Array::Compare(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Array::Compare(3)

Array::Compare - Perl extension for comparing arrays.

use Array::Compare;
my $comp1 = Array::Compare->new;
$comp->Skip({3 => 1, 4 => 1});
my $comp2 = Array::Compare->new(Sep => '|',
                                WhiteSpace => 0,
                                Case => 1,
                                Skip => {3 => 1, 4 => 1});
my @arr1 = 0 .. 10;
my @arr2 = 0 .. 10;
$comp1->compare(\@arr1, \@arr2);
$comp2->compare(\@arr1, \@arr2);

If you have two arrays and you want to know if they are the same or different, then Array::Compare will be useful to you.

All comparisons are carried out via a comparator object. In the simplest usage, you can create and use a comparator object like this:

my @arr1 = 0 .. 10;
my @arr2 = 0 .. 10;
my $comp = Array::Compare->new;
if ($comp->compare(\@arr1, \@arr2)) {
  print "Arrays are the same\n";
} else {
  print "Arrays are different\n";

Notice that you pass references to the two arrays to the comparison method.

Internally the comparator compares the two arrays by using "join" to turn both arrays into strings and comparing the strings using "eq". In the joined strings, the elements of the original arrays are separated with the "^G" character. This can cause problems if your array data contains "^G" characters as it is possible that two different arrays can be converted to the same string.

To avoid this, it is possible to override the default separator character, either by passing an alternative to the "new" function

my $comp = Array::Compare->new(Sep => '|');

or by changing the separator for an existing comparator object


In general you should choose a separator character that won't appear in your data.

You can also control whether or not whitespace within the elements of the arrays should be considered significant when making the comparison. The default is that all whitespace is significant. The alternative is for all consecutive white space characters to be converted to a single space for the purposes of the comparison. Again, this can be turned on when creating a comparator object:

my $comp = Array::Compare->new(WhiteSpace => 0);

or by altering an existing object:


You can also control whether or not the case of the data is significant in the comparison. The default is that the case of data is taken into account. This can be changed in the standard ways when creating a new comparator object:

my $comp = Array::Compare->new(Case => 0);

or by altering an existing object:


In addition to the simple comparison described above (which returns true if the arrays are the same and false if they're different) there is also a full comparison which returns a list containing the indexes of elements which differ between the two arrays. If the arrays are the same it returns an empty list. In scalar context the full comparison returns the length of this list (i.e. the number of elements that differ). You can access the full comparison in two ways. Firstly, there is a "DefFull" attribute. If this is "true" then a full comparison is carried out whenever the "compare" method is called.

my $comp = Array::Compare->new(DefFull => 1);
$comp->compare(\@arr1, \@arr2); # Full comparison
$comp->compare(\@arr1, \@arr2); # Simple comparison
$comp->compare(\@arr1, \@arr2); # Full comparison again

Secondly, you can access the full comparison method directly

$comp->full_compare(\@arr1, \@arr2);

For symmetry, there is also a direct method to use to call the simple comparison.

$comp->simple_compare(\@arr1, \@arr2);

The final complication is the ability to skip elements in the comparison. If you know that two arrays will always differ in a particular element but want to compare the arrays ignoring this element, you can do it with Array::Compare without taking array slices. To do this, a comparator object has an optional attribute called "Skip" which is a reference to a hash. The keys in this hash are the indexes of the array elements and the values should be any true value for elements that should be skipped.

For example, if you want to compare two arrays, ignoring the values in elements two and four, you can do something like this:

my %skip = (2 => 1, 4 => 1);
my @a = (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
my @b = (0, 1, X, 3, X, 5);
my $comp = Array::Compare->new(Skip => \%skip);
$comp->compare(\@a, \@b);

This should return true, as we are explicitly ignoring the columns which differ.

Of course, having created a comparator object with no skip hash, it is possible to add one later:

$comp->Skip({1 => 1, 2 => 1});


my %skip = (1 => 1, 2 => 2);

To reset the comparator so that no longer skips elements, call NoSkip().


You can also check to see if one array is a permutation of another, i.e. they contain the same elements but in a different order.

if ($comp->perm(\@a, \@b) {
  print "Arrays are perms\n";
} else {
  print "Nope. Arrays are completely different\n";

In this case the values of "WhiteSpace" and "Case" are still used, but "Skip" is ignored for, hopefully, obvious reasons.

Constructs a new comparison object.

Takes an optional hash containing various options that control how comparisons are carried out. Any omitted options take useful defaults.

This is the value that is used to separate fields when the array is joined into a string. It should be a value which doesn't appear in your data. Default is '^G'.
Flag that indicates whether or not whitespace is significant in the comparison. If this value is false then all multiple whitespace characters are changed into a single space before the comparison takes place. Default is 1 (whitespace is significant).
Flag that indicates whther or not the case of the data should be significant in the comparison. Default is 1 (case is significant).
a reference to a hash which contains the numbers of any columns that should be skipped in the comparison. Default is an empty hash (all columns are significant).
Reset skipped column details. It assigns {} to the attribute "Skip".
Flag which indicates whether the default comparison is simple (just returns true if the arrays are the same or false if they're not) or full (returns an array containing the indexes of the columns that differ). Default is 0 (simple comparison).

Very simple comparison. Just checks the lengths of the arrays are the same.

Passed two arrays and returns true if they are of different lengths.

This is just the inverse of "compare_len" (which is badly named).

Compare the values in two arrays and return a data indicating whether the arrays are the same. The exact return values differ depending on the comparison method used. See the descriptions of simple_compare and full_compare for details.

Uses the value of DefFull to determine which comparison routine to use.

Compare the values in two arrays and return a flag indicating whether or not the arrays are the same.

Returns true if the arrays are the same or false if they differ.

Uses the values of 'Sep', 'WhiteSpace' and 'Skip' to influence the comparison.

Do a full comparison between two arrays.

Checks each individual column. In scalar context returns the number of columns that differ (zero if the arrays are the same). In list context returns a list containing the indexes of the columns that differ (an empty list if the arrays are the same).

Uses the values of 'Sep' and 'WhiteSpace' to influence the comparison.

Note: If the two arrays are of different lengths then this method just returns the indexes of the elements that appear in one array but not the other (i.e. the indexes from the longer array that are beyond the end of the shorter array). This might be a little counter-intuitive.

Check to see if one array is a permutation of the other (i.e. contains the same set of elements, but in a different order).

We do this by sorting the arrays and passing references to the assorted versions to simple_compare. There are also some small changes to simple_compare as it should ignore the Skip hash if we are called from perm.

Dave Cross <>

Array::Diff - where Array::Compare focusses on whether two arrays are different, "Array::Diff" tells you how they are different.

Test::Deep - functions for comparing arbitrary data structures, as part of a testsuite.

List::Compare - similar functionality, but again with more options.

Algorithm::Diff - the underlying implementation of the diff algorithm. If you've got Algorithm::Diff::XS installed, that will be used.

YAML::Diff - find difference between two YAML documents.

HTML::Differences - find difference between two HTML documents. This uses a more sane approach than HTML::Diff.

XML::Diff - find difference between two XML documents.

Hash::Diff - find the differences between two Perl hashes.

Data::Diff - find difference between two arbitrary data structures.

Text::Diff - can find difference between two inputs, which can be data structures or file names.

Copyright (C) 2000-2005, Magnum Solutions Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

This script is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

2023-10-13 perl v5.38.0