hdfs-namenode string hadoop name node and port --hdfs-service-principal-name string Kerberos service principal name for the namenode --hdfs-username string hadoop user name --http-headers CommaSepList Set HTTP headers for all transactions --http-no-head Don't use HEAD requests to find file sizes in dir listing --http-no-slash Set this if the site doesn't end directories with / --http-url string URL of http host to connect to --hubic-auth-url string Auth server URL. --hubic-chunk-size SizeSuffix Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. (default 5G) --hubic-client-id string OAuth Client Id --hubic-client-secret string OAuth Client Secret --hubic-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8) --hubic-no-chunk Don't chunk files during streaming upload. --hubic-token string OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob. --hubic-token-url string Token server url. --jottacloud-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --jottacloud-hard-delete Delete files permanently rather than putting them into the trash. --jottacloud-md5-memory-limit SizeSuffix Files bigger than this will be cached on disk to calculate the MD5 if required. (default 10M) --jottacloud-trashed-only Only show files that are in the trash. --jottacloud-upload-resume-limit SizeSuffix Files bigger than this can be resumed if the upload fail's. (default 10M) --koofr-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --koofr-endpoint string The Koofr API endpoint to use (default "https://app.koofr.net") --koofr-mountid string Mount ID of the mount to use. If omitted, the primary mount is used. --koofr-password string Your Koofr password for rclone (generate one at https://app.koofr.net/app/admin/preferences/password) (obscured) --koofr-setmtime Does the backend support setting modification time. Set this to false if you use a mount ID that points to a Dropbox or Amazon Drive backend. (default true) --koofr-user string Your Koofr user name -l, --links Translate symlinks to/from regular files with a '.rclonelink' extension --local-case-insensitive Force the filesystem to report itself as case insensitive --local-case-sensitive Force the filesystem to report itself as case sensitive. --local-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Dot) --local-no-check-updated Don't check to see if the files change during upload --local-no-set-modtime Disable setting modtime --local-no-sparse Disable sparse files for multi-thread downloads --local-no-unicode-normalization Don't apply unicode normalization to paths and filenames (Deprecated) --local-nounc string Disable UNC (long path names) conversion on Windows --local-zero-size-links Assume the Stat size of links is zero (and read them instead) --mailru-check-hash What should copy do if file checksum is mismatched or invalid (default true) --mailru-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --mailru-pass string Password (obscured) --mailru-speedup-enable Skip full upload if there is another file with same data hash. (default true) --mailru-speedup-file-patterns string Comma separated list of file name patterns eligible for speedup (put by hash). (default "*.mkv,*.avi,*.mp4,*.mp3,*.zip,*.gz,*.rar,*.pdf") --mailru-speedup-max-disk SizeSuffix This option allows you to disable speedup (put by hash) for large files (default 3G) --mailru-speedup-max-memory SizeSuffix Files larger than the size given below will always be hashed on disk. (default 32M) --mailru-user string User name (usually email) --mega-debug Output more debug from Mega. --mega-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --mega-hard-delete Delete files permanently rather than putting them into the trash. --mega-pass string Password. (obscured) --mega-user string User name -x, --one-file-system Don't cross filesystem boundaries (unix/macOS only). --onedrive-auth-url string Auth server URL. --onedrive-chunk-size SizeSuffix Chunk size to upload files with - must be multiple of 320k (327,680 bytes). (default 10M) --onedrive-client-id string OAuth Client Id --onedrive-client-secret string OAuth Client Secret --onedrive-drive-id string The ID of the drive to use --onedrive-drive-type string The type of the drive ( personal | business | documentLibrary ) --onedrive-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,LeftSpace,LeftTilde,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --onedrive-expose-onenote-files Set to make OneNote files show up in directory listings. --onedrive-link-password string Set the password for links created by the link command. --onedrive-link-scope string Set the scope of the links created by the link command. (default "anonymous") --onedrive-link-type string Set the type of the links created by the link command. (default "view") --onedrive-no-versions Remove all versions on modifying operations --onedrive-region string Choose national cloud region for OneDrive. (default "global") --onedrive-server-side-across-configs Allow server-side operations (e.g. copy) to work across different onedrive configs. --onedrive-token string OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob. --onedrive-token-url string Token server url. --opendrive-chunk-size SizeSuffix Files will be uploaded in chunks this size. (default 10M) --opendrive-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,LeftSpace,LeftCrLfHtVt,RightSpace,RightCrLfHtVt,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --opendrive-password string Password. (obscured) --opendrive-username string Username --pcloud-auth-url string Auth server URL. --pcloud-client-id string OAuth Client Id --pcloud-client-secret string OAuth Client Secret --pcloud-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --pcloud-hostname string Hostname to connect to. (default "api.pcloud.com") --pcloud-root-folder-id string Fill in for rclone to use a non root folder as its starting point. (default "d0") --pcloud-token string OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob. --pcloud-token-url string Token server url. --premiumizeme-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,DoubleQuote,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --putio-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --qingstor-access-key-id string QingStor Access Key ID --qingstor-chunk-size SizeSuffix Chunk size to use for uploading. (default 4M) --qingstor-connection-retries int Number of connection retries. (default 3) --qingstor-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Ctl,InvalidUtf8) --qingstor-endpoint string Enter an endpoint URL to connection QingStor API. --qingstor-env-auth Get QingStor credentials from runtime. Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank. --qingstor-secret-access-key string QingStor Secret Access Key (password) --qingstor-upload-concurrency int Concurrency for multipart uploads. (default 1) --qingstor-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (default 200M) --qingstor-zone string Zone to connect to. --s3-access-key-id string AWS Access Key ID. --s3-acl string Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects. --s3-bucket-acl string Canned ACL used when creating buckets. --s3-chunk-size SizeSuffix Chunk size to use for uploading. (default 5M) --s3-copy-cutoff SizeSuffix Cutoff for switching to multipart copy (default 4.656G) --s3-disable-checksum Don't store MD5 checksum with object metadata --s3-disable-http2 Disable usage of http2 for S3 backends --s3-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot) --s3-endpoint string Endpoint for S3 API. --s3-env-auth Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). --s3-force-path-style If true use path style access if false use virtual hosted style. (default true) --s3-leave-parts-on-error If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure, leaving all successfully uploaded parts on S3 for manual recovery. --s3-list-chunk int Size of listing chunk (response list for each ListObject S3 request). (default 1000) --s3-location-constraint string Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. --s3-max-upload-parts int Maximum number of parts in a multipart upload. (default 10000) --s3-memory-pool-flush-time Duration How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. (default 1m0s) --s3-memory-pool-use-mmap Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool. --s3-no-check-bucket If set, don't attempt to check the bucket exists or create it --s3-no-head If set, don't HEAD uploaded objects to check integrity --s3-profile string Profile to use in the shared credentials file --s3-provider string Choose your S3 provider. --s3-region string Region to connect to. --s3-requester-pays Enables requester pays option when interacting with S3 bucket. --s3-secret-access-key string AWS Secret Access Key (password) --s3-server-side-encryption string The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3. --s3-session-token string An AWS session token --s3-shared-credentials-file string Path to the shared credentials file --s3-sse-customer-algorithm string If using SSE-C, the server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3. --s3-sse-customer-key string If using SSE-C you must provide the secret encryption key used to encrypt/decrypt your data. --s3-sse-customer-key-md5 string If using SSE-C you may provide the secret encryption key MD5 checksum (optional). --s3-sse-kms-key-id string If using KMS ID you must provide the ARN of Key. --s3-storage-class string The storage class to use when storing new objects in S3. --s3-upload-concurrency int Concurrency for multipart uploads. (default 4) --s3-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (default 200M) --s3-use-accelerate-endpoint If true use the AWS S3 accelerated endpoint. --s3-v2-auth If true use v2 authentication. --seafile-2fa Two-factor authentication ('true' if the account has 2FA enabled) --seafile-create-library Should rclone create a library if it doesn't exist --seafile-encoding MultiEncoder This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,DoubleQuote,BackSlash,Ctl,InvalidUtf8) --seafile-library string Name of the library. Leave blank to access all non-encrypted libraries. --seafile-library-key string Library password (for encrypted libraries only). Leave blank if you pass it through the command line. (obscured) --seafile-pass string Password (obscured) --seafile-url string URL of seafile host to connect to --seafile-user string User name (usually email address) --sftp-ask-password Allow asking for SFTP password when needed. --sftp-disable-hashcheck Disable the execution of SSH commands to determine if remote file hashing is available. --sftp-host string SSH host to connect to --sftp-key-file string Path to PEM-encoded private key file, leave blank or set key-use-agent to use ssh-agent. --sftp-key-file-pass string The passphrase to decrypt the PEM-encoded private key file. (obscured) --sftp-key-pem string Raw PEM-encoded private key, If specified, will override key_file parameter. --sftp-key-use-agent When set forces the usage of the ssh-agent. --sftp-known-hosts-file string Optional path to known_hosts file. --sftp-md5sum-command string The command used to read md5 hashes. Leave blank for autodetect. --sftp-pass string SSH password, leave blank to use ssh-agent. (obscured) --sftp-path-override string Override path used by SSH connection. --sftp-port string SSH port, leave blank to use default (22) --sftp-pubkey-file string Optional path to public key file. --sftp-server-command string Specifies the path or command to run a sftp server on the remote host. --sftp-set-modtime Set the modified time on the remote if set. (default true) --sftp-sha1sum-command string The command used to read sha1 hashes. Leave blank for autodetect. --sftp-skip-links Set to skip any symlinks and any other non regular files. --sftp-subsystem string Specifies the SSH2 subsystem on the remote host. (default "sftp") --sftp-use-fstat If set use fstat instead of stat --sftp-use-insecure-cipher Enable the use of insecure ciphers and key exchange methods. --sftp-user string SSH username, leave blank for current username,$USER
--sharefile-chunk-size SizeSuffix                          Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k. (default 64M)
--sharefile-encoding MultiEncoder                          This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,LeftSpace,LeftPeriod,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--sharefile-endpoint string                                Endpoint for API calls.
--sharefile-root-folder-id string                          ID of the root folder
--sugarsync-access-key-id string                           Sugarsync Access Key ID.
--sugarsync-app-id string                                  Sugarsync App ID.
--sugarsync-authorization string                           Sugarsync authorization
--sugarsync-authorization-expiry string                    Sugarsync authorization expiry
--sugarsync-deleted-id string                              Sugarsync deleted folder id
--sugarsync-encoding MultiEncoder                          This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--sugarsync-hard-delete                                    Permanently delete files if true
--sugarsync-private-access-key string                      Sugarsync Private Access Key
--sugarsync-refresh-token string                           Sugarsync refresh token
--sugarsync-root-id string                                 Sugarsync root id
--sugarsync-user string                                    Sugarsync user
--swift-application-credential-id string                   Application Credential ID (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_ID)
--swift-application-credential-name string                 Application Credential Name (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_NAME)
--swift-application-credential-secret string               Application Credential Secret (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_SECRET)
--swift-auth string                                        Authentication URL for server (OS_AUTH_URL).
--swift-auth-token string                                  Auth Token from alternate authentication - optional (OS_AUTH_TOKEN)
--swift-auth-version int                                   AuthVersion - optional - set to (1,2,3) if your auth URL has no version (ST_AUTH_VERSION)
--swift-chunk-size SizeSuffix                              Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. (default 5G)
--swift-domain string                                      User domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME)
--swift-encoding MultiEncoder                              This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,InvalidUtf8)
--swift-endpoint-type string                               Endpoint type to choose from the service catalogue (OS_ENDPOINT_TYPE) (default "public")
--swift-env-auth                                           Get swift credentials from environment variables in standard OpenStack form.
--swift-leave-parts-on-error                               If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure. It should be set to true for resuming uploads across different sessions.
--swift-no-chunk                                           Don't chunk files during streaming upload.
--swift-region string                                      Region name - optional (OS_REGION_NAME)
--swift-storage-policy string                              The storage policy to use when creating a new container
--swift-storage-url string                                 Storage URL - optional (OS_STORAGE_URL)
--swift-tenant string                                      Tenant name - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant_id required otherwise (OS_TENANT_NAME or OS_PROJECT_NAME)
--swift-tenant-domain string                               Tenant domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME)
--swift-tenant-id string                                   Tenant ID - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant required otherwise (OS_TENANT_ID)
--swift-user-id string                                     User ID to log in - optional - most swift systems use user and leave this blank (v3 auth) (OS_USER_ID).
--tardigrade-provider string                               Choose an authentication method. (default "existing")
--union-action-policy string                               Policy to choose upstream on ACTION category. (default "epall")
--union-cache-time int                                     Cache time of usage and free space (in seconds). This option is only useful when a path preserving policy is used. (default 120)
--union-create-policy string                               Policy to choose upstream on CREATE category. (default "epmfs")
--union-search-policy string                               Policy to choose upstream on SEARCH category. (default "ff")
--union-upstreams string                                   List of space separated upstreams.
--webdav-bearer-token string                               Bearer token instead of user/pass (e.g. a Macaroon)
--webdav-bearer-token-command string                       Command to run to get a bearer token
--webdav-url string                                        URL of http host to connect to
--webdav-user string                                       User name
--webdav-vendor string                                     Name of the Webdav site/service/software you are using
--yandex-auth-url string                                   Auth server URL.
--yandex-client-id string                                  OAuth Client Id
--yandex-client-secret string                              OAuth Client Secret
--yandex-encoding MultiEncoder                             This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Slash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot)
--yandex-token-url string                                  Token server url.
--zoho-auth-url string                                     Auth server URL.
--zoho-client-id string                                    OAuth Client Id
--zoho-client-secret string                                OAuth Client Secret
--zoho-encoding MultiEncoder                               This sets the encoding for the backend. (default Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8)
--zoho-region string                                       Zoho region to connect to. You'll have to use the region you organization is registered in.
--zoho-token-url string                                    Token server url.



## 1Fichier

This is a backend for the 1fichier (https://1fichier.com) cloud storage service. Note that a Premium subscription is required to use the API.

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, e.g. remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for 1Fichier involves getting the API key from the website which you need to do in your browser.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config



This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / 1Fichier
\ "fichier"
[snip]
Storage> fichier
** See help for fichier backend at: https://rclone.org/fichier/ **
Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
api_key> example_key
y) Yes
n) No
y/n>
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = fichier
api_key = example_key
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your 1Fichier account

rclone lsd remote:



List all the files in your 1Fichier account

rclone ls remote:



To copy a local directory to a 1Fichier directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup



## Modified time and hashes

1Fichier does not support modification times. It supports the Whirlpool hash algorithm.

## Duplicated files

1Fichier can have two files with exactly the same name and path (unlike a normal file system).

Duplicated files cause problems with the syncing and you will see messages in the log about duplicates.

## Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:
 Character Value Replacement \ 0x5C ＼ < 0x3C ＜ > 0x3E ＞ " 0x22 ＂ $0x24 ＄  0x60 ｀ ' 0x27 ＇ File names can also not start or end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are the first or last character in the name:  Character Value Replacement SP 0x20 ␠ Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings. ## Standard Options Here are the standard options specific to fichier (1Fichier). ## --fichier-api-key Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl Config: api_key Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_API_KEY Type: string Default: "" ## Advanced Options Here are the advanced options specific to fichier (1Fichier). ## --fichier-shared-folder If you want to download a shared folder, add this parameter Config: shared_folder Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_SHARED_FOLDER Type: string Default: "" ## --fichier-encoding This sets the encoding for the backend. See: the encoding section in the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#encoding) for more info. Config: encoding Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_ENCODING Type: MultiEncoder Default: Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,SingleQuote,BackQuote,Dollar,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,LeftSpace,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot ## Limitations rclone about is not supported by the 1Fichier backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote. See List of backends that do not support rclone about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) See rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/) ## Alias The alias remote provides a new name for another remote. Paths may be as deep as required or a local path, e.g. remote:directory/subdirectory or /directory/subdirectory. During the initial setup with rclone config you will specify the target remote. The target remote can either be a local path or another remote. Subfolders can be used in target remote. Assume an alias remote named backup with the target mydrive:private/backup. Invoking rclone mkdir backup:desktop is exactly the same as invoking rclone mkdir mydrive:private/backup/desktop. There will be no special handling of paths containing .. segments. Invoking rclone mkdir backup:../desktop is exactly the same as invoking rclone mkdir mydrive:private/backup/../desktop. The empty path is not allowed as a remote. To alias the current directory use . instead. Here is an example of how to make an alias called remote for local folder. First run: rclone config  This will guide you through an interactive setup process: No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config n/s/q> n name> remote Type of storage to configure. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value [snip] XX / Alias for an existing remote \ "alias" [snip] Storage> alias Remote or path to alias. Can be "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket", "myremote:" or "/local/path". remote> /mnt/storage/backup Remote config -------------------- [remote] remote = /mnt/storage/backup -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y Current remotes: Name Type ==== ==== remote alias e) Edit existing remote n) New remote d) Delete remote r) Rename remote c) Copy remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config e/n/d/r/c/s/q> q  Once configured you can then use rclone like this, List directories in top level in /mnt/storage/backup rclone lsd remote:  List all the files in /mnt/storage/backup rclone ls remote:  Copy another local directory to the alias directory called source rclone copy /home/source remote:source  ## Standard Options Here are the standard options specific to alias (Alias for an existing remote). ## --alias-remote Remote or path to alias. Can be "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket", "myremote:" or "/local/path". Config: remote Env Var: RCLONE_ALIAS_REMOTE Type: string Default: "" ## Amazon Drive Amazon Drive, formerly known as Amazon Cloud Drive, is a cloud storage service run by Amazon for consumers. ## Status Important: rclone supports Amazon Drive only if you have your own set of API keys. Unfortunately the Amazon Drive developer program (https://developer.amazon.com/amazon-drive) is now closed to new entries so if you don't already have your own set of keys you will not be able to use rclone with Amazon Drive. For the history on why rclone no longer has a set of Amazon Drive API keys see the forum (https://forum.rclone.org/t/rclone-has-been-banned-from-amazon-drive/2314). If you happen to know anyone who works at Amazon then please ask them to re-instate rclone into the Amazon Drive developer program - thanks! ## Setup The initial setup for Amazon Drive involves getting a token from Amazon which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it. The configuration process for Amazon Drive may involve using an oauth proxy (https://github.com/ncw/oauthproxy). This is used to keep the Amazon credentials out of the source code. The proxy runs in Google's very secure App Engine environment and doesn't store any credentials which pass through it. Since rclone doesn't currently have its own Amazon Drive credentials so you will either need to have your own client_id and client_secret with Amazon Drive, or use a third party oauth proxy in which case you will need to enter client_id, client_secret, auth_url and token_url. Note also if you are not using Amazon's auth_url and token_url, (ie you filled in something for those) then if setting up on a remote machine you can only use the copying the config method of configuration (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/#configuring-by-copying-the-config-file) - rclone authorize will not work. Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run: rclone config  This will guide you through an interactive setup process: No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote r) Rename remote c) Copy remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config n/r/c/s/q> n name> remote Type of storage to configure. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value [snip] XX / Amazon Drive \ "amazon cloud drive" [snip] Storage> amazon cloud drive Amazon Application Client Id - required. client_id> your client ID goes here Amazon Application Client Secret - required. client_secret> your client secret goes here Auth server URL - leave blank to use Amazon's. auth_url> Optional auth URL Token server url - leave blank to use Amazon's. token_url> Optional token URL Remote config Make sure your Redirect URL is set to "http://127.0.0.1:53682/" in your custom config. Use auto config? * Say Y if not sure * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine y) Yes n) No y/n> y If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth Log in and authorize rclone for access Waiting for code... Got code -------------------- [remote] client_id = your client ID goes here client_secret = your client secret goes here auth_url = Optional auth URL token_url = Optional token URL token = {"access_token":"xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","expiry":"2015-09-06T16:07:39.658438471+01:00"} -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y  See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available. Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Amazon. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall. Once configured you can then use rclone like this, List directories in top level of your Amazon Drive rclone lsd remote:  List all the files in your Amazon Drive rclone ls remote:  To copy a local directory to an Amazon Drive directory called backup rclone copy /home/source remote:backup  ## Modified time and MD5SUMs Amazon Drive doesn't allow modification times to be changed via the API so these won't be accurate or used for syncing. It does store MD5SUMs so for a more accurate sync, you can use the --checksum flag. ## Restricted filename characters  Character Value Replacement NUL 0x00 ␀ / 0x2F ／ Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings. ## Deleting files Any files you delete with rclone will end up in the trash. Amazon don't provide an API to permanently delete files, nor to empty the trash, so you will have to do that with one of Amazon's apps or via the Amazon Drive website. As of November 17, 2016, files are automatically deleted by Amazon from the trash after 30 days. ## Using with non .com Amazon accounts Let's say you usually use amazon.co.uk. When you authenticate with rclone it will take you to an amazon.com page to log in. Your amazon.co.uk email and password should work here just fine. ## Standard Options Here are the standard options specific to amazon cloud drive (Amazon Drive). ## --acd-client-id OAuth Client Id Leave blank normally. Config: client_id Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CLIENT_ID Type: string Default: "" ## --acd-client-secret OAuth Client Secret Leave blank normally. Config: client_secret Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CLIENT_SECRET Type: string Default: "" ## Advanced Options Here are the advanced options specific to amazon cloud drive (Amazon Drive). ## --acd-token OAuth Access Token as a JSON blob. Config: token Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_TOKEN Type: string Default: "" ## --acd-auth-url Auth server URL. Leave blank to use the provider defaults. Config: auth_url Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_AUTH_URL Type: string Default: "" ## --acd-token-url Token server url. Leave blank to use the provider defaults. Config: token_url Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_TOKEN_URL Type: string Default: "" ## --acd-checkpoint Checkpoint for internal polling (debug). Config: checkpoint Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CHECKPOINT Type: string Default: "" ## --acd-upload-wait-per-gb Additional time per GB to wait after a failed complete upload to see if it appears. Sometimes Amazon Drive gives an error when a file has been fully uploaded but the file appears anyway after a little while. This happens sometimes for files over 1GB in size and nearly every time for files bigger than 10GB. This parameter controls the time rclone waits for the file to appear. The default value for this parameter is 3 minutes per GB, so by default it will wait 3 minutes for every GB uploaded to see if the file appears. You can disable this feature by setting it to 0. This may cause conflict errors as rclone retries the failed upload but the file will most likely appear correctly eventually. These values were determined empirically by observing lots of uploads of big files for a range of file sizes. Upload with the "-v" flag to see more info about what rclone is doing in this situation. Config: upload_wait_per_gb Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_UPLOAD_WAIT_PER_GB Type: Duration Default: 3m0s Files >= this size will be downloaded via their tempLink. Files this size or more will be downloaded via their "tempLink". This is to work around a problem with Amazon Drive which blocks downloads of files bigger than about 10GB. The default for this is 9GB which shouldn't need to be changed. To download files above this threshold, rclone requests a "tempLink" which downloads the file through a temporary URL directly from the underlying S3 storage. Config: templink_threshold Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_TEMPLINK_THRESHOLD Type: SizeSuffix Default: 9G ## --acd-encoding This sets the encoding for the backend. See: the encoding section in the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#encoding) for more info. Config: encoding Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_ENCODING Type: MultiEncoder Default: Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot ## Limitations Note that Amazon Drive is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc". Amazon Drive has rate limiting so you may notice errors in the sync (429 errors). rclone will automatically retry the sync up to 3 times by default (see --retries flag) which should hopefully work around this problem. Amazon Drive has an internal limit of file sizes that can be uploaded to the service. This limit is not officially published, but all files larger than this will fail. At the time of writing (Jan 2016) is in the area of 50GB per file. This means that larger files are likely to fail. Unfortunately there is no way for rclone to see that this failure is because of file size, so it will retry the operation, as any other failure. To avoid this problem, use --max-size 50000M option to limit the maximum size of uploaded files. Note that --max-size does not split files into segments, it only ignores files over this size. rclone about is not supported by the Amazon Drive backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote. See List of backends that do not support rclone about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) See rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/) ## Amazon S3 Storage Providers The S3 backend can be used with a number of different providers: AWS S3 Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) Object Storage System (OSS) Ceph DigitalOcean Spaces Dreamhost IBM COS S3 Minio Scaleway StackPath Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS) Wasabi Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, e.g. remote:bucket/path/to/dir. Once you have made a remote (see the provider specific section above) you can use it like this: See all buckets rclone lsd remote:  Make a new bucket rclone mkdir remote:bucket  List the contents of a bucket rclone ls remote:bucket  Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket. rclone sync -i /home/local/directory remote:bucket  ## AWS S3 Here is an example of making an s3 configuration. First run rclone config  This will guide you through an interactive setup process. No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config n/s/q> n name> remote Type of storage to configure. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value [snip] XX / Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Ceph, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, and Tencent COS \ "s3" [snip] Storage> s3 Choose your S3 provider. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3 \ "AWS" 2 / Ceph Object Storage \ "Ceph" 3 / Digital Ocean Spaces \ "DigitalOcean" 4 / Dreamhost DreamObjects \ "Dreamhost" 5 / IBM COS S3 \ "IBMCOS" 6 / Minio Object Storage \ "Minio" 7 / Wasabi Object Storage \ "Wasabi" 8 / Any other S3 compatible provider \ "Other" provider> 1 Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step \ "false" 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM) \ "true" env_auth> 1 AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. access_key_id> XXX AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. secret_access_key> YYY Region to connect to. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value / The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure. 1 | US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest. | Leave location constraint empty. \ "us-east-1" / US East (Ohio) Region 2 | Needs location constraint us-east-2. \ "us-east-2" / US West (Oregon) Region 3 | Needs location constraint us-west-2. \ "us-west-2" / US West (Northern California) Region 4 | Needs location constraint us-west-1. \ "us-west-1" / Canada (Central) Region 5 | Needs location constraint ca-central-1. \ "ca-central-1" / EU (Ireland) Region 6 | Needs location constraint EU or eu-west-1. \ "eu-west-1" / EU (London) Region 7 | Needs location constraint eu-west-2. \ "eu-west-2" / EU (Frankfurt) Region 8 | Needs location constraint eu-central-1. \ "eu-central-1" / Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region 9 | Needs location constraint ap-southeast-1. \ "ap-southeast-1" / Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region 10 | Needs location constraint ap-southeast-2. \ "ap-southeast-2" / Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region 11 | Needs location constraint ap-northeast-1. \ "ap-northeast-1" / Asia Pacific (Seoul) 12 | Needs location constraint ap-northeast-2. \ "ap-northeast-2" / Asia Pacific (Mumbai) 13 | Needs location constraint ap-south-1. \ "ap-south-1" / Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region 14 | Needs location constraint ap-east-1. \ "ap-east-1" / South America (Sao Paulo) Region 15 | Needs location constraint sa-east-1. \ "sa-east-1" region> 1 Endpoint for S3 API. Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region. endpoint> Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest. \ "" 2 / US East (Ohio) Region. \ "us-east-2" 3 / US West (Oregon) Region. \ "us-west-2" 4 / US West (Northern California) Region. \ "us-west-1" 5 / Canada (Central) Region. \ "ca-central-1" 6 / EU (Ireland) Region. \ "eu-west-1" 7 / EU (London) Region. \ "eu-west-2" 8 / EU Region. \ "EU" 9 / Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region. \ "ap-southeast-1" 10 / Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region. \ "ap-southeast-2" 11 / Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region. \ "ap-northeast-1" 12 / Asia Pacific (Seoul) \ "ap-northeast-2" 13 / Asia Pacific (Mumbai) \ "ap-south-1" 14 / Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) \ "ap-east-1" 15 / South America (Sao Paulo) Region. \ "sa-east-1" location_constraint> 1 Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3. For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). \ "private" 2 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. \ "public-read" / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. 3 | Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended. \ "public-read-write" 4 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. \ "authenticated-read" / Object owner gets FULL_CONTROL. Bucket owner gets READ access. 5 | If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it. \ "bucket-owner-read" / Both the object owner and the bucket owner get FULL_CONTROL over the object. 6 | If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it. \ "bucket-owner-full-control" acl> 1 The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / None \ "" 2 / AES256 \ "AES256" server_side_encryption> 1 The storage class to use when storing objects in S3. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Default \ "" 2 / Standard storage class \ "STANDARD" 3 / Reduced redundancy storage class \ "REDUCED_REDUNDANCY" 4 / Standard Infrequent Access storage class \ "STANDARD_IA" 5 / One Zone Infrequent Access storage class \ "ONEZONE_IA" 6 / Glacier storage class \ "GLACIER" 7 / Glacier Deep Archive storage class \ "DEEP_ARCHIVE" 8 / Intelligent-Tiering storage class \ "INTELLIGENT_TIERING" storage_class> 1 Remote config -------------------- [remote] type = s3 provider = AWS env_auth = false access_key_id = XXX secret_access_key = YYY region = us-east-1 endpoint = location_constraint = acl = private server_side_encryption = storage_class = -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d>  ## Modified time The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as X-Amz-Meta-Mtime as floating point since the epoch accurate to 1 ns. If the modification time needs to be updated rclone will attempt to perform a server side copy to update the modification if the object can be copied in a single part. In the case the object is larger than 5Gb or is in Glacier or Glacier Deep Archive storage the object will be uploaded rather than copied. Note that reading this from the object takes an additional HEAD request as the metadata isn't returned in object listings. ## Reducing costs ## Avoiding HEAD requests to read the modification time By default rclone will use the modification time of objects stored in S3 for syncing. This is stored in object metadata which unfortunately takes an extra HEAD request to read which can be expensive (in time and money). The modification time is used by default for all operations that require checking the time a file was last updated. It allows rclone to treat the remote more like a true filesystem, but it is inefficient on S3 because it requires an extra API call to retrieve the metadata. The extra API calls can be avoided when syncing (using rclone sync or rclone copy) in a few different ways, each with its own tradeoffs. --size-only Only checks the size of files. Uses no extra transactions. If the file doesn't change size then rclone won't detect it has changed. rclone sync --size-only /path/to/source s3:bucket --checksum Checks the size and MD5 checksum of files. Uses no extra transactions. The most accurate detection of changes possible. Will cause the source to read an MD5 checksum which, if it is a local disk, will cause lots of disk activity. If the source and destination are both S3 this is the recommended flag to use for maximum efficiency. rclone sync --checksum /path/to/source s3:bucket --update --use-server-modtime Uses no extra transactions. Modification time becomes the time the object was uploaded. For many operations this is sufficient to determine if it needs uploading. Using --update along with --use-server-modtime, avoids the extra API call and uploads files whose local modification time is newer than the time it was last uploaded. Files created with timestamps in the past will be missed by the sync. rclone sync --update --use-server-modtime /path/to/source s3:bucket These flags can and should be used in combination with --fast-list - see below. If using rclone mount or any command using the VFS (eg rclone serve) commands then you might want to consider using the VFS flag --no-modtime which will stop rclone reading the modification time for every object. You could also use --use-server-modtime if you are happy with the modification times of the objects being the time of upload. ## Avoiding GET requests to read directory listings Rclone's default directory traversal is to process each directory individually. This takes one API call per directory. Using the --fast-list flag will read all info about the the objects into memory first using a smaller number of API calls (one per 1000 objects). See the rclone docs (https://rclone.org/docs/#fast-list) for more details. rclone sync --fast-list --checksum /path/to/source s3:bucket  --fast-list trades off API transactions for memory use. As a rough guide rclone uses 1k of memory per object stored, so using --fast-list on a sync of a million objects will use roughly 1 GB of RAM. If you are only copying a small number of files into a big repository then using --no-traverse is a good idea. This finds objects directly instead of through directory listings. You can do a "top-up" sync very cheaply by using --max-age and --no-traverse to copy only recent files, eg rclone copy --min-age 24h --no-traverse /path/to/source s3:bucket  You'd then do a full rclone sync less often. Note that --fast-list isn't required in the top-up sync. ## Avoiding HEAD requests after PUT By default rclone will HEAD every object it uploads. It does this to check the object got uploaded correctly. You can disable this with the --s3-no-head option - see there for more details. Setting this flag increases the chance for undetected upload failures. ## Hashes For small objects which weren't uploaded as multipart uploads (objects sized below --s3-upload-cutoff if uploaded with rclone) rclone uses the ETag: header as an MD5 checksum. However for objects which were uploaded as multipart uploads or with server side encryption (SSE-AWS or SSE-C) the ETag header is no longer the MD5 sum of the data, so rclone adds an additional piece of metadata X-Amz-Meta-Md5chksum which is a base64 encoded MD5 hash (in the same format as is required for Content-MD5). For large objects, calculating this hash can take some time so the addition of this hash can be disabled with --s3-disable-checksum. This will mean that these objects do not have an MD5 checksum. Note that reading this from the object takes an additional HEAD request as the metadata isn't returned in object listings. ## Cleanup If you run rclone cleanup s3:bucket then it will remove all pending multipart uploads older than 24 hours. You can use the -i flag to see exactly what it will do. If you want more control over the expiry date then run rclone backend cleanup s3:bucket -o max-age=1h to expire all uploads older than one hour. You can use rclone backend list-multipart-uploads s3:bucket to see the pending multipart uploads. ## Restricted filename characters S3 allows any valid UTF-8 string as a key. Invalid UTF-8 bytes will be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in XML. The following characters are replaced since these are problematic when dealing with the REST API:  Character Value Replacement NUL 0x00 ␀ / 0x2F ／ The encoding will also encode these file names as they don't seem to work with the SDK properly:  File name Replacement . ． .. ．． ## Multipart uploads rclone supports multipart uploads with S3 which means that it can upload files bigger than 5GB. Note that files uploaded both with multipart upload and through crypt remotes do not have MD5 sums. rclone switches from single part uploads to multipart uploads at the point specified by --s3-upload-cutoff. This can be a maximum of 5GB and a minimum of 0 (ie always upload multipart files). The chunk sizes used in the multipart upload are specified by --s3-chunk-size and the number of chunks uploaded concurrently is specified by --s3-upload-concurrency. Multipart uploads will use --transfers * --s3-upload-concurrency * --s3-chunk-size extra memory. Single part uploads to not use extra memory. Single part transfers can be faster than multipart transfers or slower depending on your latency from S3 - the more latency, the more likely single part transfers will be faster. Increasing --s3-upload-concurrency will increase throughput (8 would be a sensible value) and increasing --s3-chunk-size also increases throughput (16M would be sensible). Increasing either of these will use more memory. The default values are high enough to gain most of the possible performance without using too much memory. ## Buckets and Regions With Amazon S3 you can list buckets (rclone lsd) using any region, but you can only access the content of a bucket from the region it was created in. If you attempt to access a bucket from the wrong region, you will get an error, incorrect region, the bucket is not in 'XXX' region. ## Authentication There are a number of ways to supply rclone with a set of AWS credentials, with and without using the environment. The different authentication methods are tried in this order: Directly in the rclone configuration file (env_auth = false in the config file): access_key_id and secret_access_key are required. session_token can be optionally set when using AWS STS. Runtime configuration (env_auth = true in the config file): Export the following environment variables before running rclone: Access Key ID: AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID or AWS_ACCESS_KEY Secret Access Key: AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY or AWS_SECRET_KEY Session Token: AWS_SESSION_TOKEN (optional) Or, use a named profile (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/userguide/cli-multiple-profiles.html): Profile files are standard files used by AWS CLI tools By default it will use the profile in your home directory (e.g. ~/.aws/credentials on unix based systems) file and the "default" profile, to change set these environment variables: AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE to control which file. AWS_PROFILE to control which profile to use. Or, run rclone in an ECS task with an IAM role (AWS only). Or, run rclone on an EC2 instance with an IAM role (AWS only). Or, run rclone in an EKS pod with an IAM role that is associated with a service account (AWS only). If none of these option actually end up providing rclone with AWS credentials then S3 interaction will be non-authenticated (see below). ## S3 Permissions When using the sync subcommand of rclone the following minimum permissions are required to be available on the bucket being written to: ListBucket DeleteObject GetObject PutObject PutObjectACL When using the lsd subcommand, the ListAllMyBuckets permission is required. Example policy: { "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Effect": "Allow", "Principal": { "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::USER_SID:user/USER_NAME" }, "Action": [ "s3:ListBucket", "s3:DeleteObject", "s3:GetObject", "s3:PutObject", "s3:PutObjectAcl" ], "Resource": [ "arn:aws:s3:::BUCKET_NAME/*", "arn:aws:s3:::BUCKET_NAME" ] }, { "Effect": "Allow", "Action": "s3:ListAllMyBuckets", "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::*" } ] }  Notes on above: 1. This is a policy that can be used when creating bucket. It assumes that USER_NAME has been created. 2. The Resource entry must include both resource ARNs, as one implies the bucket and the other implies the bucket's objects. For reference, here's an Ansible script (https://gist.github.com/ebridges/ebfc9042dd7c756cd101cfa807b7ae2b) that will generate one or more buckets that will work with rclone sync. ## Key Management System (KMS) If you are using server-side encryption with KMS then you must make sure rclone is configured with server_side_encryption = aws:kms otherwise you will find you can't transfer small objects - these will create checksum errors. ## Glacier and Glacier Deep Archive You can upload objects using the glacier storage class or transition them to glacier using a lifecycle policy (http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/user-guide/create-lifecycle.html). The bucket can still be synced or copied into normally, but if rclone tries to access data from the glacier storage class you will see an error like below. 2017/09/11 19:07:43 Failed to sync: failed to open source object: Object in GLACIER, restore first: path/to/file  In this case you need to restore (http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/user-guide/restore-archived-objects.html) the object(s) in question before using rclone. Note that rclone only speaks the S3 API it does not speak the Glacier Vault API, so rclone cannot directly access Glacier Vaults. ## Standard Options Here are the standard options specific to s3 (Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, and Tencent COS). ## --s3-provider Choose your S3 provider. Config: provider Env Var: RCLONE_S3_PROVIDER Type: string Default: "" Examples: "AWS" Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3 "Alibaba" Alibaba Cloud Object Storage System (OSS) formerly Aliyun "Ceph" Ceph Object Storage "DigitalOcean" Digital Ocean Spaces "Dreamhost" Dreamhost DreamObjects "IBMCOS" IBM COS S3 "Minio" Minio Object Storage "Netease" Netease Object Storage (NOS) "Scaleway" Scaleway Object Storage "StackPath" StackPath Object Storage "TencentCOS" Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS) "Wasabi" Wasabi Object Storage "Other" Any other S3 compatible provider ## --s3-env-auth Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank. Config: env_auth Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENV_AUTH Type: bool Default: false Examples: "false" Enter AWS credentials in the next step "true" Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM) ## --s3-access-key-id AWS Access Key ID. Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. Config: access_key_id Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ACCESS_KEY_ID Type: string Default: "" ## --s3-secret-access-key AWS Secret Access Key (password) Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. Config: secret_access_key Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY Type: string Default: "" ## --s3-region Region to connect to. Config: region Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REGION Type: string Default: "" Examples: "us-east-1" The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure. US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest. Leave location constraint empty. "us-east-2" US East (Ohio) Region Needs location constraint us-east-2. "us-west-1" US West (Northern California) Region Needs location constraint us-west-1. "us-west-2" US West (Oregon) Region Needs location constraint us-west-2. "ca-central-1" Canada (Central) Region Needs location constraint ca-central-1. "eu-west-1" EU (Ireland) Region Needs location constraint EU or eu-west-1. "eu-west-2" EU (London) Region Needs location constraint eu-west-2. "eu-west-3" EU (Paris) Region Needs location constraint eu-west-3. "eu-north-1" EU (Stockholm) Region Needs location constraint eu-north-1. "eu-south-1" EU (Milan) Region Needs location constraint eu-south-1. "eu-central-1" EU (Frankfurt) Region Needs location constraint eu-central-1. "ap-southeast-1" Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region Needs location constraint ap-southeast-1. "ap-southeast-2" Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region Needs location constraint ap-southeast-2. "ap-northeast-1" Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region Needs location constraint ap-northeast-1. "ap-northeast-2" Asia Pacific (Seoul) Needs location constraint ap-northeast-2. "ap-northeast-3" Asia Pacific (Osaka-Local) Needs location constraint ap-northeast-3. "ap-south-1" Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Needs location constraint ap-south-1. "ap-east-1" Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region Needs location constraint ap-east-1. "sa-east-1" South America (Sao Paulo) Region Needs location constraint sa-east-1. "me-south-1" Middle East (Bahrain) Region Needs location constraint me-south-1. "af-south-1" Africa (Cape Town) Region Needs location constraint af-south-1. "cn-north-1" China (Beijing) Region Needs location constraint cn-north-1. "cn-northwest-1" China (Ningxia) Region Needs location constraint cn-northwest-1. "us-gov-east-1" AWS GovCloud (US-East) Region Needs location constraint us-gov-east-1. "us-gov-west-1" AWS GovCloud (US) Region Needs location constraint us-gov-west-1. ## --s3-region Region to connect to. Config: region Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REGION Type: string Default: "" Examples: "nl-ams" Amsterdam, The Netherlands "fr-par" Paris, France ## --s3-region Region to connect to. Leave blank if you are using an S3 clone and you don't have a region. Config: region Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REGION Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" Use this if unsure. Will use v4 signatures and an empty region. "other-v2-signature" Use this only if v4 signatures don't work, e.g. pre Jewel/v10 CEPH. ## --s3-endpoint Endpoint for S3 API. Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region. Config: endpoint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT Type: string Default: "" ## --s3-endpoint Endpoint for IBM COS S3 API. Specify if using an IBM COS On Premise. Config: endpoint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT Type: string Default: "" Examples: "s3.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Cross Region Endpoint "s3.dal.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Cross Region Dallas Endpoint "s3.wdc.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Cross Region Washington DC Endpoint "s3.sjc.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Cross Region San Jose Endpoint "s3.private.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Cross Region Private Endpoint "s3.private.dal.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Cross Region Dallas Private Endpoint "s3.private.wdc.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Cross Region Washington DC Private Endpoint "s3.private.sjc.us.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Cross Region San Jose Private Endpoint "s3.us-east.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Region East Endpoint "s3.private.us-east.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Region East Private Endpoint "s3.us-south.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Region South Endpoint "s3.private.us-south.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" US Region South Private Endpoint "s3.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Cross Region Endpoint "s3.fra.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Cross Region Frankfurt Endpoint "s3.mil.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Cross Region Milan Endpoint "s3.ams.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Cross Region Amsterdam Endpoint "s3.private.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Cross Region Private Endpoint "s3.private.fra.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Cross Region Frankfurt Private Endpoint "s3.private.mil.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Cross Region Milan Private Endpoint "s3.private.ams.eu.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Cross Region Amsterdam Private Endpoint "s3.eu-gb.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Great Britain Endpoint "s3.private.eu-gb.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Great Britain Private Endpoint "s3.eu-de.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Region DE Endpoint "s3.private.eu-de.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" EU Region DE Private Endpoint "s3.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Cross Regional Endpoint "s3.tok.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Cross Regional Tokyo Endpoint "s3.hkg.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Cross Regional HongKong Endpoint "s3.seo.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Cross Regional Seoul Endpoint "s3.private.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Cross Regional Private Endpoint "s3.private.tok.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Cross Regional Tokyo Private Endpoint "s3.private.hkg.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Cross Regional HongKong Private Endpoint "s3.private.seo.ap.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Cross Regional Seoul Private Endpoint "s3.jp-tok.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Region Japan Endpoint "s3.private.jp-tok.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Region Japan Private Endpoint "s3.au-syd.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Region Australia Endpoint "s3.private.au-syd.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" APAC Region Australia Private Endpoint "s3.ams03.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Amsterdam Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.ams03.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Amsterdam Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.che01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Chennai Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.che01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Chennai Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.mel01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Melbourne Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.mel01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Melbourne Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.osl01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Oslo Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.osl01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Oslo Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.tor01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Toronto Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.tor01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Toronto Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.seo01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Seoul Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.seo01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Seoul Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.mon01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Montreal Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.mon01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Montreal Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.mex01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Mexico Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.mex01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Mexico Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.sjc04.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" San Jose Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.sjc04.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" San Jose Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.mil01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Milan Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.mil01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Milan Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.hkg02.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Hong Kong Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.hkg02.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Hong Kong Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.par01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Paris Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.par01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Paris Single Site Private Endpoint "s3.sng01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Singapore Single Site Endpoint "s3.private.sng01.cloud-object-storage.appdomain.cloud" Singapore Single Site Private Endpoint ## --s3-endpoint Endpoint for OSS API. Config: endpoint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT Type: string Default: "" Examples: "oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com" East China 1 (Hangzhou) "oss-cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com" East China 2 (Shanghai) "oss-cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com" North China 1 (Qingdao) "oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com" North China 2 (Beijing) "oss-cn-zhangjiakou.aliyuncs.com" North China 3 (Zhangjiakou) "oss-cn-huhehaote.aliyuncs.com" North China 5 (Huhehaote) "oss-cn-shenzhen.aliyuncs.com" South China 1 (Shenzhen) "oss-cn-hongkong.aliyuncs.com" Hong Kong (Hong Kong) "oss-us-west-1.aliyuncs.com" US West 1 (Silicon Valley) "oss-us-east-1.aliyuncs.com" US East 1 (Virginia) "oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com" Southeast Asia Southeast 1 (Singapore) "oss-ap-southeast-2.aliyuncs.com" Asia Pacific Southeast 2 (Sydney) "oss-ap-southeast-3.aliyuncs.com" Southeast Asia Southeast 3 (Kuala Lumpur) "oss-ap-southeast-5.aliyuncs.com" Asia Pacific Southeast 5 (Jakarta) "oss-ap-northeast-1.aliyuncs.com" Asia Pacific Northeast 1 (Japan) "oss-ap-south-1.aliyuncs.com" Asia Pacific South 1 (Mumbai) "oss-eu-central-1.aliyuncs.com" Central Europe 1 (Frankfurt) "oss-eu-west-1.aliyuncs.com" West Europe (London) "oss-me-east-1.aliyuncs.com" Middle East 1 (Dubai) ## --s3-endpoint Endpoint for Scaleway Object Storage. Config: endpoint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT Type: string Default: "" Examples: "s3.nl-ams.scw.cloud" Amsterdam Endpoint "s3.fr-par.scw.cloud" Paris Endpoint ## --s3-endpoint Endpoint for StackPath Object Storage. Config: endpoint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT Type: string Default: "" Examples: "s3.us-east-2.stackpathstorage.com" US East Endpoint "s3.us-west-1.stackpathstorage.com" US West Endpoint "s3.eu-central-1.stackpathstorage.com" EU Endpoint ## --s3-endpoint Endpoint for Tencent COS API. Config: endpoint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT Type: string Default: "" Examples: "cos.ap-beijing.myqcloud.com" Beijing Region. "cos.ap-nanjing.myqcloud.com" Nanjing Region. "cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com" Shanghai Region. "cos.ap-guangzhou.myqcloud.com" Guangzhou Region. "cos.ap-nanjing.myqcloud.com" Nanjing Region. "cos.ap-chengdu.myqcloud.com" Chengdu Region. "cos.ap-chongqing.myqcloud.com" Chongqing Region. "cos.ap-hongkong.myqcloud.com" Hong Kong (China) Region. "cos.ap-singapore.myqcloud.com" Singapore Region. "cos.ap-mumbai.myqcloud.com" Mumbai Region. "cos.ap-seoul.myqcloud.com" Seoul Region. "cos.ap-bangkok.myqcloud.com" Bangkok Region. "cos.ap-tokyo.myqcloud.com" Tokyo Region. "cos.na-siliconvalley.myqcloud.com" Silicon Valley Region. "cos.na-ashburn.myqcloud.com" Virginia Region. "cos.na-toronto.myqcloud.com" Toronto Region. "cos.eu-frankfurt.myqcloud.com" Frankfurt Region. "cos.eu-moscow.myqcloud.com" Moscow Region. "cos.accelerate.myqcloud.com" Use Tencent COS Accelerate Endpoint. ## --s3-endpoint Endpoint for S3 API. Required when using an S3 clone. Config: endpoint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT Type: string Default: "" Examples: "objects-us-east-1.dream.io" Dream Objects endpoint "nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com" Digital Ocean Spaces New York 3 "ams3.digitaloceanspaces.com" Digital Ocean Spaces Amsterdam 3 "sgp1.digitaloceanspaces.com" Digital Ocean Spaces Singapore 1 "s3.wasabisys.com" Wasabi US East endpoint "s3.us-west-1.wasabisys.com" Wasabi US West endpoint "s3.eu-central-1.wasabisys.com" Wasabi EU Central endpoint ## --s3-location-constraint Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only. Config: location_constraint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest. "us-east-2" US East (Ohio) Region. "us-west-1" US West (Northern California) Region. "us-west-2" US West (Oregon) Region. "ca-central-1" Canada (Central) Region. "eu-west-1" EU (Ireland) Region. "eu-west-2" EU (London) Region. "eu-west-3" EU (Paris) Region. "eu-north-1" EU (Stockholm) Region. "eu-south-1" EU (Milan) Region. "EU" EU Region. "ap-southeast-1" Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region. "ap-southeast-2" Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region. "ap-northeast-1" Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region. "ap-northeast-2" Asia Pacific (Seoul) Region. "ap-northeast-3" Asia Pacific (Osaka-Local) Region. "ap-south-1" Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region. "ap-east-1" Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region. "sa-east-1" South America (Sao Paulo) Region. "me-south-1" Middle East (Bahrain) Region. "af-south-1" Africa (Cape Town) Region. "cn-north-1" China (Beijing) Region "cn-northwest-1" China (Ningxia) Region. "us-gov-east-1" AWS GovCloud (US-East) Region. "us-gov-west-1" AWS GovCloud (US) Region. ## --s3-location-constraint Location constraint - must match endpoint when using IBM Cloud Public. For on-prem COS, do not make a selection from this list, hit enter Config: location_constraint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT Type: string Default: "" Examples: "us-standard" US Cross Region Standard "us-vault" US Cross Region Vault "us-cold" US Cross Region Cold "us-flex" US Cross Region Flex "us-east-standard" US East Region Standard "us-east-vault" US East Region Vault "us-east-cold" US East Region Cold "us-east-flex" US East Region Flex "us-south-standard" US South Region Standard "us-south-vault" US South Region Vault "us-south-cold" US South Region Cold "us-south-flex" US South Region Flex "eu-standard" EU Cross Region Standard "eu-vault" EU Cross Region Vault "eu-cold" EU Cross Region Cold "eu-flex" EU Cross Region Flex "eu-gb-standard" Great Britain Standard "eu-gb-vault" Great Britain Vault "eu-gb-cold" Great Britain Cold "eu-gb-flex" Great Britain Flex "ap-standard" APAC Standard "ap-vault" APAC Vault "ap-cold" APAC Cold "ap-flex" APAC Flex "mel01-standard" Melbourne Standard "mel01-vault" Melbourne Vault "mel01-cold" Melbourne Cold "mel01-flex" Melbourne Flex "tor01-standard" Toronto Standard "tor01-vault" Toronto Vault "tor01-cold" Toronto Cold "tor01-flex" Toronto Flex ## --s3-location-constraint Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Leave blank if not sure. Used when creating buckets only. Config: location_constraint Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT Type: string Default: "" ## --s3-acl Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects. This ACL is used for creating objects and if bucket_acl isn't set, for creating buckets too. For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl Note that this ACL is applied when server-side copying objects as S3 doesn't copy the ACL from the source but rather writes a fresh one. Config: acl Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ACL Type: string Default: "" Examples: "default" Owner gets Full_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). "private" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). "public-read" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. "public-read-write" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended. "authenticated-read" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. "bucket-owner-read" Object owner gets FULL_CONTROL. Bucket owner gets READ access. If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it. "bucket-owner-full-control" Both the object owner and the bucket owner get FULL_CONTROL over the object. If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it. "private" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise COS "public-read" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise IBM COS "public-read-write" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), On-Premise IBM COS "authenticated-read" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. Not supported on Buckets. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra) and On-Premise IBM COS ## --s3-server-side-encryption The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3. Config: server_side_encryption Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SERVER_SIDE_ENCRYPTION Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" None "AES256" AES256 "aws:kms" aws:kms ## --s3-sse-kms-key-id If using KMS ID you must provide the ARN of Key. Config: sse_kms_key_id Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_KMS_KEY_ID Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" None "arn:aws:kms:us-east-1:*" arn:aws:kms:* ## --s3-storage-class The storage class to use when storing new objects in S3. Config: storage_class Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" Default "STANDARD" Standard storage class "REDUCED_REDUNDANCY" Reduced redundancy storage class "STANDARD_IA" Standard Infrequent Access storage class "ONEZONE_IA" One Zone Infrequent Access storage class "GLACIER" Glacier storage class "DEEP_ARCHIVE" Glacier Deep Archive storage class "INTELLIGENT_TIERING" Intelligent-Tiering storage class ## --s3-storage-class The storage class to use when storing new objects in OSS. Config: storage_class Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" Default "STANDARD" Standard storage class "GLACIER" Archive storage mode. "STANDARD_IA" Infrequent access storage mode. ## --s3-storage-class The storage class to use when storing new objects in Tencent COS. Config: storage_class Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" Default "STANDARD" Standard storage class "ARCHIVE" Archive storage mode. "STANDARD_IA" Infrequent access storage mode. ## --s3-storage-class The storage class to use when storing new objects in S3. Config: storage_class Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" Default "STANDARD" The Standard class for any upload; suitable for on-demand content like streaming or CDN. "GLACIER" Archived storage; prices are lower, but it needs to be restored first to be accessed. ## Advanced Options Here are the advanced options specific to s3 (Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, and Tencent COS). ## --s3-bucket-acl Canned ACL used when creating buckets. For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl Note that this ACL is applied when only when creating buckets. If it isn't set then "acl" is used instead. Config: bucket_acl Env Var: RCLONE_S3_BUCKET_ACL Type: string Default: "" Examples: "private" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). "public-read" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. "public-read-write" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended. "authenticated-read" Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. ## --s3-requester-pays Enables requester pays option when interacting with S3 bucket. Config: requester_pays Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REQUESTER_PAYS Type: bool Default: false ## --s3-sse-customer-algorithm If using SSE-C, the server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3. Config: sse_customer_algorithm Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_CUSTOMER_ALGORITHM Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" None "AES256" AES256 ## --s3-sse-customer-key If using SSE-C you must provide the secret encryption key used to encrypt/decrypt your data. Config: sse_customer_key Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_CUSTOMER_KEY Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" None ## --s3-sse-customer-key-md5 If using SSE-C you may provide the secret encryption key MD5 checksum (optional). If you leave it blank, this is calculated automatically from the sse_customer_key provided. Config: sse_customer_key_md5 Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_CUSTOMER_KEY_MD5 Type: string Default: "" Examples: "" None ## --s3-upload-cutoff Cutoff for switching to chunked upload Any files larger than this will be uploaded in chunks of chunk_size. The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 5GB. Config: upload_cutoff Env Var: RCLONE_S3_UPLOAD_CUTOFF Type: SizeSuffix Default: 200M ## --s3-chunk-size Chunk size to use for uploading. When uploading files larger than upload_cutoff or files with unknown size (e.g. from "rclone rcat" or uploaded with "rclone mount" or google photos or google docs) they will be uploaded as multipart uploads using this chunk size. Note that "--s3-upload-concurrency" chunks of this size are buffered in memory per transfer. If you are transferring large files over high-speed links and you have enough memory, then increasing this will speed up the transfers. Rclone will automatically increase the chunk size when uploading a large file of known size to stay below the 10,000 chunks limit. Files of unknown size are uploaded with the configured chunk_size. Since the default chunk size is 5MB and there can be at most 10,000 chunks, this means that by default the maximum size of a file you can stream upload is 48GB. If you wish to stream upload larger files then you will need to increase chunk_size. Config: chunk_size Env Var: RCLONE_S3_CHUNK_SIZE Type: SizeSuffix Default: 5M ## --s3-max-upload-parts Maximum number of parts in a multipart upload. This option defines the maximum number of multipart chunks to use when doing a multipart upload. This can be useful if a service does not support the AWS S3 specification of 10,000 chunks. Rclone will automatically increase the chunk size when uploading a large file of a known size to stay below this number of chunks limit. Config: max_upload_parts Env Var: RCLONE_S3_MAX_UPLOAD_PARTS Type: int Default: 10000 ## --s3-copy-cutoff Cutoff for switching to multipart copy Any files larger than this that need to be server-side copied will be copied in chunks of this size. The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 5GB. Config: copy_cutoff Env Var: RCLONE_S3_COPY_CUTOFF Type: SizeSuffix Default: 4.656G ## --s3-disable-checksum Don't store MD5 checksum with object metadata Normally rclone will calculate the MD5 checksum of the input before uploading it so it can add it to metadata on the object. This is great for data integrity checking but can cause long delays for large files to start uploading. Config: disable_checksum Env Var: RCLONE_S3_DISABLE_CHECKSUM Type: bool Default: false ## --s3-shared-credentials-file Path to the shared credentials file If env_auth = true then rclone can use a shared credentials file. If this variable is empty rclone will look for the "AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE" env variable. If the env value is empty it will default to the current user's home directory. Linux/OSX: "$HOME/.aws/credentials"
Windows:   "%USERPROFILE%\.aws\credentials"


Config: shared_credentials_file
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --s3-profile

Profile to use in the shared credentials file

If env_auth = true then rclone can use a shared credentials file. This variable controls which profile is used in that file.

If empty it will default to the environment variable "AWS_PROFILE" or "default" if that environment variable is also not set.

Config: profile
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_PROFILE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --s3-session-token

An AWS session token
Config: session_token
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SESSION_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

This is the number of chunks of the same file that are uploaded concurrently.

If you are uploading small numbers of large files over high-speed links and these uploads do not fully utilize your bandwidth, then increasing this may help to speed up the transfers.

Type: int
Default: 4

## --s3-force-path-style

If true use path style access if false use virtual hosted style.

If this is true (the default) then rclone will use path style access, if false then rclone will use virtual path style. See the AWS S3 docs (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/UsingBucket.html#access-bucket-intro) for more info.

Some providers (e.g. AWS, Aliyun OSS, Netease COS, or Tencent COS) require this set to false - rclone will do this automatically based on the provider setting.

Config: force_path_style
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_FORCE_PATH_STYLE
Type: bool
Default: true

## --s3-v2-auth

If true use v2 authentication.

If this is false (the default) then rclone will use v4 authentication. If it is set then rclone will use v2 authentication.

Use this only if v4 signatures don't work, e.g. pre Jewel/v10 CEPH.

Config: v2_auth
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_V2_AUTH
Type: bool
Default: false

## --s3-use-accelerate-endpoint

If true use the AWS S3 accelerated endpoint.

See: AWS S3 Transfer acceleration (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/transfer-acceleration-examples.html)

Config: use_accelerate_endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_USE_ACCELERATE_ENDPOINT
Type: bool
Default: false

## --s3-leave-parts-on-error

If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure, leaving all successfully uploaded parts on S3 for manual recovery.

It should be set to true for resuming uploads across different sessions.

WARNING: Storing parts of an incomplete multipart upload counts towards space usage on S3 and will add additional costs if not cleaned up.

Config: leave_parts_on_error
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LEAVE_PARTS_ON_ERROR
Type: bool
Default: false

## --s3-list-chunk

Size of listing chunk (response list for each ListObject S3 request).

This option is also known as "MaxKeys", "max-items", or "page-size" from the AWS S3 specification. Most services truncate the response list to 1000 objects even if requested more than that. In AWS S3 this is a global maximum and cannot be changed, see AWS S3 (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/reference/s3/ls.html). In Ceph, this can be increased with the "rgw list buckets max chunk" option.

Config: list_chunk
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LIST_CHUNK
Type: int
Default: 1000

## --s3-no-check-bucket

If set, don't attempt to check the bucket exists or create it

This can be useful when trying to minimise the number of transactions rclone does if you know the bucket exists already.

It can also be needed if the user you are using does not have bucket creation permissions. Before v1.52.0 this would have passed silently due to a bug.

Config: no_check_bucket
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_NO_CHECK_BUCKET
Type: bool
Default: false

This can be useful when trying to minimise the number of transactions rclone does.

Setting it means that if rclone receives a 200 OK message after uploading an object with PUT then it will assume that it got uploaded properly.

In particular it will assume:

the metadata, including modtime, storage class and content type was as uploaded

It reads the following items from the response for a single part PUT:

the MD5SUM

If an source object of unknown length is uploaded then rclone will do a HEAD request.

Setting this flag increases the chance for undetected upload failures, in particular an incorrect size, so it isn't recommended for normal operation. In practice the chance of an undetected upload failure is very small even with this flag.

Type: bool
Default: false

## --s3-encoding

This sets the encoding for the backend.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,InvalidUtf8,Dot

## --s3-memory-pool-flush-time

How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. Uploads which requires additional buffers (f.e multipart) will use memory pool for allocations. This option controls how often unused buffers will be removed from the pool.
Config: memory_pool_flush_time
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_MEMORY_POOL_FLUSH_TIME
Type: Duration
Default: 1m0s

## --s3-memory-pool-use-mmap

Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
Config: memory_pool_use_mmap
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_MEMORY_POOL_USE_MMAP
Type: bool
Default: false

## --s3-disable-http2

Disable usage of http2 for S3 backends

There is currently an unsolved issue with the s3 (specifically minio) backend and HTTP/2. HTTP/2 is enabled by default for the s3 backend but can be disabled here. When the issue is solved this flag will be removed.

Config: disable_http2
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_DISABLE_HTTP2
Type: bool
Default: false

## Backend commands

Here are the commands specific to the s3 backend.

Run them with

rclone backend COMMAND remote:



The help below will explain what arguments each command takes.

See the "rclone backend" command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_backend/) for more info on how to pass options and arguments.

These can be run on a running backend using the rc command backend/command (https://rclone.org/rc/#backend/command).

## restore

Restore objects from GLACIER to normal storage
rclone backend restore remote: [options] [<arguments>+]



This command can be used to restore one or more objects from GLACIER to normal storage.

Usage Examples:

rclone backend restore s3:bucket/path/to/object [-o priority=PRIORITY] [-o lifetime=DAYS]
rclone backend restore s3:bucket/path/to/directory [-o priority=PRIORITY] [-o lifetime=DAYS]
rclone backend restore s3:bucket [-o priority=PRIORITY] [-o lifetime=DAYS]



This flag also obeys the filters. Test first with -i/--interactive or --dry-run flags

rclone -i backend restore --include "*.txt" s3:bucket/path -o priority=Standard



All the objects shown will be marked for restore, then

rclone backend restore --include "*.txt" s3:bucket/path -o priority=Standard



It returns a list of status dictionaries with Remote and Status keys. The Status will be OK if it was successful or an error message if not.

[
{
"Status": "OK",
"Path": "test.txt"
},
{
"Status": "OK",
"Path": "test/file4.txt"
}
]



Options:

"description": The optional description for the job.
"priority": Priority of restore: Standard|Expedited|Bulk

rclone backend list-multipart-uploads remote: [options] [<arguments>+]



This command lists the unfinished multipart uploads in JSON format.

rclone backend list-multipart s3:bucket/path/to/object



It returns a dictionary of buckets with values as lists of unfinished multipart uploads.

You can call it with no bucket in which case it lists all bucket, with a bucket or with a bucket and path.

{
"rclone": [
{
"Initiated": "2020-06-26T14:20:36Z",
"Initiator": {
"DisplayName": "XXX",
"ID": "arn:aws:iam::XXX:user/XXX"
},
"Key": "KEY",
"Owner": {
"DisplayName": null,
"ID": "XXX"
},
"StorageClass": "STANDARD",
}
],
"rclone-1000files": [],
"rclone-dst": []
}



## cleanup

rclone backend cleanup remote: [options] [<arguments>+]



This command removes unfinished multipart uploads of age greater than max-age which defaults to 24 hours.

Note that you can use -i/--dry-run with this command to see what it would do.

rclone backend cleanup s3:bucket/path/to/object
rclone backend cleanup -o max-age=7w s3:bucket/path/to/object



Durations are parsed as per the rest of rclone, 2h, 7d, 7w etc.

Options:

"max-age": Max age of upload to delete

If you want to use rclone to access a public bucket, configure with a blank access_key_id and secret_access_key. Your config should end up looking like this:
[anons3]
type = s3
provider = AWS
env_auth = false
access_key_id =
secret_access_key =
region = us-east-1
endpoint =
location_constraint =
acl = private
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =



Then use it as normal with the name of the public bucket, e.g.

rclone lsd anons3:1000genomes



You will be able to list and copy data but not upload it.

## Ceph

Ceph (https://ceph.com/) is an open source unified, distributed storage system designed for excellent performance, reliability and scalability. It has an S3 compatible object storage interface.

To use rclone with Ceph, configure as above but leave the region blank and set the endpoint. You should end up with something like this in your config:

[ceph]
type = s3
provider = Ceph
env_auth = false
access_key_id = XXX
secret_access_key = YYY
region =
endpoint = https://ceph.endpoint.example.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =



If you are using an older version of CEPH, e.g. 10.2.x Jewel, then you may need to supply the parameter --s3-upload-cutoff 0 or put this in the config file as upload_cutoff 0 to work around a bug which causes uploading of small files to fail.

Note also that Ceph sometimes puts / in the passwords it gives users. If you read the secret access key using the command line tools you will get a JSON blob with the / escaped as \/. Make sure you only write / in the secret access key.

Eg the dump from Ceph looks something like this (irrelevant keys removed).

{
"user_id": "xxx",
"display_name": "xxxx",
"keys": [
{
"user": "xxx",
"access_key": "xxxxxx",
"secret_key": "xxxxxx\/xxxx"
}
],
}



Because this is a json dump, it is encoding the / as \/, so if you use the secret key as xxxxxx/xxxx it will work fine.

## Dreamhost

Dreamhost DreamObjects (https://www.dreamhost.com/cloud/storage/) is an object storage system based on CEPH.

To use rclone with Dreamhost, configure as above but leave the region blank and set the endpoint. You should end up with something like this in your config:

[dreamobjects]
type = s3
provider = DreamHost
env_auth = false
access_key_id = your_access_key
secret_access_key = your_secret_key
region =
endpoint = objects-us-west-1.dream.io
location_constraint =
acl = private
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =



## DigitalOcean Spaces

Spaces (https://www.digitalocean.com/products/object-storage/) is an S3-interoperable (https://developers.digitalocean.com/documentation/spaces/) object storage service from cloud provider DigitalOcean.

To connect to DigitalOcean Spaces you will need an access key and secret key. These can be retrieved on the "Applications & API (https://cloud.digitalocean.com/settings/api/tokens)" page of the DigitalOcean control panel. They will be needed when prompted by rclone config for your access_key_id and secret_access_key.

When prompted for a region or location_constraint, press enter to use the default value. The region must be included in the endpoint setting (e.g. nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com). The default values can be used for other settings.

Going through the whole process of creating a new remote by running rclone config, each prompt should be answered as shown below:

Storage> s3
env_auth> 1
access_key_id> YOUR_ACCESS_KEY
secret_access_key> YOUR_SECRET_KEY
region>
endpoint> nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com
location_constraint>
acl>
storage_class>



The resulting configuration file should look like:

[spaces]
type = s3
provider = DigitalOcean
env_auth = false
access_key_id = YOUR_ACCESS_KEY
secret_access_key = YOUR_SECRET_KEY
region =
endpoint = nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =



Once configured, you can create a new Space and begin copying files. For example:

rclone mkdir spaces:my-new-space
rclone copy /path/to/files spaces:my-new-space



## IBM COS (S3)

Information stored with IBM Cloud Object Storage is encrypted and dispersed across multiple geographic locations, and accessed through an implementation of the S3 API. This service makes use of the distributed storage technologies provided by IBM’s Cloud Object Storage System (formerly Cleversafe). For more information visit: (http://www.ibm.com/cloud/object-storage)

1.
Run rclone config and select n for a new remote.
2018/02/14 14:13:11 NOTICE: Config file "C:\\Users\\a\\.config\\rclone\\rclone.conf" not found - using defaults
No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n


2.
Enter the name for the configuration
name> <YOUR NAME>


3.
Select "s3" storage.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Alias for an existing remote
\ "alias"
2 / Amazon Drive
\ "amazon cloud drive"
3 / Amazon S3 Complaint Storage Providers (Dreamhost, Ceph, Minio, IBM COS)
\ "s3"
4 / Backblaze B2
\ "b2"
[snip]
23 / http Connection
\ "http"
Storage> 3


4.
Select IBM COS as the S3 Storage Provider.
Choose the S3 provider.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Choose this option to configure Storage to AWS S3
\ "AWS"
2 / Choose this option to configure Storage to Ceph Systems
\ "Ceph"
3 /  Choose this option to configure Storage to Dreamhost
\ "Dreamhost"
4 / Choose this option to the configure Storage to IBM COS S3
\ "IBMCOS"
5 / Choose this option to the configure Storage to Minio
\ "Minio"
Provider>4


5.
Enter the Access Key and Secret.
AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
access_key_id> <>
AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
secret_access_key> <>


6.
Specify the endpoint for IBM COS. For Public IBM COS, choose from the option below. For On Premise IBM COS, enter an endpoint address.
    Endpoint for IBM COS S3 API.
Specify if using an IBM COS On Premise.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / US Cross Region Endpoint
\ "s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
2 / US Cross Region Dallas Endpoint
\ "s3-api.dal.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
3 / US Cross Region Washington DC Endpoint
\ "s3-api.wdc-us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
4 / US Cross Region San Jose Endpoint
\ "s3-api.sjc-us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
5 / US Cross Region Private Endpoint
\ "s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
6 / US Cross Region Dallas Private Endpoint
\ "s3-api.dal-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
7 / US Cross Region Washington DC Private Endpoint
\ "s3-api.wdc-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
8 / US Cross Region San Jose Private Endpoint
\ "s3-api.sjc-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
9 / US Region East Endpoint
\ "s3.us-east.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
10 / US Region East Private Endpoint
\ "s3.us-east.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
11 / US Region South Endpoint
[snip]
34 / Toronto Single Site Private Endpoint
\ "s3.tor01.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
endpoint>1


7.
Specify a IBM COS Location Constraint. The location constraint must match endpoint when using IBM Cloud Public. For on-prem COS, do not make a selection from this list, hit enter
     1 / US Cross Region Standard
\ "us-standard"
2 / US Cross Region Vault
\ "us-vault"
3 / US Cross Region Cold
\ "us-cold"
4 / US Cross Region Flex
\ "us-flex"
5 / US East Region Standard
\ "us-east-standard"
6 / US East Region Vault
\ "us-east-vault"
7 / US East Region Cold
\ "us-east-cold"
8 / US East Region Flex
\ "us-east-flex"
9 / US South Region Standard
\ "us-south-standard"
10 / US South Region Vault
\ "us-south-vault"
[snip]
32 / Toronto Flex
\ "tor01-flex"
location_constraint>1


9.
Specify a canned ACL. IBM Cloud (Storage) supports "public-read" and "private". IBM Cloud(Infra) supports all the canned ACLs. On-Premise COS supports all the canned ACLs.
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise COS
\ "private"
2  / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise IBM COS
3 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), On-Premise IBM COS
4  / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. Not supported on Buckets. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra) and On-Premise IBM COS
acl> 1


12.
Review the displayed configuration and accept to save the "remote" then quit. The config file should look like this
[xxx]
type = s3
Provider = IBMCOS
access_key_id = xxx
secret_access_key = yyy
endpoint = s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net
location_constraint = us-standard
acl = private


13.
Execute rclone commands
1)  Create a bucket.
rclone mkdir IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
2)  List available buckets.
rclone lsd IBM-COS-XREGION:
-1 2017-11-08 21:16:22        -1 test
-1 2018-02-14 20:16:39        -1 newbucket
3)  List contents of a bucket.
rclone ls IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
18685952 test.exe
4)  Copy a file from local to remote.
rclone copy /Users/file.txt IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
5)  Copy a file from remote to local.
rclone copy IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket/file.txt .
6)  Delete a file on remote.
rclone delete IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket/file.txt



## Minio

Minio (https://minio.io/) is an object storage server built for cloud application developers and devops.

It is very easy to install and provides an S3 compatible server which can be used by rclone.

To use it, install Minio following the instructions here (https://docs.minio.io/docs/minio-quickstart-guide).

When it configures itself Minio will print something like this

Endpoint:  http://192.168.1.106:9000  http://172.23.0.1:9000
AccessKey: USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE
SecretKey: MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03
Region:    us-east-1
SQS ARNs:  arn:minio:sqs:us-east-1:1:redis arn:minio:sqs:us-east-1:2:redis
Browser Access:
http://192.168.1.106:9000  http://172.23.0.1:9000
Command-line Access: https://docs.minio.io/docs/minio-client-quickstart-guide
$mc config host add myminio http://192.168.1.106:9000 USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03 Object API (Amazon S3 compatible): Go: https://docs.minio.io/docs/golang-client-quickstart-guide Java: https://docs.minio.io/docs/java-client-quickstart-guide Python: https://docs.minio.io/docs/python-client-quickstart-guide JavaScript: https://docs.minio.io/docs/javascript-client-quickstart-guide .NET: https://docs.minio.io/docs/dotnet-client-quickstart-guide Drive Capacity: 26 GiB Free, 165 GiB Total  These details need to go into rclone config like this. Note that it is important to put the region in as stated above. env_auth> 1 access_key_id> USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE secret_access_key> MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03 region> us-east-1 endpoint> http://192.168.1.106:9000 location_constraint> server_side_encryption>  Which makes the config file look like this [minio] type = s3 provider = Minio env_auth = false access_key_id = USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE secret_access_key = MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03 region = us-east-1 endpoint = http://192.168.1.106:9000 location_constraint = server_side_encryption =  So once set up, for example to copy files into a bucket rclone copy /path/to/files minio:bucket  ## Scaleway Scaleway (https://www.scaleway.com/object-storage/) The Object Storage platform allows you to store anything from backups, logs and web assets to documents and photos. Files can be dropped from the Scaleway console or transferred through our API and CLI or using any S3-compatible tool. Scaleway provides an S3 interface which can be configured for use with rclone like this: [scaleway] type = s3 provider = Scaleway env_auth = false endpoint = s3.nl-ams.scw.cloud access_key_id = SCWXXXXXXXXXXXXXX secret_access_key = 1111111-2222-3333-44444-55555555555555 region = nl-ams location_constraint = acl = private server_side_encryption = storage_class =  ## Wasabi Wasabi (https://wasabi.com) is a cloud-based object storage service for a broad range of applications and use cases. Wasabi is designed for individuals and organizations that require a high-performance, reliable, and secure data storage infrastructure at minimal cost. Wasabi provides an S3 interface which can be configured for use with rclone like this. No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote s) Set configuration password n/s> n name> wasabi Type of storage to configure. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value [snip] XX / Amazon S3 (also Dreamhost, Ceph, Minio) \ "s3" [snip] Storage> s3 Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step \ "false" 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM) \ "true" env_auth> 1 AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. access_key_id> YOURACCESSKEY AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. secret_access_key> YOURSECRETACCESSKEY Region to connect to. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value / The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure. 1 | US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest. | Leave location constraint empty. \ "us-east-1" [snip] region> us-east-1 Endpoint for S3 API. Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region. Specify if using an S3 clone such as Ceph. endpoint> s3.wasabisys.com Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia, or Pacific Northwest. \ "" [snip] location_constraint> Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3. For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). \ "private" [snip] acl> The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / None \ "" 2 / AES256 \ "AES256" server_side_encryption> The storage class to use when storing objects in S3. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Default \ "" 2 / Standard storage class \ "STANDARD" 3 / Reduced redundancy storage class \ "REDUCED_REDUNDANCY" 4 / Standard Infrequent Access storage class \ "STANDARD_IA" storage_class> Remote config -------------------- [wasabi] env_auth = false access_key_id = YOURACCESSKEY secret_access_key = YOURSECRETACCESSKEY region = us-east-1 endpoint = s3.wasabisys.com location_constraint = acl = server_side_encryption = storage_class = -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y  This will leave the config file looking like this. [wasabi] type = s3 provider = Wasabi env_auth = false access_key_id = YOURACCESSKEY secret_access_key = YOURSECRETACCESSKEY region = endpoint = s3.wasabisys.com location_constraint = acl = server_side_encryption = storage_class =  ## Alibaba OSS Here is an example of making an Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) OSS (https://www.alibabacloud.com/product/oss/) configuration. First run: rclone config  This will guide you through an interactive setup process. No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config n/s/q> n name> oss Type of storage to configure. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value [snip] 4 / Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, and Tencent COS \ "s3" [snip] Storage> s3 Choose your S3 provider. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3 \ "AWS" 2 / Alibaba Cloud Object Storage System (OSS) formerly Aliyun \ "Alibaba" 3 / Ceph Object Storage \ "Ceph" [snip] provider> Alibaba Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank. Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false"). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step \ "false" 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM) \ "true" env_auth> 1 AWS Access Key ID. Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). access_key_id> accesskeyid AWS Secret Access Key (password) Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). secret_access_key> secretaccesskey Endpoint for OSS API. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / East China 1 (Hangzhou) \ "oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com" 2 / East China 2 (Shanghai) \ "oss-cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com" 3 / North China 1 (Qingdao) \ "oss-cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com" [snip] endpoint> 1 Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects. Note that this ACL is applied when server-side copying objects as S3 doesn't copy the ACL from the source but rather writes a fresh one. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). \ "private" 2 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. \ "public-read" / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. [snip] acl> 1 The storage class to use when storing new objects in OSS. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Default \ "" 2 / Standard storage class \ "STANDARD" 3 / Archive storage mode. \ "GLACIER" 4 / Infrequent access storage mode. \ "STANDARD_IA" storage_class> 1 Edit advanced config? (y/n) y) Yes n) No y/n> n Remote config -------------------- [oss] type = s3 provider = Alibaba env_auth = false access_key_id = accesskeyid secret_access_key = secretaccesskey endpoint = oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com acl = private storage_class = Standard -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y  ## Tencent COS Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS) (https://intl.cloud.tencent.com/product/cos) is a distributed storage service offered by Tencent Cloud for unstructured data. It is secure, stable, massive, convenient, low-delay and low-cost. To configure access to Tencent COS, follow the steps below: 1. Run rclone config and select n for a new remote. rclone config No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config n/s/q> n  2. Give the name of the configuration. For example, name it 'cos'. name> cos  3. Select s3 storage. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / 1Fichier \ "fichier" 2 / Alias for an existing remote \ "alias" 3 / Amazon Drive \ "amazon cloud drive" 4 / Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers including AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, and Tencent COS \ "s3" [snip] Storage> s3  4. Select TencentCOS provider. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3 \ "AWS" [snip] 11 / Tencent Cloud Object Storage (COS) \ "TencentCOS" [snip] provider> TencentCOS  5. Enter your SecretId and SecretKey of Tencent Cloud. Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank. Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false"). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step \ "false" 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM) \ "true" env_auth> 1 AWS Access Key ID. Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). access_key_id> AKIDxxxxxxxxxx AWS Secret Access Key (password) Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). secret_access_key> xxxxxxxxxxx  6. Select endpoint for Tencent COS. This is the standard endpoint for different region.  1 / Beijing Region. \ "cos.ap-beijing.myqcloud.com" 2 / Nanjing Region. \ "cos.ap-nanjing.myqcloud.com" 3 / Shanghai Region. \ "cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com" 4 / Guangzhou Region. \ "cos.ap-guangzhou.myqcloud.com" [snip] endpoint> 4  7. Choose acl and storage class. Note that this ACL is applied when server-side copying objects as S3 doesn't copy the ACL from the source but rather writes a fresh one. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Owner gets Full_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). \ "default" [snip] acl> 1 The storage class to use when storing new objects in Tencent COS. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Default \ "" [snip] storage_class> 1 Edit advanced config? (y/n) y) Yes n) No (default) y/n> n Remote config -------------------- [cos] type = s3 provider = TencentCOS env_auth = false access_key_id = xxx secret_access_key = xxx endpoint = cos.ap-guangzhou.myqcloud.com acl = default -------------------- y) Yes this is OK (default) e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y Current remotes: Name Type ==== ==== cos s3  ## Netease NOS For Netease NOS configure as per the configurator rclone config setting the provider Netease. This will automatically set force_path_style = false which is necessary for it to run properly. ## Limitations rclone about is not supported by the S3 backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote. See List of backends that do not support rclone about (https://rclone.org/overview/#optional-features) See rclone about (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_about/) ## Backblaze B2 B2 is Backblaze's cloud storage system (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/). Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, e.g. remote:bucket/path/to/dir. Here is an example of making a b2 configuration. First run rclone config  This will guide you through an interactive setup process. To authenticate you will either need your Account ID (a short hex number) and Master Application Key (a long hex number) OR an Application Key, which is the recommended method. See below for further details on generating and using an Application Key. No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote q) Quit config n/q> n name> remote Type of storage to configure. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value [snip] XX / Backblaze B2 \ "b2" [snip] Storage> b2 Account ID or Application Key ID account> 123456789abc Application Key key> 0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789 Endpoint for the service - leave blank normally. endpoint> Remote config -------------------- [remote] account = 123456789abc key = 0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789 endpoint = -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y  This remote is called remote and can now be used like this See all buckets rclone lsd remote:  Create a new bucket rclone mkdir remote:bucket  List the contents of a bucket rclone ls remote:bucket  Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket. rclone sync -i /home/local/directory remote:bucket  ## Application Keys B2 supports multiple Application Keys for different access permission to B2 Buckets (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/application_keys.html). You can use these with rclone too; you will need to use rclone version 1.43 or later. Follow Backblaze's docs to create an Application Key with the required permission and add the applicationKeyId as the account and the Application Key itself as the key. Note that you must put the applicationKeyId as the account – you can't use the master Account ID. If you try then B2 will return 401 errors. ## --fast-list This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (https://rclone.org/docs/#fast-list) for more details. ## Modified time The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as X-Bz-Info-src_last_modified_millis as milliseconds since 1970-01-01 in the Backblaze standard. Other tools should be able to use this as a modified time. Modified times are used in syncing and are fully supported. Note that if a modification time needs to be updated on an object then it will create a new version of the object. ## Restricted filename characters In addition to the default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:  Character Value Replacement \ 0x5C ＼ Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings. Note that in 2020-05 Backblaze started allowing characters in file names. Rclone hasn't changed its encoding as this could cause syncs to re-transfer files. If you want rclone not to replace then see the --b2-encoding flag below and remove the BackSlash from the string. This can be set in the config. ## SHA1 checksums The SHA1 checksums of the files are checked on upload and download and will be used in the syncing process. Large files (bigger than the limit in --b2-upload-cutoff) which are uploaded in chunks will store their SHA1 on the object as X-Bz-Info-large_file_sha1 as recommended by Backblaze. For a large file to be uploaded with an SHA1 checksum, the source needs to support SHA1 checksums. The local disk supports SHA1 checksums so large file transfers from local disk will have an SHA1. See the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#features) for exactly which remotes support SHA1. Sources which don't support SHA1, in particular crypt will upload large files without SHA1 checksums. This may be fixed in the future (see #1767 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1767)). Files sizes below --b2-upload-cutoff will always have an SHA1 regardless of the source. ## Transfers Backblaze recommends that you do lots of transfers simultaneously for maximum speed. In tests from my SSD equipped laptop the optimum setting is about --transfers 32 though higher numbers may be used for a slight speed improvement. The optimum number for you may vary depending on your hardware, how big the files are, how much you want to load your computer, etc. The default of --transfers 4 is definitely too low for Backblaze B2 though. Note that uploading big files (bigger than 200 MB by default) will use a 96 MB RAM buffer by default. There can be at most --transfers of these in use at any moment, so this sets the upper limit on the memory used. ## Versions When rclone uploads a new version of a file it creates a new version of it (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/file_versions.html). Likewise when you delete a file, the old version will be marked hidden and still be available. Conversely, you may opt in to a "hard delete" of files with the --b2-hard-delete flag which would permanently remove the file instead of hiding it. Old versions of files, where available, are visible using the --b2-versions flag. NB Note that --b2-versions does not work with crypt at the moment #1627 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1627). Using --backup-dir (https://rclone.org/docs/#backup-dir-dir) with rclone is the recommended way of working around this. If you wish to remove all the old versions then you can use the rclone cleanup remote:bucket command which will delete all the old versions of files, leaving the current ones intact. You can also supply a path and only old versions under that path will be deleted, e.g. rclone cleanup remote:bucket/path/to/stuff. Note that cleanup will remove partially uploaded files from the bucket if they are more than a day old. When you purge a bucket, the current and the old versions will be deleted then the bucket will be deleted. However delete will cause the current versions of the files to become hidden old versions. Here is a session showing the listing and retrieval of an old version followed by a cleanup of the old versions. Show current version and all the versions with --b2-versions flag. $ rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test
9 one.txt
$rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test 9 one.txt 8 one-v2016-07-04-141032-000.txt 16 one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt 15 one-v2016-07-02-155621-000.txt  Retrieve an old version $ rclone -q --b2-versions copy b2:cleanup-test/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt /tmp
$ls -l /tmp/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 ncw ncw 16 Jul 2 17:46 /tmp/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt  Clean up all the old versions and show that they've gone. $ rclone -q cleanup b2:cleanup-test
$rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test 9 one.txt$ rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test
9 one.txt



## Data usage

It is useful to know how many requests are sent to the server in different scenarios.

All copy commands send the following 4 requests:

/b2api/v1/b2_authorize_account
/b2api/v1/b2_create_bucket
/b2api/v1/b2_list_buckets
/b2api/v1/b2_list_file_names



The b2_list_file_names request will be sent once for every 1k files in the remote path, providing the checksum and modification time of the listed files. As of version 1.33 issue #818 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/818) causes extra requests to be sent when using B2 with Crypt. When a copy operation does not require any files to be uploaded, no more requests will be sent.

/b2api/v1/b2_get_upload_url



Uploading files requiring chunking, will send 2 requests (one each to start and finish the upload) and another 2 requests for each chunk:

/b2api/v1/b2_start_large_file
/b2api/v1/b2_finish_large_file



## Versions

Versions can be viewed with the --b2-versions flag. When it is set rclone will show and act on older versions of files. For example

Listing without --b2-versions

$rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test 9 one.txt  And with $ rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test
9 one.txt
8 one-v2016-07-04-141032-000.txt
16 one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt
15 one-v2016-07-02-155621-000.txt



Showing that the current version is unchanged but older versions can be seen. These have the UTC date that they were uploaded to the server to the nearest millisecond appended to them.

Note that when using --b2-versions no file write operations are permitted, so you can't upload files or delete them.

Rclone supports generating file share links for private B2 buckets. They can either be for a file for example:
./rclone link B2:bucket/path/to/file.txt
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/to/file.txt?Authorization=xxxxxxxx



or if run on a directory you will get:

./rclone link B2:bucket/path
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path?Authorization=xxxxxxxx



you can then use the authorization token (the part of the url from the ?Authorization= on) on any file path under that directory. For example:

https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/to/file1?Authorization=xxxxxxxx
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/file2?Authorization=xxxxxxxx
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/folder/file3?Authorization=xxxxxxxx



## Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to b2 (Backblaze B2).

## --b2-account

Account ID or Application Key ID
Config: account
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_ACCOUNT
Type: string
Default: ""

## --b2-key

Application Key
Config: key
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

## --b2-hard-delete

Permanently delete files on remote removal, otherwise hide files.
Config: hard_delete
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_HARD_DELETE
Type: bool
Default: false

Here are the advanced options specific to b2 (Backblaze B2).

## --b2-endpoint

Endpoint for the service. Leave blank normally.
Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

## --b2-test-mode

A flag string for X-Bz-Test-Mode header for debugging.

This is for debugging purposes only. Setting it to one of the strings below will cause b2 to return specific errors:

"expire_some_account_authorization_tokens"
"force_cap_exceeded"

These will be set in the "X-Bz-Test-Mode" header which is documented in the b2 integrations checklist (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/integration_checklist.html).

Config: test_mode
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_TEST_MODE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --b2-versions

Include old versions in directory listings. Note that when using this no file write operations are permitted, so you can't upload files or delete them.
Config: versions
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_VERSIONS
Type: bool
Default: false

Cutoff for switching to chunked upload.

Files above this size will be uploaded in chunks of "--b2-chunk-size".

This value should be set no larger than 4.657GiB (== 5GB).

Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 200M

## --b2-copy-cutoff

Cutoff for switching to multipart copy

Any files larger than this that need to be server-side copied will be copied in chunks of this size.

The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 4.6GB.

Config: copy_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_COPY_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 4G

## --b2-chunk-size

Upload chunk size. Must fit in memory.

When uploading large files, chunk the file into this size. Note that these chunks are buffered in memory and there might a maximum of "--transfers" chunks in progress at once. 5,000,000 Bytes is the minimum size.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 96M

## --b2-disable-checksum

Disable checksums for large (> upload cutoff) files

Normally rclone will calculate the SHA1 checksum of the input before uploading it so it can add it to metadata on the object. This is great for data integrity checking but can cause long delays for large files to start uploading.

Config: disable_checksum
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_DISABLE_CHECKSUM
Type: bool
Default: false

This is usually set to a Cloudflare CDN URL as Backblaze offers free egress for data downloaded through the Cloudflare network. Rclone works with private buckets by sending an "Authorization" header. If the custom endpoint rewrites the requests for authentication, e.g., in Cloudflare Workers, this header needs to be handled properly. Leave blank if you want to use the endpoint provided by Backblaze.

Type: string
Default: ""

Time before the authorization token will expire in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d.

The duration before the download authorization token will expire. The minimum value is 1 second. The maximum value is one week.

Type: Duration
Default: 1w

## --b2-memory-pool-flush-time

How often internal memory buffer pools will be flushed. Uploads which requires additional buffers (f.e multipart) will use memory pool for allocations. This option controls how often unused buffers will be removed from the pool.
Config: memory_pool_flush_time
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_MEMORY_POOL_FLUSH_TIME
Type: Duration
Default: 1m0s

## --b2-memory-pool-use-mmap

Whether to use mmap buffers in internal memory pool.
Config: memory_pool_use_mmap
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_MEMORY_POOL_USE_MMAP
Type: bool
Default: false

## --b2-encoding

This sets the encoding for the backend.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot

## Limitations

rclone about is not supported by the B2 backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

## Box

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, e.g. remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for Box involves getting a token from Box which you can do either in your browser, or with a config.json downloaded from Box to use JWT authentication. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config



This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Box
\ "box"
[snip]
Storage> box
Box App Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id>
Box App Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret>
Box App config.json location
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
box_config_file>
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
access_token>
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("user").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Rclone should act on behalf of a user
\ "user"
2 / Rclone should act on behalf of a service account
\ "enterprise"
box_sub_type>
Remote config
Use auto config?
* Say Y if not sure
* Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id =
client_secret =
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"XXX"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Box. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Box

rclone lsd remote:



List all the files in your Box

rclone ls remote:



To copy a local directory to an Box directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup



## Using rclone with an Enterprise account with SSO

If you have an "Enterprise" account type with Box with single sign on (SSO), you need to create a password to use Box with rclone. This can be done at your Enterprise Box account by going to Settings, "Account" Tab, and then set the password in the "Authentication" field.

Once you have done this, you can setup your Enterprise Box account using the same procedure detailed above in the, using the password you have just set.

## Invalid refresh token

According to the box docs (https://developer.box.com/v2.0/docs/oauth-20#section-6-using-the-access-and-refresh-tokens):

Each refresh_token is valid for one use in 60 days.

This means that if you

Don't use the box remote for 60 days
Copy the config file with a box refresh token in and use it in two places
Get an error on a token refresh

then rclone will return an error which includes the text Invalid refresh token.

To fix this you will need to use oauth2 again to update the refresh token. You can use the methods in the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/), bearing in mind that if you use the copy the config file method, you should not use that remote on the computer you did the authentication on.

Here is how to do it.

$rclone config Current remotes: Name Type ==== ==== remote box e) Edit existing remote n) New remote d) Delete remote r) Rename remote c) Copy remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config e/n/d/r/c/s/q> e Choose a number from below, or type in an existing value 1 > remote remote> remote -------------------- [remote] type = box token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"2017-07-08T23:40:08.059167677+01:00"} -------------------- Edit remote Value "client_id" = "" Edit? (y/n)> y) Yes n) No y/n> n Value "client_secret" = "" Edit? (y/n)> y) Yes n) No y/n> n Remote config Already have a token - refresh? y) Yes n) No y/n> y Use auto config? * Say Y if not sure * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine y) Yes n) No y/n> y If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth Log in and authorize rclone for access Waiting for code... Got code -------------------- [remote] type = box token = {"access_token":"YYY","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"YYY","expiry":"2017-07-23T12:22:29.259137901+01:00"} -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y  ## Modified time and hashes Box allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not. Box supports SHA1 type hashes, so you can use the --checksum flag. ## Restricted filename characters In addition to the default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:  Character Value Replacement \ 0x5C ＼ File names can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are the last character in the name:  Character Value Replacement SP 0x20 ␠ Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings. ## Transfers For files above 50MB rclone will use a chunked transfer. Rclone will upload up to --transfers chunks at the same time (shared among all the multipart uploads). Chunks are buffered in memory and are normally 8MB so increasing --transfers will increase memory use. ## Deleting files Depending on the enterprise settings for your user, the item will either be actually deleted from Box or moved to the trash. Emptying the trash is supported via the rclone however cleanup command however this deletes every trashed file and folder individually so it may take a very long time. Emptying the trash via the WebUI does not have this limitation so it is advised to empty the trash via the WebUI. ## Root folder ID You can set the root_folder_id for rclone. This is the directory (identified by its Folder ID) that rclone considers to be the root of your Box drive. Normally you will leave this blank and rclone will determine the correct root to use itself. However you can set this to restrict rclone to a specific folder hierarchy. In order to do this you will have to find the Folder ID of the directory you wish rclone to display. This will be the last segment of the URL when you open the relevant folder in the Box web interface. So if the folder you want rclone to use has a URL which looks like https://app.box.com/folder/11xxxxxxxxx8 in the browser, then you use 11xxxxxxxxx8 as the root_folder_id in the config. ## Standard Options Here are the standard options specific to box (Box). ## --box-client-id OAuth Client Id Leave blank normally. Config: client_id Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_CLIENT_ID Type: string Default: "" ## --box-client-secret OAuth Client Secret Leave blank normally. Config: client_secret Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_CLIENT_SECRET Type: string Default: "" ## --box-box-config-file Box App config.json location Leave blank normally. Leading ~ will be expanded in the file name as will environment variables such as${RCLONE_CONFIG_DIR}.

Config: box_config_file
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_BOX_CONFIG_FILE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --box-access-token

Config: access_token
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_ACCESS_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

## --box-box-sub-type

Config: box_sub_type
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_BOX_SUB_TYPE
Type: string
Default: "user"
Examples:
"user"
Rclone should act on behalf of a user
"enterprise"
Rclone should act on behalf of a service account

Here are the advanced options specific to box (Box).

## --box-token

Config: token
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

## --box-auth-url

Auth server URL. Leave blank to use the provider defaults.
Config: auth_url
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_AUTH_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

## --box-token-url

Token server url. Leave blank to use the provider defaults.
Config: token_url
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_TOKEN_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

## --box-root-folder-id

Fill in for rclone to use a non root folder as its starting point.
Config: root_folder_id
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_ROOT_FOLDER_ID
Type: string
Default: "0"

Cutoff for switching to multipart upload (>= 50MB).
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 50M

## --box-commit-retries

Max number of times to try committing a multipart file.
Config: commit_retries
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_COMMIT_RETRIES
Type: int
Default: 100

## --box-encoding

This sets the encoding for the backend.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,BackSlash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot

## Limitations

Note that Box is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

Box file names can't have the \ character in. rclone maps this to and from an identical looking unicode equivalent ＼ (U+FF3C Fullwidth Reverse Solidus).

Box only supports filenames up to 255 characters in length.

rclone about is not supported by the Box backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

## Cache (BETA)

The cache remote wraps another existing remote and stores file structure and its data for long running tasks like rclone mount.

## Status

The cache backend code is working but it currently doesn't have a maintainer so there are outstanding bugs (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues?q=is%3Aopen+is%3Aissue+label%3Abug+label%3A%22Remote%3A+Cache%22) which aren't getting fixed.

The cache backend is due to be phased out in favour of the VFS caching layer eventually which is more tightly integrated into rclone.

Until this happens we recommend only using the cache backend if you find you can't work without it. There are many docs online describing the use of the cache backend to minimize API hits and by-and-large these are out of date and the cache backend isn't needed in those scenarios any more.

## Setup

To get started you just need to have an existing remote which can be configured with cache.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called test-cache. First run:

rclone config



This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
q) Quit config
n/r/c/s/q> n
name> test-cache
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Cache a remote
\ "cache"
[snip]
Storage> cache
Remote to cache.
Normally should contain a ':' and a path, e.g. "myremote:path/to/dir",
"myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
remote> local:/test
Optional: The URL of the Plex server
plex_url> http://127.0.0.1:32400
Optional: The username of the Plex user
Optional: The password of the Plex user
y) Yes type in my own password
n) No leave this optional password blank
y/g/n> y
The size of a chunk. Lower value good for slow connections but can affect seamless reading.
Default: 5M
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / 1MB
\ "1m"
2 / 5 MB
\ "5M"
3 / 10 MB
\ "10M"
chunk_size> 2
How much time should object info (file size, file hashes, etc.) be stored in cache. Use a very high value if you don't plan on changing the source FS from outside the cache.
Accepted units are: "s", "m", "h".
Default: 5m
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / 1 hour
\ "1h"
2 / 24 hours
\ "24h"
3 / 24 hours
\ "48h"
info_age> 2
The maximum size of stored chunks. When the storage grows beyond this size, the oldest chunks will be deleted.
Default: 10G
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / 500 MB
\ "500M"
2 / 1 GB
\ "1G"
3 / 10 GB
\ "10G"
chunk_total_size> 3
Remote config
--------------------
[test-cache]
remote = local:/test
plex_url = http://127.0.0.1:32400
chunk_size = 5M
info_age = 48h
chunk_total_size = 10G



You can then use it like this,

List directories in top level of your drive

rclone lsd test-cache:



List all the files in your drive

rclone ls test-cache:



To start a cached mount

rclone mount --allow-other test-cache: /var/tmp/test-cache



## Write Features

In an effort to make writing through cache more reliable, the backend now supports this feature which can be activated by specifying a cache-tmp-upload-path.

A files goes through these states when using this feature:

1.
An upload is started (usually by copying a file on the cache remote)
2.
When the copy to the temporary location is complete the file is part of the cached remote and looks and behaves like any other file (reading included)
3.
After cache-tmp-wait-time passes and the file is next in line, rclone move is used to move the file to the cloud provider
4.
Reading the file still works during the upload but most modifications on it will be prohibited
5.
Once the move is complete the file is unlocked for modifications as it becomes as any other regular file
6.
If the file is being read through cache when it's actually deleted from the temporary path then cache will simply swap the source to the cloud provider without interrupting the reading (small blip can happen though)

Files are uploaded in sequence and only one file is uploaded at a time. Uploads will be stored in a queue and be processed based on the order they were added. The queue and the temporary storage is persistent across restarts but can be cleared on startup with the --cache-db-purge flag.

## Write Support

Writes are supported through cache. One caveat is that a mounted cache remote does not add any retry or fallback mechanism to the upload operation. This will depend on the implementation of the wrapped remote. Consider using Offline uploading for reliable writes.

One special case is covered with cache-writes which will cache the file data at the same time as the upload when it is enabled making it available from the cache store immediately once the upload is finished.

## Multiple connections

To counter the high latency between a local PC where rclone is running and cloud providers, the cache remote can split multiple requests to the cloud provider for smaller file chunks and combines them together locally where they can be available almost immediately before the reader usually needs them.

This is similar to buffering when media files are played online. Rclone will stay around the current marker but always try its best to stay ahead and prepare the data before.

## Plex Integration

There is a direct integration with Plex which allows cache to detect during reading if the file is in playback or not. This helps cache to adapt how it queries the cloud provider depending on what is needed for.

Scans will have a minimum amount of workers (1) while in a confirmed playback cache will deploy the configured number of workers.

This integration opens the doorway to additional performance improvements which will be explored in the near future.

Note: If Plex options are not configured, cache will function with its configured options without adapting any of its settings.

How to enable? Run rclone config and add all the Plex options (endpoint, username and password) in your remote and it will be automatically enabled.

Affected settings: - cache-workers: Configured value during confirmed playback or 1 all the other times

## Certificate Validation

When the Plex server is configured to only accept secure connections, it is possible to use .plex.direct URLs to ensure certificate validation succeeds. These URLs are used by Plex internally to connect to the Plex server securely.

The format for these URLs is the following:

https://ip-with-dots-replaced.server-hash.plex.direct:32400/

The ip-with-dots-replaced part can be any IPv4 address, where the dots have been replaced with dashes, e.g. 127.0.0.1 becomes 127-0-0-1.

To get the server-hash part, the easiest way is to visit

https://plex.tv/api/resources?includeHttps=1&X-Plex-Token=your-plex-token

This page will list all the available Plex servers for your account with at least one .plex.direct link for each. Copy one URL and replace the IP address with the desired address. This can be used as the plex_url value.

## Mount and --dir-cache-time

--dir-cache-time controls the first layer of directory caching which works at the mount layer. Being an independent caching mechanism from the cache backend, it will manage its own entries based on the configured time.

To avoid getting in a scenario where dir cache has obsolete data and cache would have the correct one, try to set --dir-cache-time to a lower time than --cache-info-age. Default values are already configured in this way.

## Windows support - Experimental

There are a couple of issues with Windows mount functionality that still require some investigations. It should be considered as experimental thus far as fixes come in for this OS.

Most of the issues seem to be related to the difference between filesystems on Linux flavors and Windows as cache is heavily dependent on them.

Any reports or feedback on how cache behaves on this OS is greatly appreciated.

https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1935
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1907
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1834

## Risk of throttling

Future iterations of the cache backend will make use of the pooling functionality of the cloud provider to synchronize and at the same time make writing through it more tolerant to failures.

There are a couple of enhancements in track to add these but in the meantime there is a valid concern that the expiring cache listings can lead to cloud provider throttles or bans due to repeated queries on it for very large mounts.

Some recommendations: - don't use a very small interval for entry information (--cache-info-age) - while writes aren't yet optimised, you can still write through cache which gives you the advantage of adding the file in the cache at the same time if configured to do so.

Future enhancements:

https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1937
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1936

## cache and crypt

One common scenario is to keep your data encrypted in the cloud provider using the crypt remote. crypt uses a similar technique to wrap around an existing remote and handles this translation in a seamless way.

There is an issue with wrapping the remotes in this order: cloud remote -> crypt -> cache

During testing, I experienced a lot of bans with the remotes in this order. I suspect it might be related to how crypt opens files on the cloud provider which makes it think we're downloading the full file instead of small chunks. Organizing the remotes in this order yields better results: cloud remote -> cache -> crypt

## absolute remote paths

cache can not differentiate between relative and absolute paths for the wrapped remote. Any path given in the remote config setting and on the command line will be passed to the wrapped remote as is, but for storing the chunks on disk the path will be made relative by removing any leading / character.

This behavior is irrelevant for most backend types, but there are backends where a leading / changes the effective directory, e.g. in the sftp backend paths starting with a / are relative to the root of the SSH server and paths without are relative to the user home directory. As a result sftp:bin and sftp:/bin will share the same cache folder, even if they represent a different directory on the SSH server.

## Cache and Remote Control (--rc)

Cache supports the new --rc mode in rclone and can be remote controlled through the following end points: By default, the listener is disabled if you do not add the flag.

## rc cache/expire

Purge a remote from the cache backend. Supports either a directory or a file. It supports both encrypted and unencrypted file names if cache is wrapped by crypt.

Params: - remote = path to remote (required) - withData = true/false to delete cached data (chunks) as well (optional, false by default)

## Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to cache (Cache a remote).

## --cache-remote

Remote to cache. Normally should contain a ':' and a path, e.g. "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --cache-plex-url

The URL of the Plex server
Config: plex_url
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

The username of the Plex user
Type: string
Default: ""

The password of the Plex user

NB Input to this must be obscured - see rclone obscure (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_obscure/).

Type: string
Default: ""

## --cache-chunk-size

The size of a chunk (partial file data).

Use lower numbers for slower connections. If the chunk size is changed, any downloaded chunks will be invalid and cache-chunk-path will need to be cleared or unexpected EOF errors will occur.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 5M
Examples:
"1m"
1MB
"5M"
5 MB
"10M"
10 MB

## --cache-info-age

How long to cache file structure information (directory listings, file size, times, etc.). If all write operations are done through the cache then you can safely make this value very large as the cache store will also be updated in real time.
Config: info_age
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_INFO_AGE
Type: Duration
Default: 6h0m0s
Examples:
"1h"
1 hour
"24h"
24 hours
"48h"
48 hours

## --cache-chunk-total-size

The total size that the chunks can take up on the local disk.

If the cache exceeds this value then it will start to delete the oldest chunks until it goes under this value.

Config: chunk_total_size
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_TOTAL_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 10G
Examples:
"500M"
500 MB
"1G"
1 GB
"10G"
10 GB

Here are the advanced options specific to cache (Cache a remote).

## --cache-plex-token

The plex token for authentication - auto set normally
Config: plex_token
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

## --cache-plex-insecure

Skip all certificate verification when connecting to the Plex server
Config: plex_insecure
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_INSECURE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --cache-db-path

Directory to store file structure metadata DB. The remote name is used as the DB file name.
Config: db_path
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_DB_PATH
Type: string

## --cache-db-purge

Clear all the cached data for this remote on start.
Config: db_purge
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_DB_PURGE
Type: bool
Default: false

## --cache-chunk-clean-interval

How often should the cache perform cleanups of the chunk storage. The default value should be ok for most people. If you find that the cache goes over "cache-chunk-total-size" too often then try to lower this value to force it to perform cleanups more often.
Config: chunk_clean_interval
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_CLEAN_INTERVAL
Type: Duration
Default: 1m0s

How many times to retry a read from a cache storage.

Since reading from a cache stream is independent from downloading file data, readers can get to a point where there's no more data in the cache. Most of the times this can indicate a connectivity issue if cache isn't able to provide file data anymore.

For really slow connections, increase this to a point where the stream is able to provide data but your experience will be very stuttering.

Type: int
Default: 10

## --cache-workers

Higher values will mean more parallel processing (better CPU needed) and more concurrent requests on the cloud provider. This impacts several aspects like the cloud provider API limits, more stress on the hardware that rclone runs on but it also means that streams will be more fluid and data will be available much more faster to readers.

Note: If the optional Plex integration is enabled then this setting will adapt to the type of reading performed and the value specified here will be used as a maximum number of workers to use.

Config: workers
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_WORKERS
Type: int
Default: 4

## --cache-chunk-no-memory

Disable the in-memory cache for storing chunks during streaming.

By default, cache will keep file data during streaming in RAM as well to provide it to readers as fast as possible.

This transient data is evicted as soon as it is read and the number of chunks stored doesn't exceed the number of workers. However, depending on other settings like "cache-chunk-size" and "cache-workers" this footprint can increase if there are parallel streams too (multiple files being read at the same time).

If the hardware permits it, use this feature to provide an overall better performance during streaming but it can also be disabled if RAM is not available on the local machine.

Config: chunk_no_memory
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_NO_MEMORY
Type: bool
Default: false

## --cache-rps

Limits the number of requests per second to the source FS (-1 to disable)

This setting places a hard limit on the number of requests per second that cache will be doing to the cloud provider remote and try to respect that value by setting waits between reads.

If you find that you're getting banned or limited on the cloud provider through cache and know that a smaller number of requests per second will allow you to work with it then you can use this setting for that.

A good balance of all the other settings should make this setting useless but it is available to set for more special cases.

NOTE: This will limit the number of requests during streams but other API calls to the cloud provider like directory listings will still pass.

Config: rps
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_RPS
Type: int
Default: -1

## --cache-writes

Cache file data on writes through the FS

If you need to read files immediately after you upload them through cache you can enable this flag to have their data stored in the cache store at the same time during upload.

Config: writes
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_WRITES
Type: bool
Default: false

Directory to keep temporary files until they are uploaded.

This is the path where cache will use as a temporary storage for new files that need to be uploaded to the cloud provider.

Specifying a value will enable this feature. Without it, it is completely disabled and files will be uploaded directly to the cloud provider

Type: string
Default: ""

## --cache-tmp-wait-time

How long should files be stored in local cache before being uploaded

This is the duration that a file must wait in the temporary location cache-tmp-upload-path before it is selected for upload.

Note that only one file is uploaded at a time and it can take longer to start the upload if a queue formed for this purpose.

Config: tmp_wait_time
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_TMP_WAIT_TIME
Type: Duration
Default: 15s

## --cache-db-wait-time

How long to wait for the DB to be available - 0 is unlimited

Only one process can have the DB open at any one time, so rclone waits for this duration for the DB to become available before it gives an error.

If you set it to 0 then it will wait forever.

Config: db_wait_time
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_DB_WAIT_TIME
Type: Duration
Default: 1s

## Backend commands

Here are the commands specific to the cache backend.

Run them with

rclone backend COMMAND remote:



The help below will explain what arguments each command takes.

See the "rclone backend" command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_backend/) for more info on how to pass options and arguments.

These can be run on a running backend using the rc command backend/command (https://rclone.org/rc/#backend/command).

## stats

Print stats on the cache backend in JSON format.
rclone backend stats remote: [options] [<arguments>+]



## Chunker (BETA)

The chunker overlay transparently splits large files into smaller chunks during upload to wrapped remote and transparently assembles them back when the file is downloaded. This allows to effectively overcome size limits imposed by storage providers.

To use it, first set up the underlying remote following the configuration instructions for that remote. You can also use a local pathname instead of a remote.

First check your chosen remote is working - we'll call it remote:path here. Note that anything inside remote:path will be chunked and anything outside won't. This means that if you are using a bucket based remote (e.g. S3, B2, swift) then you should probably put the bucket in the remote s3:bucket.

Now configure chunker using rclone config. We will call this one overlay to separate it from the remote itself.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> overlay
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Transparently chunk/split large files
\ "chunker"
[snip]
Storage> chunker
Remote to chunk/unchunk.
Normally should contain a ':' and a path, e.g. "myremote:path/to/dir",
"myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
remote> remote:path
Files larger than chunk size will be split in chunks.
Enter a size with suffix k,M,G,T. Press Enter for the default ("2G").
chunk_size> 100M
Choose how chunker handles hash sums. All modes but "none" require metadata.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("md5").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Pass any hash supported by wrapped remote for non-chunked files, return nothing otherwise
\ "none"
2 / MD5 for composite files
\ "md5"
3 / SHA1 for composite files
\ "sha1"
4 / MD5 for all files
\ "md5all"
5 / SHA1 for all files
\ "sha1all"
6 / Copying a file to chunker will request MD5 from the source falling back to SHA1 if unsupported
\ "md5quick"
7 / Similar to "md5quick" but prefers SHA1 over MD5
\ "sha1quick"
hash_type> md5
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[overlay]
type = chunker
remote = remote:bucket
chunk_size = 100M
hash_type = md5
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



## Specifying the remote

In normal use, make sure the remote has a : in. If you specify the remote without a : then rclone will use a local directory of that name. So if you use a remote of /path/to/secret/files then rclone will chunk stuff in that directory. If you use a remote of name then rclone will put files in a directory called name in the current directory.

## Chunking

When rclone starts a file upload, chunker checks the file size. If it doesn't exceed the configured chunk size, chunker will just pass the file to the wrapped remote. If a file is large, chunker will transparently cut data in pieces with temporary names and stream them one by one, on the fly. Each data chunk will contain the specified number of bytes, except for the last one which may have less data. If file size is unknown in advance (this is called a streaming upload), chunker will internally create a temporary copy, record its size and repeat the above process.

When upload completes, temporary chunk files are finally renamed. This scheme guarantees that operations can be run in parallel and look from outside as atomic. A similar method with hidden temporary chunks is used for other operations (copy/move/rename, etc.). If an operation fails, hidden chunks are normally destroyed, and the target composite file stays intact.

When a composite file download is requested, chunker transparently assembles it by concatenating data chunks in order. As the split is trivial one could even manually concatenate data chunks together to obtain the original content.

When the list rclone command scans a directory on wrapped remote, the potential chunk files are accounted for, grouped and assembled into composite directory entries. Any temporary chunks are hidden.

List and other commands can sometimes come across composite files with missing or invalid chunks, e.g. shadowed by like-named directory or another file. This usually means that wrapped file system has been directly tampered with or damaged. If chunker detects a missing chunk it will by default print warning, skip the whole incomplete group of chunks but proceed with current command. You can set the --chunker-fail-hard flag to have commands abort with error message in such cases.

## Chunk names

The default chunk name format is *.rclone_chunk.###, hence by default chunk names are BIG_FILE_NAME.rclone_chunk.001, BIG_FILE_NAME.rclone_chunk.002 etc. You can configure another name format using the name_format configuration file option. The format uses asterisk * as a placeholder for the base file name and one or more consecutive hash characters # as a placeholder for sequential chunk number. There must be one and only one asterisk. The number of consecutive hash characters defines the minimum length of a string representing a chunk number. If decimal chunk number has less digits than the number of hashes, it is left-padded by zeros. If the decimal string is longer, it is left intact. By default numbering starts from 1 but there is another option that allows user to start from 0, e.g. for compatibility with legacy software.

For example, if name format is big_*-##.part and original file name is data.txt and numbering starts from 0, then the first chunk will be named big_data.txt-00.part, the 99th chunk will be big_data.txt-98.part and the 302nd chunk will become big_data.txt-301.part.

Note that list assembles composite directory entries only when chunk names match the configured format and treats non-conforming file names as normal non-chunked files.

Besides data chunks chunker will by default create metadata object for a composite file. The object is named after the original file. Chunker allows user to disable metadata completely (the none format). Note that metadata is normally not created for files smaller than the configured chunk size. This may change in future rclone releases.

This is the default format. It supports hash sums and chunk validation for composite files. Meta objects carry the following fields:
ver - version of format, currently 1
size - total size of composite file
nchunks - number of data chunks in file
md5 - MD5 hashsum of composite file (if present)
sha1 - SHA1 hashsum (if present)

There is no field for composite file name as it's simply equal to the name of meta object on the wrapped remote. Please refer to respective sections for details on hashsums and modified time handling.

You can disable meta objects by setting the meta format option to none. In this mode chunker will scan directory for all files that follow configured chunk name format, group them by detecting chunks with the same base name and show group names as virtual composite files. This method is more prone to missing chunk errors (especially missing last chunk) than format with metadata enabled.

## Hashsums

Chunker supports hashsums only when a compatible metadata is present. Hence, if you choose metadata format of none, chunker will report hashsum as UNSUPPORTED.

Please note that by default metadata is stored only for composite files. If a file is smaller than configured chunk size, chunker will transparently redirect hash requests to wrapped remote, so support depends on that. You will see the empty string as a hashsum of requested type for small files if the wrapped remote doesn't support it.

Many storage backends support MD5 and SHA1 hash types, so does chunker. With chunker you can choose one or another but not both. MD5 is set by default as the most supported type. Since chunker keeps hashes for composite files and falls back to the wrapped remote hash for non-chunked ones, we advise you to choose the same hash type as supported by wrapped remote so that your file listings look coherent.

If your storage backend does not support MD5 or SHA1 but you need consistent file hashing, configure chunker with md5all or sha1all. These two modes guarantee given hash for all files. If wrapped remote doesn't support it, chunker will then add metadata to all files, even small. However, this can double the amount of small files in storage and incur additional service charges. You can even use chunker to force md5/sha1 support in any other remote at expense of sidecar meta objects by setting e.g. chunk_type=sha1all to force hashsums and chunk_size=1P to effectively disable chunking.

Normally, when a file is copied to chunker controlled remote, chunker will ask the file source for compatible file hash and revert to on-the-fly calculation if none is found. This involves some CPU overhead but provides a guarantee that given hashsum is available. Also, chunker will reject a server-side copy or move operation if source and destination hashsum types are different resulting in the extra network bandwidth, too. In some rare cases this may be undesired, so chunker provides two optional choices: sha1quick and md5quick. If the source does not support primary hash type and the quick mode is enabled, chunker will try to fall back to the secondary type. This will save CPU and bandwidth but can result in empty hashsums at destination. Beware of consequences: the sync command will revert (sometimes silently) to time/size comparison if compatible hashsums between source and target are not found.

## Modified time

Chunker stores modification times using the wrapped remote so support depends on that. For a small non-chunked file the chunker overlay simply manipulates modification time of the wrapped remote file. For a composite file with metadata chunker will get and set modification time of the metadata object on the wrapped remote. If file is chunked but metadata format is none then chunker will use modification time of the first data chunk.

## Migrations

The idiomatic way to migrate to a different chunk size, hash type or chunk naming scheme is to:
Collect all your chunked files under a directory and have your chunker remote point to it.
Create another directory (most probably on the same cloud storage) and configure a new remote with desired metadata format, hash type, chunk naming etc.
Now run rclone sync -i oldchunks: newchunks: and all your data will be transparently converted in transfer. This may take some time, yet chunker will try server-side copy if possible.
After checking data integrity you may remove configuration section of the old remote.

If rclone gets killed during a long operation on a big composite file, hidden temporary chunks may stay in the directory. They will not be shown by the list command but will eat up your account quota. Please note that the deletefile command deletes only active chunks of a file. As a workaround, you can use remote of the wrapped file system to see them. An easy way to get rid of hidden garbage is to copy littered directory somewhere using the chunker remote and purge the original directory. The copy command will copy only active chunks while the purge will remove everything including garbage.

## Caveats and Limitations

Chunker requires wrapped remote to support server-side move (or copy + delete) operations, otherwise it will explicitly refuse to start. This is because it internally renames temporary chunk files to their final names when an operation completes successfully.

Chunker encodes chunk number in file name, so with default name_format setting it adds 17 characters. Also chunker adds 7 characters of temporary suffix during operations. Many file systems limit base file name without path by 255 characters. Using rclone's crypt remote as a base file system limits file name by 143 characters. Thus, maximum name length is 231 for most files and 119 for chunker-over-crypt. A user in need can change name format to e.g. *.rcc## and save 10 characters (provided at most 99 chunks per file).

Note that a move implemented using the copy-and-delete method may incur double charging with some cloud storage providers.

Chunker will not automatically rename existing chunks when you run rclone config on a live remote and change the chunk name format. Beware that in result of this some files which have been treated as chunks before the change can pop up in directory listings as normal files and vice versa. The same warning holds for the chunk size. If you desperately need to change critical chunking settings, you should run data migration as described above.

If wrapped remote is case insensitive, the chunker overlay will inherit that property (so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and "hello.doc" in the same directory).

Chunker included in rclone releases up to v1.54 can sometimes fail to detect metadata produced by recent versions of rclone. We recommend users to keep rclone up-to-date to avoid data corruption.

## Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to chunker (Transparently chunk/split large files).

## --chunker-remote

Remote to chunk/unchunk. Normally should contain a ':' and a path, e.g. "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --chunker-chunk-size

Files larger than chunk size will be split in chunks.
Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 2G

## --chunker-hash-type

Choose how chunker handles hash sums. All modes but "none" require metadata.
Config: hash_type
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_HASH_TYPE
Type: string
Default: "md5"
Examples:
"none"
Pass any hash supported by wrapped remote for non-chunked files, return nothing otherwise
"md5"
MD5 for composite files
"sha1"
SHA1 for composite files
"md5all"
MD5 for all files
"sha1all"
SHA1 for all files
"md5quick"
Copying a file to chunker will request MD5 from the source falling back to SHA1 if unsupported
"sha1quick"
Similar to "md5quick" but prefers SHA1 over MD5

Here are the advanced options specific to chunker (Transparently chunk/split large files).

## --chunker-name-format

String format of chunk file names. The two placeholders are: base file name (*) and chunk number (#...). There must be one and only one asterisk and one or more consecutive hash characters. If chunk number has less digits than the number of hashes, it is left-padded by zeros. If there are more digits in the number, they are left as is. Possible chunk files are ignored if their name does not match given format.
Config: name_format
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_NAME_FORMAT
Type: string
Default: "*.rclone_chunk.###"

## --chunker-start-from

Minimum valid chunk number. Usually 0 or 1. By default chunk numbers start from 1.
Config: start_from
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_START_FROM
Type: int
Default: 1

## --chunker-meta-format

Format of the metadata object or "none". By default "simplejson". Metadata is a small JSON file named after the composite file.
Config: meta_format
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_META_FORMAT
Type: string
Default: "simplejson"
Examples:
"none"
Do not use metadata files at all. Requires hash type "none".
"simplejson"
Simple JSON supports hash sums and chunk validation.
It has the following fields: ver, size, nchunks, md5, sha1.

## --chunker-fail-hard

Choose how chunker should handle files with missing or invalid chunks.
Config: fail_hard
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_FAIL_HARD
Type: bool
Default: false
Examples:
"true"
"false"
Warn user, skip incomplete file and proceed.

## Citrix ShareFile

Citrix ShareFile (https://sharefile.com) is a secure file sharing and transfer service aimed as business.

The initial setup for Citrix ShareFile involves getting a token from Citrix ShareFile which you can in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config



This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
XX / Citrix Sharefile
\ "sharefile"
Storage> sharefile
** See help for sharefile backend at: https://rclone.org/sharefile/ **
ID of the root folder
Leave blank to access "Personal Folders".  You can use one of the
standard values here or any folder ID (long hex number ID).
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Access the Personal Folders. (Default)
\ ""
2 / Access the Favorites folder.
\ "favorites"
3 / Access all the shared folders.
\ "allshared"
4 / Access all the individual connectors.
\ "connectors"
5 / Access the home, favorites, and shared folders as well as the connectors.
\ "top"
root_folder_id>
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
Use auto config?
* Say Y if not sure
* Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth?state=XXX
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
type = sharefile
endpoint = https://XXX.sharefile.com
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"2019-09-30T19:41:45.878561877+01:00"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Citrix ShareFile. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your ShareFile

rclone lsd remote:



List all the files in your ShareFile

rclone ls remote:



To copy a local directory to an ShareFile directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup



Paths may be as deep as required, e.g. remote:directory/subdirectory.

## Modified time and hashes

ShareFile allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not.

ShareFile supports MD5 type hashes, so you can use the --checksum flag.

## Transfers

For files above 128MB rclone will use a chunked transfer. Rclone will upload up to --transfers chunks at the same time (shared among all the multipart uploads). Chunks are buffered in memory and are normally 64MB so increasing --transfers will increase memory use.

## Limitations

Note that ShareFile is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

ShareFile only supports filenames up to 256 characters in length.

## Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:
 Character Value Replacement \ 0x5C ＼ * 0x2A ＊ < 0x3C ＜ > 0x3E ＞ ? 0x3F ？ : 0x3A ： | 0x7C ｜ " 0x22 ＂

File names can also not start or end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are the first or last character in the name:

 Character Value Replacement SP 0x20 ␠ . 0x2E ．

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

## Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to sharefile (Citrix Sharefile).

## --sharefile-root-folder-id

ID of the root folder

Leave blank to access "Personal Folders". You can use one of the standard values here or any folder ID (long hex number ID).

Config: root_folder_id
Env Var: RCLONE_SHAREFILE_ROOT_FOLDER_ID
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Access the Personal Folders. (Default)
"favorites"
Access the Favorites folder.
"allshared"
Access all the shared folders.
"connectors"
Access all the individual connectors.
"top"
Access the home, favorites, and shared folders as well as the connectors.

Here are the advanced options specific to sharefile (Citrix Sharefile).

Cutoff for switching to multipart upload.
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 128M

## --sharefile-chunk-size

Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k.

Making this larger will improve performance, but note that each chunk is buffered in memory one per transfer.

Reducing this will reduce memory usage but decrease performance.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_SHAREFILE_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 64M

## --sharefile-endpoint

Endpoint for API calls.

This is usually auto discovered as part of the oauth process, but can be set manually to something like: https://XXX.sharefile.com

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_SHAREFILE_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

## --sharefile-encoding

This sets the encoding for the backend.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_SHAREFILE_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,LtGt,DoubleQuote,Colon,Question,Asterisk,Pipe,BackSlash,Ctl,LeftSpace,LeftPeriod,RightSpace,RightPeriod,InvalidUtf8,Dot

## Limitations

rclone about is not supported by the Citrix ShareFile backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

## Crypt

Rclone crypt remotes encrypt and decrypt other remotes.

A remote of type crypt does not access a storage system (https://rclone.org/overview/) directly, but instead wraps another remote, which in turn accesses the storage system. This is similar to how alias (https://rclone.org/alias/), union (https://rclone.org/union/), chunker (https://rclone.org/chunker/) and a few others work. It makes the usage very flexible, as you can add a layer, in this case an encryption layer, on top of any other backend, even in multiple layers. Rclone's functionality can be used as with any other remote, for example you can mount (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/) a crypt remote.

The encryption is a secret-key encryption (also called symmetric key encryption) algorithm, where a password (or pass phrase) is used to generate real encryption key. The password can be supplied by user, or you may chose to let rclone generate one. It will be stored in the configuration file, in a lightly obscured form. If you are in an environment where you are not able to keep your configuration secured, you should add configuration encryption (https://rclone.org/docs/#configuration-encryption) as protection. As long as you have this configuration file, you will be able to decrypt your data. Without the configuration file, as long as you remember the password (or keep it in a safe place), you can re-create the configuration and gain access to the existing data. You may also configure a corresponding remote in a different installation to access the same data. See below for guidance to changing password.

Encryption uses cryptographic salt (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_(cryptography)), to permute the encryption key so that the same string may be encrypted in different ways. When configuring the crypt remote it is optional to enter a salt, or to let rclone generate a unique salt. If omitted, rclone uses a built-in unique string. Normally in cryptography, the salt is stored together with the encrypted content, and do not have to be memorized by the user. This is not the case in rclone, because rclone does not store any additional information on the remotes. Use of custom salt is effectively a second password that must be memorized.

File content encryption is performed using NaCl SecretBox (https://godoc.org/golang.org/x/crypto/nacl/secretbox), based on XSalsa20 cipher and Poly1305 for integrity. Names (file- and directory names) are also encrypted by default, but this has some implications and is therefore possible to turned off.

## Configuration

Here is an example of how to make a remote called secret.

To use crypt, first set up the underlying remote. Follow the rclone config instructions for the specific backend.

Before configuring the crypt remote, check the underlying remote is working. In this example the underlying remote is called remote. We will configure a path path within this remote to contain the encrypted content. Anything inside remote:path will be encrypted and anything outside will not.

Configure crypt using rclone config. In this example the crypt remote is called secret, to differentiate it from the underlying remote.

When you are done you can use the crypt remote named secret just as you would with any other remote, e.g. rclone copy D:\docs secret:\docs, and rclone will encrypt and decrypt as needed on the fly. If you access the wrapped remote remote:path directly you will bypass the encryption, and anything you read will be in encrypted form, and anything you write will be unencrypted. To avoid issues it is best to configure a dedicated path for encrypted content, and access it exclusively through a crypt remote.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> secret
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Encrypt/Decrypt a remote
\ "crypt"
[snip]
Storage> crypt
** See help for crypt backend at: https://rclone.org/crypt/ **
Remote to encrypt/decrypt.
Normally should contain a ':' and a path, eg "myremote:path/to/dir",
"myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
remote> remote:path
How to encrypt the filenames.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("standard").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Encrypt the filenames see the docs for the details.
\ "standard"
2 / Very simple filename obfuscation.
\ "obfuscate"
3 / Don't encrypt the file names.  Adds a ".bin" extension only.
\ "off"
filename_encryption>
Option to either encrypt directory names or leave them intact.
NB If filename_encryption is "off" then this option will do nothing.
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("true").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Encrypt directory names.
\ "true"
2 / Don't encrypt directory names, leave them intact.
\ "false"
directory_name_encryption>
Password or pass phrase for encryption.
y) Yes type in my own password
y/g> y
Password or pass phrase for salt. Optional but recommended.
Should be different to the previous password.
y) Yes type in my own password
n) No leave this optional password blank (default)
y/g/n> g
128 is secure
1024 is the maximum
Bits> 128
configuration file, so keep this generated password in a safe place.
y) Yes (default)
n) No
y/n>
y) Yes
n) No (default)
y/n>
Remote config
--------------------
[secret]
type = crypt
remote = remote:path
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK (default)
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d>



Important The crypt password stored in rclone.conf is lightly obscured. That only protects it from cursory inspection. It is not secure unless configuration encryption (https://rclone.org/docs/#configuration-encryption) of rclone.conf is specified.

A long passphrase is recommended, or rclone config can generate a random one.

The obscured password is created using AES-CTR with a static key. The salt is stored verbatim at the beginning of the obscured password. This static key is shared between all versions of rclone.

If you reconfigure rclone with the same passwords/passphrases elsewhere it will be compatible, but the obscured version will be different due to the different salt.

Rclone does not encrypt

file length - this can be calculated within 16 bytes
modification time - used for syncing

## Specifying the remote

When configuring the remote to encrypt/decrypt, you may specify any string that rclone accepts as a source/destination of other commands.

The primary use case is to specify the path into an already configured remote (e.g. remote:path/to/dir or remote:bucket), such that data in a remote untrusted location can be stored encrypted.

You may also specify a local filesystem path, such as /path/to/dir on Linux, C:\path\to\dir on Windows. By creating a crypt remote pointing to such a local filesystem path, you can use rclone as a utility for pure local file encryption, for example to keep encrypted files on a removable USB drive.

Note: A string which do not contain a : will by rclone be treated as a relative path in the local filesystem. For example, if you enter the name remote without the trailing :, it will be treated as a subdirectory of the current directory with name "remote".

If a path remote:path/to/dir is specified, rclone stores encrypted files in path/to/dir on the remote. With file name encryption, files saved to secret:subdir/subfile are stored in the unencrypted path path/to/dir but the subdir/subpath element is encrypted.

The path you specify does not have to exist, rclone will create it when needed.

If you intend to use the wrapped remote both directly for keeping unencrypted content, as well as through a crypt remote for encrypted content, it is recommended to point the crypt remote to a separate directory within the wrapped remote. If you use a bucket based storage system (e.g. Swift, S3, Google Compute Storage, B2, Hubic) it is generally advisable to wrap the crypt remote around a specific bucket (s3:bucket). If wrapping around the entire root of the storage (s3:), and use the optional file name encryption, rclone will encrypt the bucket name.

Note: A security problem related to the random password generator was fixed in rclone version 1.53.3 (released 2020-11-19). Passwords generated by rclone config in version 1.49.0 (released 2019-08-26) to 1.53.2 (released 2020-10-26) are not considered secure and should be changed. If you made up your own password, or used rclone version older than 1.49.0 or newer than 1.53.2 to generate it, you are not affected by this issue. See issue #4783 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/4783) for more details, and a tool you can use to check if you are affected.

## Example

Create the following file structure using "standard" file name encryption.
plaintext/
├── file0.txt
├── file1.txt
└── subdir
├── file2.txt
├── file3.txt
└── subsubdir
└── file4.txt



Copy these to the remote, and list them

$rclone -q copy plaintext secret:$ rclone -q ls secret:
7 file1.txt
6 file0.txt
8 subdir/file2.txt
10 subdir/subsubdir/file4.txt
9 subdir/file3.txt



The crypt remote looks like

$rclone -q ls remote:path 55 hagjclgavj2mbiqm6u6cnjjqcg 54 v05749mltvv1tf4onltun46gls 57 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/dlj7fkq4kdq72emafg7a7s41uo 58 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/7uu829995du6o42n32otfhjqp4/b9pausrfansjth5ob3jkdqd4lc 56 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/8njh1sk437gttmep3p70g81aps  The directory structure is preserved $ rclone -q ls secret:subdir
8 file2.txt
9 file3.txt
10 subsubdir/file4.txt



Without file name encryption .bin extensions are added to underlying names. This prevents the cloud provider attempting to interpret file content.

$rclone -q ls remote:path 54 file0.txt.bin 57 subdir/file3.txt.bin 56 subdir/file2.txt.bin 58 subdir/subsubdir/file4.txt.bin 55 file1.txt.bin  ## File name encryption modes Off doesn't hide file names or directory structure allows for longer file names (~246 characters) can use sub paths and copy single files Standard file names encrypted file names can't be as long (~143 characters) can use sub paths and copy single files directory structure visible identical files names will have identical uploaded names can use shortcuts to shorten the directory recursion Obfuscation This is a simple "rotate" of the filename, with each file having a rot distance based on the filename. Rclone stores the distance at the beginning of the filename. A file called "hello" may become "53.jgnnq". Obfuscation is not a strong encryption of filenames, but hinders automated scanning tools picking up on filename patterns. It is an intermediate between "off" and "standard" which allows for longer path segment names. There is a possibility with some unicode based filenames that the obfuscation is weak and may map lower case characters to upper case equivalents. Obfuscation cannot be relied upon for strong protection. file names very lightly obfuscated file names can be longer than standard encryption can use sub paths and copy single files directory structure visible identical files names will have identical uploaded names Cloud storage systems have limits on file name length and total path length which rclone is more likely to breach using "Standard" file name encryption. Where file names are less thn 156 characters in length issues should not be encountered, irrespective of cloud storage provider. An alternative, future rclone file name encryption mode may tolerate backend provider path length limits. ## Directory name encryption Crypt offers the option of encrypting dir names or leaving them intact. There are two options: True Encrypts the whole file path including directory names Example: 1/12/123.txt is encrypted to p0e52nreeaj0a5ea7s64m4j72s/l42g6771hnv3an9cgc8cr2n1ng/qgm4avr35m5loi1th53ato71v0 False Only encrypts file names, skips directory names Example: 1/12/123.txt is encrypted to 1/12/qgm4avr35m5loi1th53ato71v0 ## Modified time and hashes Crypt stores modification times using the underlying remote so support depends on that. Hashes are not stored for crypt. However the data integrity is protected by an extremely strong crypto authenticator. Use the rclone cryptcheck command to check the integrity of a crypted remote instead of rclone check which can't check the checksums properly. ## Standard Options Here are the standard options specific to crypt (Encrypt/Decrypt a remote). ## --crypt-remote Remote to encrypt/decrypt. Normally should contain a ':' and a path, e.g. "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended). Config: remote Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_REMOTE Type: string Default: "" ## --crypt-filename-encryption How to encrypt the filenames. Config: filename_encryption Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_FILENAME_ENCRYPTION Type: string Default: "standard" Examples: "standard" Encrypt the filenames see the docs for the details. "obfuscate" Very simple filename obfuscation. "off" Don't encrypt the file names. Adds a ".bin" extension only. ## --crypt-directory-name-encryption Option to either encrypt directory names or leave them intact. NB If filename_encryption is "off" then this option will do nothing. Config: directory_name_encryption Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_DIRECTORY_NAME_ENCRYPTION Type: bool Default: true Examples: "true" Encrypt directory names. "false" Don't encrypt directory names, leave them intact. ## --crypt-password Password or pass phrase for encryption. NB Input to this must be obscured - see rclone obscure (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_obscure/). Config: password Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_PASSWORD Type: string Default: "" ## --crypt-password2 Password or pass phrase for salt. Optional but recommended. Should be different to the previous password. NB Input to this must be obscured - see rclone obscure (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_obscure/). Config: password2 Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_PASSWORD2 Type: string Default: "" ## Advanced Options Here are the advanced options specific to crypt (Encrypt/Decrypt a remote). ## --crypt-server-side-across-configs Allow server-side operations (e.g. copy) to work across different crypt configs. Normally this option is not what you want, but if you have two crypts pointing to the same backend you can use it. This can be used, for example, to change file name encryption type without re-uploading all the data. Just make two crypt backends pointing to two different directories with the single changed parameter and use rclone move to move the files between the crypt remotes. Config: server_side_across_configs Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_SERVER_SIDE_ACROSS_CONFIGS Type: bool Default: false ## --crypt-show-mapping For all files listed show how the names encrypt. If this flag is set then for each file that the remote is asked to list, it will log (at level INFO) a line stating the decrypted file name and the encrypted file name. This is so you can work out which encrypted names are which decrypted names just in case you need to do something with the encrypted file names, or for debugging purposes. Config: show_mapping Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_SHOW_MAPPING Type: bool Default: false ## Backend commands Here are the commands specific to the crypt backend. Run them with rclone backend COMMAND remote:  The help below will explain what arguments each command takes. See the "rclone backend" command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_backend/) for more info on how to pass options and arguments. These can be run on a running backend using the rc command backend/command (https://rclone.org/rc/#backend/command). ## encode Encode the given filename(s) rclone backend encode remote: [options] [<arguments>+]  This encodes the filenames given as arguments returning a list of strings of the encoded results. Usage Example: rclone backend encode crypt: file1 [file2...] rclone rc backend/command command=encode fs=crypt: file1 [file2...]  ## decode Decode the given filename(s) rclone backend decode remote: [options] [<arguments>+]  This decodes the filenames given as arguments returning a list of strings of the decoded results. It will return an error if any of the inputs are invalid. Usage Example: rclone backend decode crypt: encryptedfile1 [encryptedfile2...] rclone rc backend/command command=decode fs=crypt: encryptedfile1 [encryptedfile2...]  ## Backing up a crypted remote If you wish to backup a crypted remote, it is recommended that you use rclone sync on the encrypted files, and make sure the passwords are the same in the new encrypted remote. This will have the following advantages rclone sync will check the checksums while copying you can use rclone check between the encrypted remotes you don't decrypt and encrypt unnecessarily For example, let's say you have your original remote at remote: with the encrypted version at eremote: with path remote:crypt. You would then set up the new remote remote2: and then the encrypted version eremote2: with path remote2:crypt using the same passwords as eremote:. To sync the two remotes you would do rclone sync -i remote:crypt remote2:crypt  And to check the integrity you would do rclone check remote:crypt remote2:crypt  ## File formats ## File encryption Files are encrypted 1:1 source file to destination object. The file has a header and is divided into chunks. 8 bytes magic string RCLONE\x00\x00 24 bytes Nonce (IV) The initial nonce is generated from the operating systems crypto strong random number generator. The nonce is incremented for each chunk read making sure each nonce is unique for each block written. The chance of a nonce being re-used is minuscule. If you wrote an exabyte of data (10¹⁸ bytes) you would have a probability of approximately 2×10⁻³² of re-using a nonce. ## Chunk Each chunk will contain 64kB of data, except for the last one which may have less data. The data chunk is in standard NaCl SecretBox format. SecretBox uses XSalsa20 and Poly1305 to encrypt and authenticate messages. Each chunk contains: 16 Bytes of Poly1305 authenticator 1 - 65536 bytes XSalsa20 encrypted data 64k chunk size was chosen as the best performing chunk size (the authenticator takes too much time below this and the performance drops off due to cache effects above this). Note that these chunks are buffered in memory so they can't be too big. This uses a 32 byte (256 bit key) key derived from the user password. ## Examples 1 byte file will encrypt to 32 bytes header 17 bytes data chunk 49 bytes total 1MB (1048576 bytes) file will encrypt to 32 bytes header 16 chunks of 65568 bytes 1049120 bytes total (a 0.05% overhead). This is the overhead for big files. ## Name encryption File names are encrypted segment by segment - the path is broken up into / separated strings and these are encrypted individually. File segments are padded using PKCS#7 to a multiple of 16 bytes before encryption. They are then encrypted with EME using AES with 256 bit key. EME (ECB-Mix-ECB) is a wide-block encryption mode presented in the 2003 paper "A Parallelizable Enciphering Mode" by Halevi and Rogaway. This makes for deterministic encryption which is what we want - the same filename must encrypt to the same thing otherwise we can't find it on the cloud storage system. This means that filenames with the same name will encrypt the same filenames which start the same won't have a common prefix This uses a 32 byte key (256 bits) and a 16 byte (128 bits) IV both of which are derived from the user password. After encryption they are written out using a modified version of standard base32 encoding as described in RFC4648. The standard encoding is modified in two ways: it becomes lower case (no-one likes upper case filenames!) we strip the padding character = base32 is used rather than the more efficient base64 so rclone can be used on case insensitive remotes (e.g. Windows, Amazon Drive). ## Key derivation Rclone uses scrypt with parameters N=16384, r=8, p=1 with an optional user supplied salt (password2) to derive the 32+32+16 = 80 bytes of key material required. If the user doesn't supply a salt then rclone uses an internal one. scrypt makes it impractical to mount a dictionary attack on rclone encrypted data. For full protection against this you should always use a salt. ## SEE ALSO rclone cryptdecode (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_cryptdecode/) - Show forward/reverse mapping of encrypted filenames ## Compress (Experimental) ## Warning This remote is currently experimental. Things may break and data may be lost. Anything you do with this remote is at your own risk. Please understand the risks associated with using experimental code and don't use this remote in critical applications. The Compress remote adds compression to another remote. It is best used with remotes containing many large compressible files. To use this remote, all you need to do is specify another remote and a compression mode to use: Current remotes: Name Type ==== ==== remote_to_press sometype e) Edit existing remote$ rclone config
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> n
name> compress
...
8 / Compress a remote
\ "compress"
...
Storage> compress
** See help for compress backend at: https://rclone.org/compress/ **
Remote to compress.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
remote> remote_to_press:subdir
Compression mode.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("gzip").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Gzip compression balanced for speed and compression strength.
\ "gzip"
compression_mode> gzip
y) Yes
n) No (default)
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[compress]
type = compress
remote = remote_to_press:subdir
compression_mode = gzip
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK (default)
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



## Compression Modes

Currently only gzip compression is supported, it provides a decent balance between speed and strength and is well supported by other application. Compression strength can further be configured via an advanced setting where 0 is no compression and 9 is strongest compression.

## Filetype

If you open a remote wrapped by press, you will see that there are many files with an extension corresponding to the compression algorithm you chose. These files are standard files that can be opened by various archive programs, but they have some hidden metadata that allows them to be used by rclone. While you may download and decompress these files at will, do not manually delete or rename files. Files without correct metadata files will not be recognized by rclone.

## File names

The compressed files will be named *.###########.gz where * is the base file and the # part is base64 encoded size of the uncompressed file. The file names should not be changed by anything other than the rclone compression backend.

## Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to compress (Compress a remote).

## --compress-remote

Remote to compress.
Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_COMPRESS_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --compress-mode

Compression mode.
Config: mode
Env Var: RCLONE_COMPRESS_MODE
Type: string
Default: "gzip"
Examples:
"gzip"
Standard gzip compression with fastest parameters.

Here are the advanced options specific to compress (Compress a remote).

## --compress-level

GZIP compression level (-2 to 9).
Generally -1 (default, equivalent to 5) is recommended.
Levels 1 to 9 increase compressiong at the cost of speed.. Going past 6
generally offers very little return.

Level -2 uses Huffmann encoding only. Only use if you now what you
are doing
Level 0 turns off compression.


Config: level
Env Var: RCLONE_COMPRESS_LEVEL
Type: int
Default: -1

## --compress-ram-cache-limit

Some remotes don't allow the upload of files with unknown size. In this case the compressed file will need to be cached to determine it's size.
Files smaller than this limit will be cached in RAM, file larger than
this limit will be cached on disk


Config: ram_cache_limit
Env Var: RCLONE_COMPRESS_RAM_CACHE_LIMIT
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 20M

## Dropbox

Paths are specified as remote:path

Dropbox paths may be as deep as required, e.g. remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for dropbox involves getting a token from Dropbox which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config



This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

n) New remote
d) Delete remote
q) Quit config
e/n/d/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Dropbox
\ "dropbox"
[snip]
Storage> dropbox
Dropbox App Key - leave blank normally.
app_key>
Dropbox App Secret - leave blank normally.
app_secret>
Remote config
https://www.dropbox.com/1/oauth2/authorize?client_id=XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX&response_type=code
Enter the code: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX_XXXXXXXXXX
--------------------
[remote]
app_key =
app_secret =
token = XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX_XXXX_XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



You can then use it like this,

List directories in top level of your dropbox

rclone lsd remote:



List all the files in your dropbox

rclone ls remote:



To copy a local directory to a dropbox directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup



Rclone supports Dropbox for business and Team Folders.

When using Dropbox for business remote: and remote:path/to/file will refer to your personal folder.

If you wish to see Team Folders you must use a leading / in the path, so rclone lsd remote:/ will refer to the root and show you all Team Folders and your User Folder.

You can then use team folders like this remote:/TeamFolder and remote:/TeamFolder/path/to/file.

A leading / for a Dropbox personal account will do nothing, but it will take an extra HTTP transaction so it should be avoided.

## Modified time and Hashes

Dropbox supports modified times, but the only way to set a modification time is to re-upload the file.

This means that if you uploaded your data with an older version of rclone which didn't support the v2 API and modified times, rclone will decide to upload all your old data to fix the modification times. If you don't want this to happen use --size-only or --checksum flag to stop it.

Dropbox supports its own hash type (https://www.dropbox.com/developers/reference/content-hash) which is checked for all transfers.

## Restricted filename characters

 Character Value Replacement NUL 0x00 ␀ / 0x2F ／ DEL 0x7F ␡ \ 0x5C ＼

File names can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are the last character in the name:

 Character Value Replacement SP 0x20 ␠

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

## Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to dropbox (Dropbox).

## --dropbox-client-id

OAuth Client Id Leave blank normally.
Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

## --dropbox-client-secret

OAuth Client Secret Leave blank normally.
Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

Here are the advanced options specific to dropbox (Dropbox).

## --dropbox-token

Config: token
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

## --dropbox-auth-url

Auth server URL. Leave blank to use the provider defaults.
Config: auth_url
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_AUTH_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

## --dropbox-token-url

Token server url. Leave blank to use the provider defaults.
Config: token_url
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_TOKEN_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

## --dropbox-chunk-size

Any files larger than this will be uploaded in chunks of this size.

Note that chunks are buffered in memory (one at a time) so rclone can deal with retries. Setting this larger will increase the speed slightly (at most 10% for 128MB in tests) at the cost of using more memory. It can be set smaller if you are tight on memory.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 48M

## --dropbox-impersonate

Impersonate this user when using a business account.

Note that if you want to use impersonate, you should make sure this flag is set when running "rclone config" as this will cause rclone to request the "members.read" scope which it won't normally. This is needed to lookup a members email address into the internal ID that dropbox uses in the API.

Using the "members.read" scope will require a Dropbox Team Admin to approve during the OAuth flow.

You will have to use your own App (setting your own client_id and client_secret) to use this option as currently rclone's default set of permissions doesn't include "members.read". This can be added once v1.55 or later is in use everywhere.

Config: impersonate
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_IMPERSONATE
Type: string
Default: ""

## --dropbox-shared-files

Instructs rclone to work on individual shared files.

In this mode rclone's features are extremely limited - only list (ls, lsl, etc.) operations and read operations (e.g. downloading) are supported in this mode. All other operations will be disabled.

Config: shared_files
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_SHARED_FILES
Type: bool
Default: false

## --dropbox-shared-folders

Instructs rclone to work on shared folders.

When this flag is used with no path only the List operation is supported and all available shared folders will be listed. If you specify a path the first part will be interpreted as the name of shared folder. Rclone will then try to mount this shared to the root namespace. On success shared folder rclone proceeds normally. The shared folder is now pretty much a normal folder and all normal operations are supported.

Note that we don't unmount the shared folder afterwards so the --dropbox-shared-folders can be omitted after the first use of a particular shared folder.

Config: shared_folders
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_SHARED_FOLDERS
Type: bool
Default: false

## --dropbox-encoding

This sets the encoding for the backend.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,BackSlash,Del,RightSpace,InvalidUtf8,Dot

## Limitations

Note that Dropbox is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

There are some file names such as thumbs.db which Dropbox can't store. There is a full list of them in the "Ignored Files" section of this document (https://www.dropbox.com/en/help/145). Rclone will issue an error message File name disallowed - not uploading if it attempts to upload one of those file names, but the sync won't fail.

Some errors may occur if you try to sync copyright-protected files because Dropbox has its own copyright detector (https://techcrunch.com/2014/03/30/how-dropbox-knows-when-youre-sharing-copyrighted-stuff-without-actually-looking-at-your-stuff/) that prevents this sort of file being downloaded. This will return the error ERROR : /path/to/your/file: Failed to copy: failed to open source object: path/restricted_content/.

If you have more than 10,000 files in a directory then rclone purge dropbox:dir will return the error Failed to purge: There are too many files involved in this operation. As a work-around do an rclone delete dropbox:dir followed by an rclone rmdir dropbox:dir.

## Get your own Dropbox App ID

When you use rclone with Dropbox in its default configuration you are using rclone's App ID. This is shared between all the rclone users.

Here is how to create your own Dropbox App ID for rclone:

1.
Log into the Dropbox App console (https://www.dropbox.com/developers/apps/create) with your Dropbox Account (It need not to be the same account as the Dropbox you want to access)
2.
Choose an API => Usually this should be Dropbox API
3.
Choose the type of access you want to use => Full Dropbox or App Folder
4.
Name your App. The app name is global, so you can't use rclone for example
5.
Click the button Create App
6.
Fill Redirect URIs as http://localhost:53682/
7.
Find the App key and App secret Use these values in rclone config to add a new remote or edit an existing remote.

## Enterprise File Fabric

This backend supports Storage Made Easy's Enterprise File Fabric™ (https://storagemadeeasy.com/about/) which provides a software solution to integrate and unify File and Object Storage accessible through a global file system.

The initial setup for the Enterprise File Fabric backend involves getting a token from the the Enterprise File Fabric which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config



This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Enterprise File Fabric
\ "filefabric"
[snip]
Storage> filefabric
** See help for filefabric backend at: https://rclone.org/filefabric/ **
URL of the Enterprise File Fabric to connect to
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Storage Made Easy US
2 / Storage Made Easy EU
3 / Connect to your Enterprise File Fabric
\ "https://yourfabric.smestorage.com"
url> https://yourfabric.smestorage.com/
ID of the root folder
Leave blank normally.
Fill in to make rclone start with directory of a given ID.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
root_folder_id>
Permanent Authentication Token
A Permanent Authentication Token can be created in the Enterprise File
Fabric, on the users Dashboard under Security, there is an entry
you'll see called "My Authentication Tokens". Click the Manage button
to create one.
These tokens are normally valid for several years.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
permanent_token> xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
y) Yes
n) No (default)
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = filefabric
url = https://yourfabric.smestorage.com/
permanent_token = xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK (default)
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Enterprise File Fabric

rclone lsd remote:



List all the files in your Enterprise File Fabric

rclone ls remote:



To copy a local directory to an Enterprise File Fabric directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup



## Modified time and hashes

The Enterprise File Fabric allows modification times to be set on files accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not.

The Enterprise File Fabric does not support any data hashes at this time.

## Restricted filename characters

The default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) will be replaced.

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

## Empty files

Empty files aren't supported by the Enterprise File Fabric. Rclone will therefore upload an empty file as a single space with a mime type of application/vnd.rclone.empty.file and files with that mime type are treated as empty.

## Root folder ID

You can set the root_folder_id for rclone. This is the directory (identified by its Folder ID) that rclone considers to be the root of your Enterprise File Fabric.

Normally you will leave this blank and rclone will determine the correct root to use itself.

However you can set this to restrict rclone to a specific folder hierarchy.

In order to do this you will have to find the Folder ID of the directory you wish rclone to display. These aren't displayed in the web interface, but you can use rclone lsf to find them, for example

$rclone lsf --dirs-only -Fip --csv filefabric: 120673758,Burnt PDFs/ 120673759,My Quick Uploads/ 120673755,My Syncs/ 120673756,My backups/ 120673757,My contacts/ 120673761,S3 Storage/  The ID for "S3 Storage" would be 120673761. ## Standard Options Here are the standard options specific to filefabric (Enterprise File Fabric). ## --filefabric-url URL of the Enterprise File Fabric to connect to Config: url Env Var: RCLONE_FILEFABRIC_URL Type: string Default: "" Examples: "https://storagemadeeasy.com" Storage Made Easy US "https://eu.storagemadeeasy.com" Storage Made Easy EU "https://yourfabric.smestorage.com" Connect to your Enterprise File Fabric ## --filefabric-root-folder-id ID of the root folder Leave blank normally. Fill in to make rclone start with directory of a given ID. Config: root_folder_id Env Var: RCLONE_FILEFABRIC_ROOT_FOLDER_ID Type: string Default: "" ## --filefabric-permanent-token Permanent Authentication Token A Permanent Authentication Token can be created in the Enterprise File Fabric, on the users Dashboard under Security, there is an entry you'll see called "My Authentication Tokens". Click the Manage button to create one. These tokens are normally valid for several years. For more info see: https://docs.storagemadeeasy.com/organisationcloud/api-tokens Config: permanent_token Env Var: RCLONE_FILEFABRIC_PERMANENT_TOKEN Type: string Default: "" ## Advanced Options Here are the advanced options specific to filefabric (Enterprise File Fabric). ## --filefabric-token Session Token This is a session token which rclone caches in the config file. It is usually valid for 1 hour. Don't set this value - rclone will set it automatically. Config: token Env Var: RCLONE_FILEFABRIC_TOKEN Type: string Default: "" ## --filefabric-token-expiry Token expiry time Don't set this value - rclone will set it automatically. Config: token_expiry Env Var: RCLONE_FILEFABRIC_TOKEN_EXPIRY Type: string Default: "" ## --filefabric-version Version read from the file fabric Don't set this value - rclone will set it automatically. Config: version Env Var: RCLONE_FILEFABRIC_VERSION Type: string Default: "" ## --filefabric-encoding This sets the encoding for the backend. See: the encoding section in the overview (https://rclone.org/overview/#encoding) for more info. Config: encoding Env Var: RCLONE_FILEFABRIC_ENCODING Type: MultiEncoder Default: Slash,Del,Ctl,InvalidUtf8,Dot ## FTP FTP is the File Transfer Protocol. Rclone FTP support is provided using the github.com/jlaffaye/ftp (https://godoc.org/github.com/jlaffaye/ftp) package. Limitations of Rclone's FTP backend Paths are specified as remote:path. If the path does not begin with a / it is relative to the home directory of the user. An empty path remote: refers to the user's home directory. To create an FTP configuration named remote, run rclone config  Rclone config guides you through an interactive setup process. A minimal rclone FTP remote definition only requires host, username and password. For an anonymous FTP server, use anonymous as username and your email address as password. No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote r) Rename remote c) Copy remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config n/r/c/s/q> n name> remote Type of storage to configure. Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value [snip] XX / FTP Connection \ "ftp" [snip] Storage> ftp ** See help for ftp backend at: https://rclone.org/ftp/ ** FTP host to connect to Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default (""). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Connect to ftp.example.com \ "ftp.example.com" host> ftp.example.com FTP username, leave blank for current username,$USER
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
user>
FTP port, leave blank to use default (21)
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
port>
y) Yes type in my own password
y/g> y
Use FTP over TLS (Implicit)
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false").
tls>
Use FTP over TLS (Explicit)
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false").
explicit_tls>
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = ftp
host = ftp.example.com
pass = *** ENCRYPTED ***
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



To see all directories in the home directory of remote

rclone lsd remote:



Make a new directory

rclone mkdir remote:path/to/directory



List the contents of a directory

rclone ls remote:path/to/directory



Sync /home/local/directory to the remote directory, deleting any excess files in the directory.

rclone sync -i /home/local/directory remote:directory



## Example without a config file

rclone lsf :ftp: --ftp-host=speedtest.tele2.net --ftp-user=anonymous --ftp-pass=rclone obscure dummy



## Implicit TLS

Rlone FTP supports implicit FTP over TLS servers (FTPS). This has to be enabled in the FTP backend config for the remote, or with --ftp-tls. The default FTPS port is 990, not 21 and can be set with --ftp-port.

## Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to ftp (FTP Connection).

## --ftp-host

FTP host to connect to
Config: host
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_HOST
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"ftp.example.com"
Connect to ftp.example.com

## --ftp-user

Config: user
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_USER
Type: string
Default: ""

## --ftp-port

FTP port, leave blank to use default (21)
Config: port
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_PORT
Type: string
Default: ""

## --ftp-pass

NB Input to this must be obscured - see rclone obscure (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_obscure/).

Config: pass
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_PASS
Type: string
Default: ""

## --ftp-tls

Use Implicit FTPS (FTP over TLS) When using implicit FTP over TLS the client connects using TLS right from the start which breaks compatibility with non-TLS-aware servers. This is usually served over port 990 rather than port 21. Cannot be used in combination with explicit FTP.
Config: tls
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_TLS
Type: bool
Default: false

## --ftp-explicit-tls

Use Explicit FTPS (FTP over TLS) When using explicit FTP over TLS the client explicitly requests security from the server in order to upgrade a plain text connection to an encrypted one. Cannot be used in combination with implicit FTP.
Config: explicit_tls
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_EXPLICIT_TLS
Type: bool
Default: false

Here are the advanced options specific to ftp (FTP Connection).

## --ftp-concurrency

Maximum number of FTP simultaneous connections, 0 for unlimited
Config: concurrency
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_CONCURRENCY
Type: int
Default: 0

## --ftp-no-check-certificate

Do not verify the TLS certificate of the server
Config: no_check_certificate
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_NO_CHECK_CERTIFICATE
Type: bool
Default: false

## --ftp-disable-epsv

Disable using EPSV even if server advertises support
Config: disable_epsv
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_DISABLE_EPSV
Type: bool
Default: false

## --ftp-disable-mlsd

Disable using MLSD even if server advertises support
Config: disable_mlsd
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_DISABLE_MLSD
Type: bool
Default: false

## --ftp-encoding

This sets the encoding for the backend.

Config: encoding
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_ENCODING
Type: MultiEncoder
Default: Slash,Del,Ctl,RightSpace,Dot

## Limitations

Modified times are not supported. Times you see on the FTP server through rclone are those of upload.

Rclone's FTP backend does not support any checksums but can compare file sizes.

rclone about is not supported by the FTP backend. Backends without this capability cannot determine free space for an rclone mount or use policy mfs (most free space) as a member of an rclone union remote.

The implementation of : --dump headers, --dump bodies, --dump auth for debugging isn't the same as for rclone HTTP based backends - it has less fine grained control.

--timeout isn't supported (but --contimeout is).

--bind isn't supported.

Rclone's FTP backend could support server-side move but does not at present.

The ftp_proxy environment variable is not currently supported.

FTP servers acting as rclone remotes must support 'passive' mode. Rclone's FTP implementation is not compatible with 'active' mode.

## Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (https://rclone.org/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

File names cannot end with the following characters. Repacement is limited to the last character in a file name:

 Character Value Replacement SP 0x20 ␠

Not all FTP servers can have all characters in file names, for example:

 FTP Server Forbidden characters proftpd * pureftpd \ [ ]

Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, e.g. remote:bucket/path/to/dir.

The initial setup for google cloud storage involves getting a token from Google Cloud Storage which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

rclone config



This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

n) New remote
d) Delete remote
q) Quit config
e/n/d/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
[snip]
Google Application Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id>
Google Application Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret>
Project number optional - needed only for list/create/delete buckets - see your developer console.
project_number> 12345678
Service Account Credentials JSON file path - needed only if you want use SA instead of interactive login.
service_account_file>
Access Control List for new objects.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and all Authenticated Users get READER access.
2 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team owners get OWNER access.
\ "bucketOwnerFullControl"
3 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team owners get READER access.
4 / Object owner gets OWNER access [default if left blank].
\ "private"
5 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team members get access according to their roles.
\ "projectPrivate"
6 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and all Users get READER access.
object_acl> 4
Access Control List for new buckets.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Authenticated Users get READER access.
2 / Project team owners get OWNER access [default if left blank].
\ "private"
3 / Project team members get access according to their roles.
\ "projectPrivate"
4 / Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Users get READER access.
5 / Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Users get WRITER access.
bucket_acl> 2
Location for the newly created buckets.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Empty for default location (US).
\ ""
2 / Multi-regional location for Asia.
\ "asia"
3 / Multi-regional location for Europe.
\ "eu"
4 / Multi-regional location for United States.
\ "us"
5 / Taiwan.
\ "asia-east1"
6 / Tokyo.
\ "asia-northeast1"
7 / Singapore.
\ "asia-southeast1"
8 / Sydney.
\ "australia-southeast1"
9 / Belgium.
\ "europe-west1"
10 / London.
\ "europe-west2"
11 / Iowa.
\ "us-central1"
12 / South Carolina.
\ "us-east1"
13 / Northern Virginia.
\ "us-east4"
14 / Oregon.
\ "us-west1"
location> 12
The storage class to use when storing objects in Google Cloud Storage.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
1 / Default
\ ""
2 / Multi-regional storage class
\ "MULTI_REGIONAL"
3 / Regional storage class
\ "REGIONAL"
4 / Nearline storage class
\ "NEARLINE"
5 / Coldline storage class
\ "COLDLINE"
6 / Durable reduced availability storage class
\ "DURABLE_REDUCED_AVAILABILITY"
storage_class> 5
Remote config
Use auto config?
* Say Y if not sure
* Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine or Y didn't work
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id =
client_secret =
token = {"AccessToken":"xxxx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","RefreshToken":"x/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx_xxxxxxxxx","Expiry":"2014-07-17T20:49:14.929208288+01:00","Extra":null}
project_number = 12345678
object_acl = private
bucket_acl = private
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y



Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Google if you use auto config mode. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall, or use manual mode.

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all the buckets in your project

rclone lsd remote:



Make a new bucket

rclone mkdir remote:bucket



List the contents of a bucket

rclone ls remote:bucket



Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket.

rclone sync -i /home/local/directory remote:bucket



## Service Account support

You can set up rclone with Google Cloud Storage in an unattended mode, i.e. not tied to a specific end-user Google account. This is useful when you want to synchronise files onto machines that don't have actively logged-in users, for example build machines.

To use a Service Account instead of OAuth2 token flow, enter the path to your Service Account credentials at the service_account_file prompt and rclone won't use the browser based authentication flow. If you'd rather stuff the contents of the credentials file into the rclone config file, you can set service_account_credentials with the actual contents of the file instead, or set the equivalent environment variable.

## Anonymous Access

For downloads of objects that permit public access you can configure rclone to use anonymous access by setting anonymous to true. With unauthorized access you can't write or create files but only read or list those buckets and objects that have public read access.

## Application Default Credentials

Note that in the case application default credentials are used, there is no need to explicitly configure a project number.

## --fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (https://rclone.org/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

Cache-Control
Content-Disposition
Content-Encoding
Content-Language
Content-Type
X-Goog-Storage-Class
X-Goog-Meta-

Note that the last of these is for setting custom metadata in the form --header-upload "x-goog-meta-key: value"

## Modified time

Google google cloud storage stores md5sums natively and rclone stores modification times as metadata on the object, under the "mtime" key in RFC3339 format accurate to 1ns.

## Restricted filename characters

 Character Value Replacement NUL 0x00 ␀ LF 0x0A ␊ CR 0x0D ␍ / 0x2F ／

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (https://rclone.org/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

## Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to google cloud storage (Google Cloud Storage (this is not Google Drive)).

## --gcs-client-id

OAuth Client Id Leave blank normally.
Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

## --gcs-client-secret

OAuth Client Secret Leave blank