|CDDA2WAV(1)||General Commands Manual||CDDA2WAV(1)|
As cdda2wav implements strategies to work around typical defects on audio CDs it reads many disks that cannot be read by other software. As cdda2wav can use libparanoia (see -paranoia option below) to verify the data that has been read from the medium, it delivers superior quality even if the medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems occur.
As cdda2wav may be directed to write the audio data to stdout, it writes all its informational output to stderr by default. See out-fd=descriptor option below.
cdda2wav -vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B
For hints on how to specify better parameters manually, see the paraopts= description below.
The device parameter to the dev= option explained below refers to the SCSI CAM standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder. If a file /etc/default/cdrecord exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).
- display version information for cdda2wav on standard output.
- display version and Copyright information.
- -a divider
- -divider divider
- sets rate to 44100Hz / divider. Possible values are listed with the
The default divider value is 1.
- copies each track into a separate file.
The default is not to extract all tracks.
- -b bits
- -bits-per-sample bits
- sets bits per sample per channel: 8, 12 or 16.
The default is 16 bits per sample.
- -c channels
- -channels channels
- for mono recording
- for stereo recording
- for stereo recording with both channels swapped
The default is stereo recording.
- -C endianess
- -cdrom-endianess endianess
- sets endianess of the input samples to 'little', 'big', 'machine' or
'guess' to override defaults. The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated
as the actual byte order of the host CPU in the current OS.
The default is to detect cdrom endianess automatically.
- Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file. A CUE file that completely follows
the CDRWIN documentation can only be used to create 1:1 copies if there is
a single file with audio data for the whole disk. The *.inf file format
implements more audio CD features than the CDRWIN CUE format and it allows
to create 1:1 copies if there is one audio data file per track. Use the
CUE file format for meta data only if you really need this format.
To allow cdda2wav to create CUE files, you must also specify -t all to switch cdda2wav into a mode that creates a single audio data file for the whole CD.
- undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.
The default is to keep the audio data in the same state as on the medium and to mark the pre-emphasis state in the *.inf files.
- -L cddb mode
- -cddb cddb mode
- does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the cddb id. The
parameter cddb mode defines how multiple entries shall be handled.
Parameter Description -1 disable cddb queries. This is the default. 0 interactive mode. The user selects the entry to use. 1 first fit mode. The first entry is taken unconditionally.
- sets the server to be contacted for title lookups.
- sets the port number to be used for title lookups.
- -d duration
- -duration duration
- sets recording time in seconds or frames (sectors). Frames are indicated
by a 'f' suffix (e.g. 75f for 75 sectors). 0 sets the time for
The default is to extract the whole track.
- -E endianess
- -output-endianess endianess
- sets endianess of the output samples to 'little', 'big' or 'machine' to override the default which is 'network byte order' (big endian). The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated as the actual byte order of the host CPU in the current OS.
- finds extreme amplitudes in samples.
- finds if input samples are in mono.
- reformats the output for parsing by gui frontends.
- does not write info file, cddb file or cdtext file.
- -i index
- -index index
- selects the start index.
- does not write to a file, it just gives information about the disc.
- enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for all audio bytes from the
beginning of a track. The audio header is skipped when calculating the
MD-5 checksum to allow comparison of MD-5 sums for files with different
- sets to mono recording.
- Ignore hidden tracks on the CD. By default, cdda2wav checks whether there might be a hidden track before track 1. This check may take a few seconds and thus can be disabled with -no-hidden-track.
- does not write to a file, it just reads (e.g. for debugging purposes). If this option is used together with the -e option, the CD is read and the audio content is played back to the sound device without creating output files with audio data.
- By default, cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields from tracks with the related CD-Text field (when defined) for the whole CD. If the option -no-textdefaults is used, cdda2wav leaves the track related CD-Text fields empty in such a case.
- If cdda2wav encounters useful CD-Text information on the CD, it writes a .cdtext file. The option -no-textfile allows to suppress the creation of the .cdtext file.
- -o offset
- -offset offset
- starts offset sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents 1/75 seconds).
- -O audiotype
- -output-format audiotype
- can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi aiff
files) or aifc (for apple/sgi aifc files) or au or
sun (for sun .au PCM files) or cdr or raw (for
headerless files to be used for cd writers).
The default output format is now wav for all platforms as it has become the most common format. Note that former versions of cdda2wav made an exception and by default created au type files on Solaris.
- -p percentage
- -playback-realtime percentage
- changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.
- -P sectors
- -set-overlap sectors
- sets the initial number of overlap sectors for jitter correction in
non-paranoia mode. Note that overlapped reads are handled differently in
The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.
- use the paranoia library as a filter on top of cdda2wav's routines for
reading. In paranoia mode, the latency time for the
-interactive mode and with a read ahead buffer size of 150..300
sectors, is increased to typically 5..10 seconds. This is due to the
paranoia code reading everything at least twice and having to empty
the cache RAM of the CD-ROM drive.
The size of the read ahead area must be larger than the size of the RAM of the drive in order to allow libparanoia to empty the cache RAM in the drive. As the size of the read ahead area in former times was a constant compiled into the libparanoia code, the extract quality with using libparanoia was no longer sufficient with drives built after year 2000. See readahead= parameter to the paraopts= option below.
If the paranoia mode is used, cdda2wav displays some quality statistics for each extracted track. The following items appear in the list:
Value Description rderr Number of hard read errors skip Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted retries atom Number of intra sector jitters (frame jitters) detected edge Number of jitters between sectors detected drop Number of dropped bytes fixed dup Number of duplicate bytes fixed drift Number of drifts detected c2 Number of sectors with C2 errors reads Number of readahead blocks read and percentage to track size overlap Number of dynamic overlap size raises
The quality indicators in detail:
- The number of failed low level read requests. Each read appears for sectors-per-request sectors. The sectors-per-request size is typically less than the read ahead size.
- The number of sectors that have been skipped because the read error retry count was exhausted and no successful read was possible.
- The number of jitters that have been detected inside sectors. This should never happen, but whenever a non-correctable C2 error occurs, the drive could lose streaming. Increasing the read ahead buffer size may reduce the results from atom errors.
- The number of jitters that have been detected at the edges of sectors. This could be caused by sector positioning errors. Increasing the read ahead buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.
- The number of dropped samples. This could be caused by sector positioning errors. Increasing the read ahead buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.
- Duplicated samples could be caused by sector positioning errors like dripped samples. Increasing the read ahead buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.
- This is the amount of drifts detected when checking the overlap area.
- The number of sectors with C2 errors seen when reading the last track. As the paranoia code tends to read bad parts of the disk many times, this number usually is above the number that would appear when the disk is just read once in a linear way. Use paraopts=disable,c2check to see a number that represents the state of the medium.
- The number of read ahead blocks read for the last track by the upper layer and the percentage of the amount of data read compared to the size of the track. This percentage is typically 200% because the paranoia code reads all data at least twice. If there is a lot of overlap and a lof of read problems, this percentage raises.
- The number the overlap size has been raised. This happens when the overlap size is below the maximum overlap size and errors in the overlap area are detected.
- List is a comma separated list of suboptions passed to the paranoia
Option Description help lists all paranoia options. disable disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia is still being used no-verify switches verify off, and static overlap on retries=amount set the number of maximum retries per sector readahead=amount set the number of sectors to use for the read ahead buffer overlap=amount set the number of sectors used for static overlap minoverlap=amt set the min. number of sectors for dynamic overlap maxoverlap=amt set the max. number of sectors for dynamic overlap c2check check C2 pointers from drive to rate quality proof set minoverlap=20,retries=200,readahead=600,c2check
The paraopts= parameters in detail:
- The paranoia corrections are disabled, but the data is still directed through the code from libparanoia. This allows to switch on C2 error detection and to check the C2 error statistics for a CD.
- This switches off the verification of the data integrity in the overlap area and turns off dynamic overlap control in favor of a static overlap value.
- Set the maximum number of read retries per sector in case of hard read errors. The default value for this parameter is 20. This is the same value as used by the old cdparanoia(1) command.
- Set the number of sectors to use for the read ahead buffer. Except when at
the end of the medium, libparanoia never requests less than this
amount of data from the low level I/O code. The size of the read ahead
buffer is usually bigger than the maximum size for a single DMA in the
system. For this reason, libparanoia calls several read operations
in order to fill the read ahead buffer. The default value used by
cdda2wav is 400, which is more than the 150 sectors that
cdparanoia(1) uses but still a compromise for not requiring too
It is recommended to use a read ahead buffer size that is not less than the RAM size in the CD-ROM drive. If the drive has more than 1MB of RAM, use 425 sectors per MB of RAM in the drive.
Note that as long as the readahead= value is too small, the extract quality varies a lot with the value in use. The value used by cdparanoia(1) may cause an extract quality below what cdda2wav delivers without libparanoia.
- Set the number of sectors used for static overlap. This switches dynamic overlap off. It is recommended not to use static overlapping. To get a larger overlapping, better use a higher minoverlap= value.
- Set the minimum number of sectors for dynamic overlap. The default value
used by cdda2wav is 0.5, this is more than the default used
by cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.
For old drives that do not support accurate streaming, it is not recommended to specify a minoverlap= value greater or equal to the maximal DMA size.
For best results on other drives, it is recommended to use a minoverlap= value that is not less than half of the readahead size.
The extract quality varies a lot with the minoverlap= value, but increasing the value also increases the extract time.
- Set the maximum number of sectors for dynamic overlap. If maxoverlap= was not specified and a large minoverlap= value was specified, this results in a quasi static overlapping. The default value used by cda2wav is 32.
- Turn on C2 error checking. For now, this just results in printing C2 error
Warning: some drives have been reported to fail reading hidden tracks when the c2check mode is in effect. If you encounter a drive where cdda2wav is not able to auto-detect whether c2check is usable, please report.
When you plan to use c2check while extracting hidden tracks, first verify that your drive will report hidden tracks the same with and without the c2check option.
- This option is a macro for better extract parameters than used by default.
The macro proof expands to:
If sectors-per-request-1 is more than 20, 20 is used as minimal overlap value.
The parameters used by proof are still not the best and there is no best parameter set for all cases. A larger value for the read ahead buffer size may e.g be too large for the available RAM in the system and the best value for the minimal overlap depends on whether the drive supports exact streaming. It is recommended to run experiments with larger values for the parameters minoverlap= and readahead= to get the best results for a specific platform.
Note that previous versions did include c2check with the proof macro, but this has been reported to fail on some drives and thus c2check was disabled by default. Current versions of cdda2wav auto-detect whether the actual drive supports the c2check feature and use it if possible.
- quiet operation, no screen output.
- -r rate
- -rate rate
- sets rate in samples per second. Possible values are listed with the -R option.
- shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.
- -S speed
- -speed speed
- sets the cdrom device to one of the selectable speeds for reading. For
maximum extraction quality, it is recommended to use speed values of 8 or
The default is to extract at maximum speed.
- sets to stereo recording.
- -start-sector sector
- set an absolute start sector. This option is mutually exclusive to
-track and -offset.
- -t track[+endtrack]
- -track track[+endtrack]
- -track track+max
- -track all
- selects the start track and optionally the end track. If
-t all is used, all audio tracks are selected. If
-t 2+max is used, all audio tracks starting with track 2 are
- -v itemlist
- -verbose-level itemlist
- Retrieves and prints verbose information about the CD. Level is a
list of comma separated suboptions. Each suboption controls the type of
information to be reported.
Suboption Description ! invert the meaning of the following string not invert the meaning of the following string disable no information is given, warnings appear however all all information is given toc show table of contents summary show a summary of the recording parameters indices determine and display index offsets catalog retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN mcn retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN trackid retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC isrc retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC sectors show the table of contents in start sector notation titles show the table of contents with track titles (when available) audio-tracks list the audio tracks and their start sectors
The default verbose-level is toc,summary,sectors,titles .
- waits for signal, then start recording.
- sets maximum (CD) quality.
- -D device
- -device device
- uses device as the source for CDDA reading. For example /dev/cdrom
for the cooked_ioctl interface and Bus,ID,Lun for the
generic_scsi interface. The device has to correspond with
the interface setting if given (see -I and -interface option
If no -I or -interface option has been specified, the interface setting is derived from the device name syntax. A device name that is in the form Bus,ID,Lun or contains a colon (':') defaults to the generic_scsi interface.
Using the cooked_ioctl is not recommended as this makes cdda2wav mainly depend on the audio extraction quality of the operating system which is usually extremely bad. For this reason, avoid using parameters like dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.
The setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE is overridden by this option.
If no dev= option is present, or if the dev= option only contains a transport specifier but no address, cdda2wav tries to scan the SCSI address space for CD-ROM drives. If exactly one is found, this is used by default.
For more information, see the description of the dev= option from cdrecord(1).
- Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.
- Set the kernel debug level for the kernel driver called by the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer. This option is not supported on all platforms.
- Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI buses and print the inquiry strings. This option may be used to find SCSI address of the CD/DVD-Recorder on a system. The numbers printed out as labels are computed by: bus * 100 + target
- A comma separated list of SCSI options that are handled by libscg. The implemented options may be uptated indepentendly from applications. Currently, one option: ignore-resid is supported to work around a Linux kernel bug.
- Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI command to #. The syntax
for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=# or sdd bs=#.
If no ts= option has been specified, cdda2wav defaults to a transfer size of 3 MB. If libscg gets lower values from the operating system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that is possible with the current operating system. Sometimes, it may help to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it, but note that it may take a long time to find a better value by experimenting with the ts= option.
Some operating systems return wrong values for the maximum transfer size. If the transfer totally hangs or resets occur, it may be appropriate to reduce the transfer size to less than 64 kB or even less than 32 kB.
- enable SCSI command logging to the console. This is mainly used for debugging.
- suppress SCSI command error reports to the console. This is mainly used for guis.
- -A auxdevice
- -auxdevice auxdevice
- uses auxdevice as CDROM drive to allow to send the CDROMMULTISESSION ioctl on Linux although the generic_scsi interface is in use.
- -I interface
- -interface interface
- specifies the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:
- for sending SCSI commands directly to the drive.
- for using the programming interface supplied by the OS kernel.
- Go into interactive mode that reads commands from stdin and writes
the textual replies to stderr, or the file descriptor specified by
the out-fd option. This mode has been introduced mainly to allow
cdrecord to be called by gstreamer plugins.
If cdda2wav was called with the option -interactive, it reads the TOC from the medium and then waits for command input as if it has been issued a stop command. If the next command is a cont command, then cdda2wav extracts the whole audio part of the medium. If the next command is a read command, then cdda2wav starts extracting from the position that was indicated by the read command parameter.
Command Parameters Description cont continue processing at current position exit exit processing help print command help and wait for input quit exit processing read sectors sector number read sectors starting from sector number read tracks track number read sectors starting from track number stop stop processing and wait for new input
- Redirect informational output to the file descriptor named by descriptor. The parameter descriptor specifies a UNIX file descriptor number. By default, cdda2wav sends informational output to stderr. Redirecting the informational output to a different file descriptor helps guis and other programs that call cdda2wav via pipes.
- In case that the file name for the audio data file is "-",
redirect audio output to the file descriptor named by descriptor.
The parameter descriptor specifies a UNIX file descriptor number.
By default, cdda2wav sends audio data to stdout if the
output is not directed into a file. Redirecting the audio output to a
different file descriptor helps guis and other programs that call
cdda2wav via pipes.
- Do not fork for extended buffering. If -no-fork is used and cdda2wav is used to play back audio CDs in paranoia mode, the playback may be interrupted due to lack of buffering. On the other hand, allowing cdda2wav to fork will increase the latency time for the -interactive mode.
- copies audio data to the operating system's sound device e.g. /dev/dsp.
- set an alternate sound device to use for -e.
- -n sectors
- -sectors-per-request sectors
- reads sectors per request.
- -l buffers
- -buffers-in-ring buffers
- uses a ring buffer with buffers total.
- is used to set the device name. The device naming is compatible with cdrecord(1).
- is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.
- is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.
- If the RSH environment variable is present, the remote connection
will not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed
to by RSH. Use e.g. RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create a secure
Note that this forces cdda2wav to create a pipe to the rsh(1) program and disallows cdda2wav to directly access the network socket to the remote server. This makes it impossible to set up performance parameters and slows down the connection compared to a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.
- If the RSCSI environment variable is present, the remote SCSI server will not be the program /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi but the program pointed to by RSCSI. Note that the remote SCSI server program name will be ignored if you log in using an account that has been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.
|0||no errors encountered, successful operation.|
|1||usage or syntax error. cdda2wav got inconsistent arguments.|
|2||permission (un)set errors. permission changes failed.|
|3||read errors on the cdrom/burner device encountered.|
|4||write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.|
|5||errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).|
|6||errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).|
|7||pipe communication errors encountered (in forked mode).|
|8||signal handler installation errors encountered.|
|9||allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).|
|10||dynamic heap memory allocation failed.|
|11||errors on the audio cd medium encountered.|
|12||device open error in ioctl handling detected.|
|13||race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.|
|14||error in ioctl() operation encountered.|
|15||internal error encountered. Please report back!!!|
|16||error in semaphore operation encountered (install / request).|
|17||could not get the scsi transfer buffer.|
|18||could not create pipes for process communication (in forked mode).|
cdda2wav stands for CDDA to WAV (where CDDA stands for compact disc digital audio and WAV is a sound sample format introduced by MS Windows). It allows copying CDDA audio data from the CDROM drive into a file in WAV or other formats.
Some versions of cdda2wav may try to get higher real-time scheduling priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities are available for super users and are higher than those of 'normal' processes. Thus delays are minimized.
If you only have one CDROM and it is loaded with an audio CD, you may simply invoke cdda2wav and it will create the sound file audio.wav recording the whole track beginning with track 1 in stereo at 16 bit at 44100 Hz sample rate, if your file system has enough space free. Otherwise recording time will be limited. For details see files README and README.INSTALL.
If you have more then one CD-ROM type drive in the system, you need to specify the dev= option.
cdda2wav -q -e -t2 -d0 -N
to play the whole second track or
cdda2wav -q -e -B -N
to play the whole disk. This feature reduces the recording speed to at most onefold speed.
To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums over n samples (where n is the specific dividend). So for 22050 Hertz output we have to sum over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have to sum over 49 samples. This cancels higher frequencies. Standard sector size of an audio CD (ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to finish summing for an output sample at sector boundaries the rates above have to be chosen. Arbitrary sampling rates in high quality would require some interpolation scheme, which needs much more sophisticated programming.
Recording time is defined as the time the generated sample will play (at the defined sample rate). Since it's related to the amount of generated samples, it's not the time of the sampling process itself (which can be less or more). It's neither strictly coupled with the time information on the audio CD (shown by your hifi CD player). Differences can occur by the usage of the -o option (see below). Notice that recording time will be shortened, unless enough disk space exists. Recording can be aborted at anytime by pressing the break character (signal SIGQUIT).
PARANOIA_MODE_FULL, but without PARANOIA_MODE_NEVERSKIP
for details see Monty's libparanoia documentation. In this case the option -P has no effect.
- Print a summary of possible members of the diffopts list.
- Invert the meaning of the following string. No comma is needed after the exclamation mark.
- Invert the meaning of all members in the diffopts list i.e. exclude all present options from an initially complete set compare list. When using csh(1) you might have problems with ! due to its strange parser. This is why the not alias exists.
- disables verbosity
- all information is given
- displays the table of contents
- displays a summary of recording parameters
- invokes the index scanner and displays start positions of indices
- retrieves and displays a media catalog number
- retrieves and displays international standard recording codes
- displays track start positions in absolute sector notation
To combine several requests just list the suboptions separated with commas.
track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans
The track column holds the track number. preemphasis shows if that track has been given a non linear frequency response. NOTE: You can undo this effect with the -T option. copy-permitted indicates if this track is allowed to copy. tracktype can be data or audio. On multimedia CDs (except hidden track CDs) both of them should be present. channels is defined for audio tracks only. There can be two or four channels.
- interactive mode, the user chooses one of the entries.
- take the first entry without asking.
If your hardware is fast enough to run cdda2wav uninterrupted and your CD drive is one of the 'perfect' ones, you will gain speed when switching all overlap sampling off with the -P 0 option. Further fine tuning can be done with the -n sectors option. You can specify how much sectors should be requested in one go.
Cdda2wav supports pipes. Use a filename of - to let cdda2wav output its samples to standard output.
Conversion to other sound formats is possible using the sox program package (it should no longer be necessary to use sox -x to change the byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).
If you want to sample more than one track into different files in one run, this is currently possible with the -B option. When recording time exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.
The resampling (rate conversion code) uses polynomial interpolation, which is not optimal.
Cdda2wav should use threads.
Joerg Schilling Seestr. 110 D-13353 Berlin Germany
|Version 3.02 2017/03/29|